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Rambler's Top100
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Project Gutenberg's Encyclopedia, vol. 1 ( A - Andropha

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into an irregular lake, with low, marshy shores and many 
islands.  North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the 
mirage is seen in summer.  South-east lies the similar Lille 
Vildmose.  A railway connects Aalborg with Hjorring, 
Frederikshavn and Skagen to the north, and with Aarhus and 
the lines from Germany to the south.  The harbour is good 
and safe, though difficult of access.  Aalborg is a growing 
industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and 
fish.  An old castle and some picturesque houses of the 
17th century remain.  The Budolphi church dates mostly from 
the middle of the 18th century, while the Frue church was 
partially burnt in 1894, but the foundation of both is of 
the 14th century or earlier.  There are also an ancient 
hospital and a museum of art and antiquities.  On the north 
side of the fjord is Norre Sundby, connected with Aalborg 
by a pontoon and also by an iron railway bridge, one of the 
finest engineering works in the kingdom.  Aabborgt received 
town privileges in 1342 and the bishopric dates from 1554. 

AALEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, 
pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian 
Alps, about 50 m.  E. of Stuttgart, and with direct railway 
communication with Ulm and Cannstatt.  Pop. 10,000.  Woollen 
and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon 
looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the 
neighbourhood.  There are several schools and churches, and a 
statue of the poet Christian Schubart.  Aalen was a free imperial 
city from 1360 to 1802, when it was annexed to Wurttemberg. 

AALESUND, a seaport of Norway, in Romsdal amt (county), 145 
m.  N. by E. from Bergen.  Pop. (1900) 11,672.  It occupies 
two of the outer islands of the west coast, Aspo and 
Norvo, which enclose the picturesque harbour.  Founded 
in 1824, it is the principal shipping-place of Sondmore 
district, and one of the chief stations of the herring 
fishery.  Aalesund is adjacent to the Jorund and Geiranger 
fjords, frequented by tourists.  From Oje at the head of 
Jorund a driving-route strikes south to the Nordfjord, and 
from Merck on Geiranger another strikes inland to Otta, on 
the railway to Liilehammer and Christiania.  Aalesund is a 
port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle 
and Hamburg, and Trondhjem.  A little to the south of the 
town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the 
founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of 
Normandy.  On the 23rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the 
scene of one of the most terrible of the many conflagrations 
to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been 
subject.  Practically the whole town was destroyed, a gale aiding 
the flames, and the population had to leave the place in the 
night at the notice of a few minutes.  Hardly any lives were 
lost, but the sufferings of the people were so terrible that 
assistance was sent from all parts of the kingdom, and by the 
German government, while the British government also offered it. 

AALI, MEHEMET, Pasha (1815-1871), Turkish statesman, was born 
at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official.  
Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching 
manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in 
Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid 
Pasha.  In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier, 
but after a short time retired into private life.  During the 
Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio 
of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha, 
and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of 
Vienna.  Again becoming in that year grand vizier, an office 
he filled no less than five times, he represented Turkey 
at the congress of Paris in 1856.  In 1867 he was appointed 
regent of Turkey during the sultan's visit to the Paris 
Exhibition.  Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates 
of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul 
Mejid and Abdul Aziz.  A scholar and a linguist, he was a 
match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom 
he successfully defended the interests of his country.  He 
died at Erenkeni in Asia Minor on the 6th of September 1871. 

AAR, or AARE, the most considerable river which both 
rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.  Its total 
length (including all bends) from its source to its junction 
with the Rhine is about 181 m., during which distance it 
descends 5135 ft., while its drainage area is 6804 sq. 
m.  It rises in the great Aar glaciers, in the canton of 
Bern, and W. of the Grimsel Pass.  It runs E. to the Grimsel 
Hospice, and then N.W. through the Hasli valley, forming on the 
way the magnificent waterfall of the Handegg (151 ft.), past 
Guttannen, and pierces the limestone barrier of the Kirchet 
by a grand gorge, before reaching Meiringen, situated in a 
plain.  A little beyond, near Brienz, the river expands 
into the lake of Brienz, where it becomes navigable.  Near 
the west end of that lake it receives its first important 
affluent, the Lutschine (left), and then runs across the 
swampy plain of the Bodoli, between Interlaken (left) and 
Unterseen (right), before again expanding in order to form 
the Lake of Thun.  Near the west end of that lake it receives 
on the left the Kander, which has just before been joined 
by the Simme; on flowing out of the lake it passes Thun, and 
then circles the lofty bluff on which the town of Bern is 
built.  It soon changes its north-westerly for a due westerly 
direction, but after receiving the Saane or Sarine (left) 
turns N. till near Aarberg its stream is diverted W. by the 
Hagneck Canal into the Lake of Bienne, from the upper end of 
which it issues through the Nidau Canal and then runs E. to 
Buren.  Henceforth its course is N.E. for a long distance, 
past Soleure (below which the Grosse Emme flows in on the 
right), Aarburg (where it is joined by the Wigger, right), 
Olten, Aarau, near which is the junction with the Suhr on the 
right, and Wildegg, where the Hallwiler Aa falls in on the 
right.  A short way beyond, below Brugg, it receives first the 
Reuss (right), and very shortly afterwards the Limmat or Linth 
(right).  It now turns due N., and soon becomes itself an 
affluent of the Rhine (left), which it surpasses in volume 
when they unite at Coblenz, opposite Waldshut. (W. A. B. C.) 

AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau.  In 1900 
it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly 
Protestants.  It is situated in the valley of the Aar, on the 
right bank of that river, and at the southern foot of the range 
of the Jura.  It is about 50 m. by rail N.E. of Bern, and 31 
m.  N.W. of Zurich.  It is a well-built modern town, with 
no remarkable features about it.  In the Industrial Museum 
there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good 
painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring 
Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 
1841---the monks are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in 
Tirol).  The cantonal library contains many works relating to 
Swiss history and many MSS. coming from the suppressed Argovian 
monasteries.  There are many industries in the town, especially 
silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture 
of cutlery and scientific instruments.  The popular novelist 
and historian, Heinrich Zschokke (1771-1848), spent most of 
his life here, and a bronze statue has been erected to his 
memory.  Aarau is an important military centre.  The slopes 
of the Jura are covered with vineyards.  Aarau, an ancient 
fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became 
for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic.  Eight miles 
by rail N.E. are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, 
just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the 
original home of that great historical house. (W. A. B. C.) 

AARD-VARK (meaning ``earth pig''), the Iyutch name for 
the mammals of genus Orycteropus, confined to Africa (see 
EDEN-TATAI. Several species have been named.  Among them 
is the typical form, O. capensis, or Cape ant-bear from 
South Africa, and the northern aard-vark (O. aethiopicus) 
of north-eastern Africa, extending into Egypt.  In form 
these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout, 
with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with 
strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and 
the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually.  The 
greatly elongated head is set on a short thick neck, and at 
the extremity of the snout is a disk in which the nostrils 
open.  The mouth is small and tubular, furnished with a long 
extensile tongue.  The measurements of a female taken in the 
flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 17 1/2 in.; but a large 
individual measured 6 ft. 8 in. over all.  In colour the 
Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty 
and allowing the skin to show; the northern aard-vark has 
a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the 
shorter tail and longer head and ears.  These animals are of 
nocturnal and burrowing habits, and generally to be found near 
ant-hills.  The strong claws make a hole in the side of the 
ant-hill, and the insects are collected on the extensile 
tongue.  Aard-varks are hunted for their skins; but the 
flesh is valued for food, and often salted and smoked. 

AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous 
mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a 
small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharpe 
ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the 
neck and back.  It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and 
feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites. 

AARGAU (Fr. Argovie), one of the more northerly Swiss 
cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar (q.v.), 
whence its name.  Its total area is 541.9 sq. m., of which 
517.9 sq. m. are classed as ``productive'' (forests covering 
172 sq. m. and vineyards 8.2 sq. m.).  It is one of the least 
mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, 
to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which 
rise low hills.  The surface of the country is beautifully 
diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating 
with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its 
tributaries.  It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of 
Baden (q.v.) and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are 
very extensive saline springs.  Just below Brugg the Reuss 
and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined 
castle of Habsburg, the old convent of Konigsfelden (with 
fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman 
settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch].  The total population 
in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but 
numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990 
Jews.  The capital of the canton is Aarau (q.v.), while 
other important towns are Baden (q.v.), Zofingen (4591 
inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349 
inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588 
inhabitants).  Aargau is an industrious and prosperous canton, 
straw-plaiting, tobacco-growing, silk-ribbon weaving, and 
salmon-fishing in the Rhine being among the chief industries.  
As this region was, up to 1415, the centre of the Habsburg 
power, we find here many historical old castles (e.g. 
Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (e.g. 
Wettingen, Muri), founded by that family, but suppressed in 
1841, this act of violence being one of the main causes 
of the civil war called the ``Sonderbund War,'' in 1847 in 
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