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Project Gutenberg's Encyclopedia, vol. 1 ( A - Andropha

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to foist upon Norway as her official language in the place of 
Dano-Norwegian.  Aasen composed poems and plays in the composite 
dialect to show how it should be used; one of these dramas, 
The Heir (1855), was frequently acted, and may be considered 
as the pioneer of all the abundant dialect-literature of the 
last half-century, from Vinje down to Garborg.  Aasen continued 
to enlarge and improve his grammars and his dictionary.  He 
lived very quietly in lodgings in Christiania, surrounded by 
his books and shrinking from publicity, but his name grew into 
wide political favour as his ideas about the language of the 
peasants became more and more the watch-word of the popular 
party.  Quite early in his career, 1842, he had begun to 
receive a stipend to enable him to give his entire attention 
to his philological investigations; and the Storthing--. 
conscious of the national importance of his woth---treated hm 
in this respect with more and more generosity as he advanced in 
years.  He continued his investigations to the last, but it 
may be said that, after the 1873 edition of his Dictionary, 
he added but little to his stores.  Ivar Aasen holds perhaps 
an isolated place in literary history as the one man who has 
invented, or at least selected and constructed, a language 
which has pleased so many thousands of his countrymen that 
they have accepted it for their schools, their sermons 
and their songs.  He died in Christiania on the 23rd of 
September 1896, and was buried with Public honours. (E. G.) 

AB, the fifth month of the ecclesiastical and the 
eleventh of the civil year of the Jews.  It approximately 
Corresponds to the period of the 15th of July to the 15th of 
August.  The word is of Babylonian origin, adopted by the 
Jews with other calendar names after the Babylonian exile.  
Tradition ascribes the death of Aaron to the first day of Ab. 
On the ninth is kept the Fast of Ab, or the Black Fast, to 
bewail the destruction of the first temple by Nebuchadrezzar 
(586 B.C.) and of the second by Titus (A.D. 70). 

ABA. (1) A form of altazimuth instrument, invented by, and Cabled 
after, Antoine d'Abbadie; (2) a rough homespun manufactured in 
Bulgariai (3) a long coarse shirt worn by the Bedouin Arabs. 

ABABDA (the Gebadei of Pliny, probably the Troglodytes of 
classical writers), a nomad tribe of African ``Arabs,, of Hamitic 
origin.  They extend from the Nile at Assuan to the Red Sea, 
and reach northward to the Kena-Kosseir road, thus occupying 
the southern border of Egypt east of the Nile.  They call 
themselves ``sons of the Jinns.'' With some of the clans of 
the Bisharin (q.v.) and possibly the Hadendoa (q.v.) they 
represent the Blemmyes of classic geographers, and their location 
to-day is almost identical with that assigned them in Roman 
times.  They were constantly at war with the Romans, who at 
last subsidized them.  In the middle ages they were known as 
Beja (q.v.), and convoyed pilgrims from the Nile valley to 
Aidhab, the port of embarkation for Jedda.  From time immemorial 
they have acted as guides to caravans through the Nubian 
desert and up the Nile valley as far as Sennar.  To-day many of 
them are employed in the telegraph service across the Arabian 
desert.  They intermarried with the Nuba, and settled in small 
Colonies at Shendi and elsewhere long before the Egyptian 
invasion (A.D. 1820-1822).  They are still great trade 
carriers, and visit very distant districts.  The Ababda of 
Egypt, numbering some 30,000, are governed by an hereditary 
``chief.'' Although nominally a vassal of the Khedive he pays no 
tribute.  Indeed he is paid a subsidy, a portion of the 
road-dues, in return for his safeguarding travellers from Bedouin 
robbers.  The sub-sheikhs are directly responsible to him.  
The Ababda of Nubia, reported by Joseph von Russegger, who 
visited the country in 1836, to number some 40,000, have since 
diminished, having probably amalgamated with the Bisharin, 
their hereditary enemies when they were themselves a powerful 
nation.  The Ababda generally speak Arabic (mingled with 
Barabra [Nubian] words), the result of their long-continued 
contact with Egypt; but the southern and south-eastern portion 
of the tribe in many cases still retain their Beja dialect, 
ToBedawiet.  Those of Kosseir will not speak this before 
strangers, as they believe that to reveal the mysterious 
dialect would bring ruin on them.  Those nearest the Nile 
have much fellah blood in them.  As a tribe they claim an Arab 
origin, apparently through their sheikhs.  They have adopted 
the dress and habits of the fellahin, unlike their kinsmen 
the Bisharin and Hadendoa, who go practically naked.  They 
are neither so fierce nor of so fine a physique as these 
latter.  They are lithe and well built, but small: the average 
height is little more than 5 ft., except in the sheikh clan, 
who are obviously of Arab origin.  Their complexion is more 
red than black, their features angular, noses straight and hair 
luxuriant.  They bear the character of being treacherous and 
faithless, being bound by no oath, but they appear to be honest 
in money matters and hospitable, and, however poor, never 
beg.  Formerly very poor, the Ababda became wealthy after 
the British occupation of Egypt.  The chief settlements are in 
Nubia, where they live in villages and employ themselves in 
agriculture.  Others of them fish in the Red Sea and then 
hawk the salt fish in the interior.  Others are pedlars, 
while charcoal burning, wood-gathering and trading in gums 
and drugs, especially in senna leaves, occupy many.  Unlike 
the true Arab, the Ababda do not live in tents, but build 
huts with hurdles and mats, or live in natural caves, as 
did their ancestors in classic times.  They have few horses, 
using the camel as beast of burden or their ``mount'' in 
war.  They live chiefly on milk and durra, the latter 
eaten either raw or roasted.  They are very superstitious, 
believing, for example, that evil would overtake a family 
if a girl member should, after her marriage, ever set eyes 
on her mother: hence the Ababda husband has to make his 
home far from his wife's village.  In the Mahdist troubles 
(1882-1898) many ``friendlies'' were recruited from the tribe. 

