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Project Gutenberg's Encyclopedia, vol. 1 ( A - Andropha

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Gloucester and the Lady Anne'' at the Royal Academy in 1896, 
and in that year was elected A.R.A., becoming a full R.A. in 
1898.  Apart from his other paintings, special mention must 
be made of the large frescoes entitled ``The Quest of the Holy 
Grail,'' in the Boston Public Library, on which he was occupied 
for some years; and in 1901 he was commissioned by King Edward 
VII. to paint a picture of the coronation, containing many 
portraits elaborately grouped.  The dramatic subjects, and the 
brilliant colouring of his on pictures, gave them pronounced 
individuality among the works of contemporary painters.  
Abbey became a member not only of the Royal Academy, but also 
of the National Academy of Design of New York, and honorary 
member of the Royal Bavarian Society, the Societe Nationale 
des Beaux Arts (Paris), the American Water-Colour Society, 
etc.  He received first class gold medals at the International 
Art Exhibition of Vienna in 1898, at Philadelphia in 1898, 
at the Paris Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900, and at Berlin in 
1903; and was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour. 

ABBEY (Lat. abbatia; from Syr. abba, father), a 
monastery, or conventual establishment, under the government 
of an ABBOT or an ABBESS. A priory only differed from 
an abbey in that the superior bore the name of prior instead 
of abbot. This was the case in all the English conventual 
cathedrals, e.g. Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the 
archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior 
of the monastery being termed prior.  Other priories were 
originally offshoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots 
of which they continued subordinate; but in later times the 
actual distinction between abbeys and priories was lost. 

The earliest Christian monastic communities (see MONASTICISM) 
with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or 
huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode 
of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular 
asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement.  
The formation of such communities in the East does not date 
from the introduction of Christianity.  The example had been 
already set by the Essenes in Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt. 

In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics 
were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, 
at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves 
by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the 
surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the 
poor.  Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecution, 
drove them farther and farther away from the abodes of men 
into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts.  The deserts 
of Egypt swarmed with the ``cells'' or huts of these 
anchorites.  Anthony, who had retired to the Egyptian Thebaid 
during the persecution of Maximin, A.D. 312, was the most 
celebrated among them for his austerities, his sanctity, and 
his power as an exorcist.  His fame collected round him a 
host of followers, emulous of his sanctity.  The deeper he 
withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples 
became.  They refused to be separated from him, and built 
their ceils round that of their spiritual father.  Thus arose 
the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living 
each in his own little dwelling, united together under one 
superior.  Anthony, as Neander remarks (Church History, 
vol. iii. p. 316, Clark's trans.), ``without any conscious 
design of his own, had become the founder of a new mode 
of living in common, Coenobitism.'' By degrees order was 
introduced in the groups of huts.  They were arranged in 
lines like the tents in an encampment, or the houses in a 
street.  From this arrangement these lines of single cells 
came to be known as Laurae, Laurai, "streets" or "lanes." 

The real founder of coenobian koinos, common, and bios, 
life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian 
of the beginning of the 4th century.  The first community 
established by him was at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper 
Egypt.  Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 
monks.  Within fifty years from his death his societies could 
reckon 50,000 members.  These coenobia resembled vilIages, 
peopled by a hard-working religious community, ail of one 
sex.  The buildings were detached, small and of the humblest 
character.  Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H.R. iii. 
14), contained three monks.  They took their chief meal in a 
common refectory at 3 P.M., up to which hour they usually 
fasted.  They ate in silence, with hoods so drawn over their 
faces that they could see nothing but what was on the table 
before them.  The monks spent all the time, not devoted to 
religious services or study, in manual labour.  Palladius, 
who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 
4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of 
Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 
carpenters, 12 cameldrivers and 15 tanners.  Each separate 
community had its own oeconomus or steward, who was subject 
to a chief oeconomus stationed at the head establishment.  
All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and 
by him shipped to Alexandria.  The money raised by the sale 
was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the 
communities, and what was over was devoted to charity.  Twice 
in the year the superiors of the several coenobia met at 
the chief monastery, under the presidency of an archimandrite 
(``the chief of the fold,'' from miandra, a fold), and at 
the last meeting gave in reports of their administration for the 
year.  The coenobia of Syria belonged to the Pachomian 
institution.  We learn many details concerning those in the 
vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings.  The monks 
lived in separate huts, kalbbia, forming a religious hamlet 
on the mountain side.  They were subject to an abbot, and 
observed a common rule. (They had no refectory, but ate their 
common meal, of bread and water only, when the day's labour 
was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors,) 
Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms. 

