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The Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia

A. This letter of ours corresponds to the first symbol in 
the Phoenician alphabet and in almost all its descendants.  In 
Phoenician, a, like the symbols for e and for o, did not 
represent a vowel, but a breathing; the vowels originally were 
not represented by any symbol.  When the alphabet was adopted by 
the Greeks it was not very well fitted to represent the sounds 
of their language.  The breathings which were not required in 
Greek were accordingly employed to represent some of the vowel 
sounds, other vowels, like i and u, being represented by 
an adaptation of the symbols for the semi-vowels y and w. 
The Phoenician name, which must have corresponded closely to 
the Hebrew Aleph, was taken over by the Greeks in the form 
Alpha (alpsa). The earliest authority for this, as for the 
names of the other Greek letters, is the grammatical drama 
(grammatike Ieoria) of Callias, an earlier contemporary of 
Euripides, from whose works four trimeters, containing the names 
of all the Greek letters, are preserved in Athenaeus x. 453 d. 

The form of the letter has varied considerably.  In the 
earliest of the Phoenician, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions 
(the oldest Phoenician dating about 1000 B.C., the oldest 
Aramaic from the 8th, and the oldest Greek from the 8th 
or 7th century B.C.) A rests upon its side thus--@.  In 
the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles 
the modern capital letter, but many local varieties can be 
distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle 
at which the cross line is set-- @, &c. From the Greeks of 
the west the alphabet was borrowed by the Romans and from them 
has passed to the other nations of western Europe.  In the 
earliest Latin inscriptions, such as the inscription found 
in the excavation of the Roman Forum in 1899, or that on a 
golden fibula found at Praeneste in 1886 (see ALPHABET).  
Fine letters are still identical in form with those of the 
western Greeks.  Latin develops early various forms, which 
are comparatively rare in Greek, as @, or unknown, as 
@.  Except possibly Faliscan, the other dialects of Italy 
did not borrow their alphabet directly from the western Greeks 
as the Romans did, but received it at second hand through the 
Etruscans.  In Oscan, where the writing of early inscriptions 
is no less careful than in Latin, the A takes the form 
@, to which the nearest parallels are found in north Greece 
(Boeotia, Locris and Thessaly, and there only sporadically) . 

In Greek the symbol was used for both the long and the short 
sound, as in English father (a) and German Ratte 
a; English, except in dialects, has no sound corresponding 
precisely to the Greek short a, which, so far as can be 
ascertained, was a mid-back-wide sound, according to the 
terminology of H. Sweet (Primer of Phonetics, p. 107).  
Throughout the history of Greek the short sound remained practically 
unchanged.  On the other hand, the long sound of a in the 
Attic and Ionic dialects passed into an open e-sound, which 
in the Ionic alphabet was represented by the same symbol as 
the original e-sound (see ALPHABET: Greek). The vowel 
sounds vary from language to language, and the a symbol has, 
in consequence, to represent in many cases sounds which are 
not identical with the Greek a whether long or short, and 
also to represent several different vowel sounds in the same 
language.  Thus the New English Dictionary distinguishes about 
twelve separate vowel sounds, which are represented by a in 
English.  In general it may be said that the chief changes 
which affect the a-sound in different languages arise from 
(1) rounding, (2) fronting, i.e. changing from a sound 
produced far back in the mouth to a sound produced farther 
forward.  The rounding is often produced by combination with 
rounded consonants (as in English was, wall, &c.), the 
rounding of the preceding consonant being continued into 
the formation of the vowel sound.  Rounding has also been 
produced by a following l-sound, as in the English fall, 
small, bald, &c. (see Sweet's History of English Sounds, 
2nd ed., sec. sec.  906, 784).  The effect of fronting is seen in 
the Ionic and Attic dialects of Greek, where the original 
name of the Medes, Madoi, with a in the first syllable 
(which survives in Cyprian Greek as Madoi), is changed 
into Medoi (Medoi), with an open e-sound instead 
of the earlier a.  In the later history of Greek this 
sound is steadily narrowed till it becomes identical with 
i (as in English seed). The first part of the process 
has been almost repeated by literary English, a (ah) 
passing into e (eh), though in present-day pronunciation 
the sound has developed further into a diphthongal ei 
except before r, as in hare (Sweet, op. cit. sec.  783). 