For their earlier history see BEJA; see also BISHARIN, 
HADENDOA, KABBABish; and the following authorities:---Sir 
F. R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (Lond. 
1891); Giuseppe Sergi, Africa: Antropologia della Stirpe 
Camitica (Turin, 1897); A. H. Keane, Ethnology of Egyptian 
Sudan (Lond. 1884); Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by 
Count Gleichen (Lond. 1905); Joseph von Russegger, Die 
Reisen in Afrika (Stuttgart, 1841-1850). (T. A. J.) 

ABACA, or ABAKA, a native name for the plant Musa textilis, 
which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp (q.v.). . 

ABACUS (Gr. abax, a slab Fr. abaque, tailloir), in 
architecture, the upper member of the capital of a column.  
Its chief function is to provide a larger supporting surface 
for the architrave or arch it has to carry.  In the Greek Doric 
order the abacus is a plain square slab.  In the Roman and 
Renaissance Doric orders it is crowned by a moulding.  In the 
Archaic-Greek Ionic order, owing to the greater width of the 
capital, the abacus is rectangular in plan, and consists of a 
carved ovolo moulding.  In later examples the abacus is square, 
except where there are angle volutes, when it is slightly 
curved over the same.  In the Roman and Renaissance Ionic 
capital, the abacus is square with a fillet On the top of an 
ogee moulding, but curved over angle volutes.  In the Greek 
Corinthian order the abacus is moulded, its sides are concave 
and its angles canted (except in one or two exceptional Greek 
capitals, where it is brought to a sharp angle); and the same 
shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and 
Composite capitals, in some cases with the ovolo moulding 
carved.  In Romanesque architecture the abacus is square with 
the lower edge splayed off and moulded or carved, and the 
same was retained in France during the medieval period; but 
in England,in Early English work, a circular deeply moulded 
abacus was introduced, which in the 14th and 15th centuries 
was transformed into an octagonal one.  The diminutive of 
Abacus, ABACISCUS, is applied in architecture to the chequers 
or squares of a tessellated pavement . ``Abacus'' is also the 
name of an instrument employed by the ancients for arithmetical 
calculations; pebbles, hits of bone or coins being used as 
counters.  Fig. 1 shows a Roman abacus taken from an ancient 
monument.  It contains seven long and seven shorter rods 
or bars, the former having four perforated beads running 
on them and the latter one.  The bar marked 1 indicates 
units, X tens, and so on up to millions.  The beads on the 
shorter bars denote fives,--five units, five tens, &c. The 
rod O and corresponding short rod are for marking ounces; 
and the short quarter rods for fractions of an ounce. 

The Swan-Pan of the Chinese (fig. 2) closely resembles 
the Roman abacus in its construction and use.  Computations 
are made with it by means of balls of bone or ivory running 
on slender bamboo rods, similar to the simpler board, 
fitted up with beads strung on wires, which is employed in 
teaching the rudiments of arithmetic in English schools. 

FIG. 2.--Chinese Swan-Pan.  The name of ``abacus'' is also 
given, in logic, to an instrument, often called the ``logical 
machine,'' analogous to the mathematical abacus.  It is 
constructed to show all the possible combinations of a set of 
logical terms with their negatives, and, further, the way in which 
these combinations are affected by the addition of attributes 
or other limiting words, i.e. to simplify mechanically the 
solution of logical problems.  These instruments are all more 
or less elaborate developments of the ``logical slate,'' on 
which were written in vertical columns all the combinations 
of symbols or letters which could be made logically out of a 
definite number of terms.  These were compared with any given 
premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed 
off.  In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a 
single slip of wood or similar substance, which is moved by a 
key; incompatible combinations can thus be mechanically removed 
at will, in accordance with any given series of premises.  
The principal examples of such machines are those of W. S. 
Jevons (Element.  Lessons in Logic, C. xxiii.), John Venn 
(see his Symbolic Logic, 2nd ed., 1894, p. 135), and Allan 
Marquand (see American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1885, pp. 
303-7, and Johns Hopkins University Studies in Logic, 1883). 

ABADDON, a Hebrew word meaning ``destruction.'' In poetry 
it comes to mean ``place of destruction,'' and so the 
underworld or Sheol (cf. Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11). In Rev. 
ix. 11 Abaddon ((Abaddon) is used of hell personified, 
the prince of the underworld.  The term is here explained 
as Apollyon (q.v.), the ``destroyer.', W. Baudissin 
(Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklo padie) notes that Hades and 
Abaddon in Rabbinic writings are employed as personal names, 
just as shemayya in Dan. iv. 23, shamayim (``heaven''), 
and makom (``place'') among the Rabbins, are used of God. 

ABADEH, a small walled town of Persia, in the province of 
Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft. in a fertile 
plain on the high road between Isfahan and Shiraz, 140 m. 
from the former and 170 m. from the latter place.  Pop. 
4000.  It is the chief place of the Abadeh-Iklid district, 
which has 30 villages; it has telegraph and post offices, 
and is famed for its carved wood-work, small boxes, trays, 
sherbet spoons, &c., made of the wood of pear and box trees. 
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