Santa Laura, Mount Athos. 

The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of 
space and convenience of access from one part of the community 
to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly 
arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium.  Large 
piles of building were erected, with strong outside walls, 
capable of resisting the assaults of an enemy, within which 
all the necessary edifices were ranged round one or more 
open courts, usually surrounded with cloisters.  The usual 
Eastern arrangement is exemplified in the plan of the convent 
of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Laura, the designation of a 
monastery generally, being converted into a female saint). 

This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is 
surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing 
an area of between 3 and 4 acres.  The longer side extends to 
a length of about 500 feet.  There is only one main entrance, 
on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron 
doors.  Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant 
feature in the monasteries of the Levant.  There is a small 
postern gate at L. The enceinte comprises two large open 
courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister 
galleries of wood or stone.  The outer court, which is much the 
larger, contains the granaries and storehouses (K), and the 
kitchen (H) and other offices connected with the refectory 
(G). Immediately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storied 
guest-house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is 
surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' cells 
(II).  In the centre of this court stands the catholicon 
or conventual church, a square building with an apse of 
the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed 
narthex.  In front of the church stands a marble fountain 
(F), covered by a dome supported on columns.  Opening from 
the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in 
the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform 
building, about 100 feet each way, decorated within with 
frescoes of saints.  At the upper end is a semicircular 
recess, recalling the triclinium of the Lateran Palace 

                                                  A. Gateway. 
                                                  B. Chapels.
                                                  C. Guest-house.
                                                  D. Church.
                                                  E. Cloister.
                                                  F. Fountain.
                                                  G. Refectory.
                                                  H. Kitchen.
                                                  I. Cells.
                                                  K. Storehouses.
                                                  L. Postern gate.
                                                  M. Tower.
FIG. 1.---Monastery of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Lenoir). 

at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the hegumenos or 
abbot.  This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the 
oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells. 

Vatopede 

St Laura is exceeded in magnitude by the convent of Vatopede 
also on Mount Athos.  This enormous establishment covers at 
least 4 acres of ground, and contains so many separate buildings 
within its massive walls that it resembles a fortified town.  It 
lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is 
described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince.  
The immense refectory, of the same cruciform shape as that of 
St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at its 24 marble tables. 

The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir, 
shows a church of three aisles, with cellular apses, and 
two ranges of cells on either side of an oblong gallery. 

Benedictine. 

Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development 
to Benedict of Nursia (born A.D. 480).  His rule was 
diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation 
on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and 
every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far 
exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and 
splendour.  Few great towns in Italy were without their 
Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great 
centres of population in England, France and Spain.  The number 
of these monasteries founded between A.D. 520 and 700 is 
amazing.  Before the Council of Constance, A.D. 1415, no 
fewer than 15,070 abbeys had been established of this order 
alone.  The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly 
arranged ofter one plan, modified where necessary (as at 
Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close to the 
steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local 
circumstances.  We have no existing examples of the earlier 
monasteries of the Benedictine order.  They have all yielded 
to the ravages of time and the violence of man.  But we 
have fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the 
great Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D. 820, 
which puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a 
monastery of the first class towards the early part of the 9th 
century.  This curious and interesting plan has been made 
the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, 1844) and by 
Professor Robert Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. v. pp. 
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