In English a represents unaccented forms of several 
words, e.g. an (one), of, have, he, and or various 
prefixes the history of which is given in detail in the New 
English Dictionary (Oxford, 1888), vol. i. p. 4. (P. GI.) 

As a symbol the letter is used in various connexions 
and for various technical purposes, e.g. for a note in 
music, for the first of the seven dominical letters (this 
use is derived from its being the first of the litterae 
nundinales at Rome), and generally as a sign of priority. 

In Logic, the letter A is used as a symbol for the universal 
affirmative proposition in the general form ``all x is y.'' 
The letters I, E and O are used respectively for the particular 
affirmative ``some x is y,'' the universal negative ``no x 
is y,'' and the particular negative ``some x is not y.'' 
The use of these letters is generally derived from the vowels 
of the two Latin verbs AffIrmo (or AIo), ``I assert,'' and 
nEgO, ``I deny.'' The use of the symbols dates from the 13th 
century, though some authorities trace their origin to the Greek 
logicians.  A is also used largely in abbreviations (q.v.). 

In Shipping, A1 is a symbol used to dennote quality of 
construction and material.  In the various shipping registers 
ships are classed and given a rating after an official 
examination, and assigned a classification mark, which 
appears in addition to other particulars in those registers 
after the name of the ship.  See SHIPBUILDING. It is 
popularly used to indicate the highest degree of excellence. 

AA, the name of a large number of small European rivers.  
The word is derived from the Old German aha, cognate to 
the Latin aqua, water (cf. Ger.-ach; Scand. a, aa, 
pronounced o).  The following are the more important 
streams of this name:--Two rivers in the west of Russia, both 
falling into the Gulf of Riga, near Riga, which is situated 
between them; a river in the north of France, falling into 
the sea below Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; 
and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and 
Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldegger and 
Hallwiler into the Aar. In Germany there are the Westphalian 
Aa, rising in the Teutoburger Wald, and joining the Werre at 
Herford, the Munster Aa, a tributary of the Ems, and others. 

AAGESEN, ANDREW (1826-1879), Danish jurist, was educated 
for the law at Kristianshavn and Copenhagen, and interrupted 
his studies in 1848 to take part in the first Schleswig war, 
in which he served as the leader of a reserve battalion.  In 
1855 he became professor of jurisprudence at the university of 
Copenhagen.  In 1870 he was appointed a member of the commission 
for drawing up a maritime and commercial code, and the navigation 
law of 1882 is mainly his work.  In 1879 he was elected a member 
of the Landsthing; but it is as a teacher at the university 
that he won his reputation.  Among his numerous juridical 
works may be mentioned: Bidrag til Laeren om Overdragelse 
af Ejendomsret, Bemaerkinger om Rettigheder over Ting 
(Copenhagen, 1866, 1871-1872); Fortegnelse over Retssamlinger, 
Retslitteratur i Danmark, Norge, Sverige (Copenhagen, 
1876).  Aagesen was Hall's successor as lecturer on Roman law 
at the university, and in this department his researches were 
epoch-making.  All his pupils were profoundly impressed by 
his exhaustive examination of the sources, his energetic 
demonstration of his subject and his stringent search after 
truth.  His noble, imposing, and yet most amiable personality 
won for him, moreover, universal affection and respect. 

See C. F. Bricka, Dansk.  Brog.  Lex. vol. i. (Copenhagen, 1887); Szmlade 
Skrifter, edited by F. C. Bornemann (Copenhagen, 1863). (R. N. B.) 

AAL, also known as A'L, ACH, or AICH, the Hindustani 
names for the Morinda tinctoria and Morinda citrifalia, 
plants extensively cultivated in India on account of the 
reddish dye-stuff which their roots contain.  The name 
is also applied to the dye, but the common trade name 
is Suranji. Its properties are due to the presence 
of a glucoside known as Morindin, which is compounded 
from glucose and probably a trioxy-methyl-anthraquinone. 

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, the seat of a bishop, 
and chief town of the amt (county) of its name, on the south 
bank of the Limfjord, which connects the North Sea and the 
Cattegat.  Pop. (1901) 31,457.  The situation is typical of 
the north of Jutland.  To the west the Linifjord broadens 
into an irregular lake, with low, marshy shores and many 
islands.  North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the 
mirage is seen in summer.  South-east lies the similar Lille 
Vildmose.  A railway connects Aalborg with Hjorring, 
Frederikshavn and Skagen to the north, and with Aarhus and 
the lines from Germany to the south.  The harbour is good 
and safe, though difficult of access.  Aalborg is a growing 
industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and 
fish.  An old castle and some picturesque houses of the 
17th century remain.  The Budolphi church dates mostly from 
the middle of the 18th century, while the Frue church was 
partially burnt in 1894, but the foundation of both is of 
the 14th century or earlier.  There are also an ancient 
hospital and a museum of art and antiquities.  On the north 
side of the fjord is Norre Sundby, connected with Aalborg 
by a pontoon and also by an iron railway bridge, one of the 
finest engineering works in the kingdom.  Aabborgt received 
town privileges in 1342 and the bishopric dates from 1554. 

AALEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, 
pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian 
Alps, about 50 m.  E. of Stuttgart, and with direct railway 
communication with Ulm and Cannstatt.  Pop. 10,000.  Woollen 
and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon 
looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the 
neighbourhood.  There are several schools and churches, and a 
statue of the poet Christian Schubart.  Aalen was a free imperial 
city from 1360 to 1802, when it was annexed to Wurttemberg. 

AALESUND, a seaport of Norway, in Romsdal amt (county), 145 
m.  N. by E. from Bergen.  Pop. (1900) 11,672.  It occupies 
two of the outer islands of the west coast, Aspo and 
Norvo, which enclose the picturesque harbour.  Founded 
in 1824, it is the principal shipping-place of Sondmore 
district, and one of the chief stations of the herring 
fishery.  Aalesund is adjacent to the Jorund and Geiranger 
fjords, frequented by tourists.  From Oje at the head of 
Jorund a driving-route strikes south to the Nordfjord, and 
from Merck on Geiranger another strikes inland to Otta, on 
the railway to Liilehammer and Christiania.  Aalesund is a 
port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle 
and Hamburg, and Trondhjem.  A little to the south of the 
town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the 
founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of 
Normandy.  On the 23rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the 
scene of one of the most terrible of the many conflagrations 
to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been 
subject.  Practically the whole town was destroyed, a gale aiding 
the flames, and the population had to leave the place in the 
night at the notice of a few minutes.  Hardly any lives were 
lost, but the sufferings of the people were so terrible that 
assistance was sent from all parts of the kingdom, and by the 
German government, while the British government also offered it. 

AALI, MEHEMET, Pasha (1815-1871), Turkish statesman, was born 
at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official.  
Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching 
manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in 
Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid 
Pasha.  In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier, 
but after a short time retired into private life.  During the 
Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio 
of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha, 
and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of 
Vienna.  Again becoming in that year grand vizier, an office 
he filled no less than five times, he represented Turkey 
at the congress of Paris in 1856.  In 1867 he was appointed 
regent of Turkey during the sultan's visit to the Paris 
Exhibition.  Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates 
of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul 
Mejid and Abdul Aziz.  A scholar and a linguist, he was a 
match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom 
he successfully defended the interests of his country.  He 
died at Erenkeni in Asia Minor on the 6th of September 1871. 

AAR, or AARE, the most considerable river which both 
rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.  Its total 
length (including all bends) from its source to its junction 
with the Rhine is about 181 m., during which distance it 
descends 5135 ft., while its drainage area is 6804 sq. 
m.  It rises in the great Aar glaciers, in the canton of 
Bern, and W. of the Grimsel Pass.  It runs E. to the Grimsel 
Hospice, and then N.W. through the Hasli valley, forming on the 
way the magnificent waterfall of the Handegg (151 ft.), past 
Guttannen, and pierces the limestone barrier of the Kirchet 
by a grand gorge, before reaching Meiringen, situated in a 
plain.  A little beyond, near Brienz, the river expands 
into the lake of Brienz, where it becomes navigable.  Near 
the west end of that lake it receives its first important 
affluent, the Lutschine (left), and then runs across the 
swampy plain of the Bodoli, between Interlaken (left) and 
Unterseen (right), before again expanding in order to form 
the Lake of Thun.  Near the west end of that lake it receives 
on the left the Kander, which has just before been joined 
by the Simme; on flowing out of the lake it passes Thun, and 
then circles the lofty bluff on which the town of Bern is 
built.  It soon changes its north-westerly for a due westerly 
direction, but after receiving the Saane or Sarine (left) 
turns N. till near Aarberg its stream is diverted W. by the 
Hagneck Canal into the Lake of Bienne, from the upper end of 
which it issues through the Nidau Canal and then runs E. to 
Buren.  Henceforth its course is N.E. for a long distance, 
past Soleure (below which the Grosse Emme flows in on the 
right), Aarburg (where it is joined by the Wigger, right), 
Olten, Aarau, near which is the junction with the Suhr on the 
right, and Wildegg, where the Hallwiler Aa falls in on the 
right.  A short way beyond, below Brugg, it receives first the 
Reuss (right), and very shortly afterwards the Limmat or Linth 
(right).  It now turns due N., and soon becomes itself an 
affluent of the Rhine (left), which it surpasses in volume 
when they unite at Coblenz, opposite Waldshut. (W. A. B. C.) 

AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau.  In 1900 
it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly 
Protestants.  It is situated in the valley of the Aar, on the 
right bank of that river, and at the southern foot of the range 
of the Jura.  It is about 50 m. by rail N.E. of Bern, and 31 
m.  N.W. of Zurich.  It is a well-built modern town, with 
no remarkable features about it.  In the Industrial Museum 
there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good 
painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring 
Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 
1841---the monks are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in 
Tirol).  The cantonal library contains many works relating to 
Swiss history and many MSS. coming from the suppressed Argovian 
monasteries.  There are many industries in the town, especially 
silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture 
of cutlery and scientific instruments.  The popular novelist 
and historian, Heinrich Zschokke (1771-1848), spent most of 
his life here, and a bronze statue has been erected to his 
memory.  Aarau is an important military centre.  The slopes 
of the Jura are covered with vineyards.  Aarau, an ancient 
fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became 
for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic.  Eight miles 
by rail N.E. are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, 
just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the 
original home of that great historical house. (W. A. B. C.) 

AARD-VARK (meaning ``earth pig''), the Iyutch name for 
the mammals of genus Orycteropus, confined to Africa (see 
EDEN-TATAI. Several species have been named.  Among them 
is the typical form, O. capensis, or Cape ant-bear from 
South Africa, and the northern aard-vark (O. aethiopicus) 
of north-eastern Africa, extending into Egypt.  In form 
these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout, 
with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with 
strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and 
the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually.  The 
greatly elongated head is set on a short thick neck, and at 
the extremity of the snout is a disk in which the nostrils 
open.  The mouth is small and tubular, furnished with a long 
extensile tongue.  The measurements of a female taken in the 
flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 17 1/2 in.; but a large 
individual measured 6 ft. 8 in. over all.  In colour the 
Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty 
and allowing the skin to show; the northern aard-vark has 
a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the 
shorter tail and longer head and ears.  These animals are of 
nocturnal and burrowing habits, and generally to be found near 
ant-hills.  The strong claws make a hole in the side of the 
ant-hill, and the insects are collected on the extensile 
tongue.  Aard-varks are hunted for their skins; but the 
flesh is valued for food, and often salted and smoked. 

AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous 
mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a 
small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharpe 
ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the 
neck and back.  It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and 
feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites. 

AARGAU (Fr. Argovie), one of the more northerly Swiss 
cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar (q.v.), 
whence its name.  Its total area is 541.9 sq. m., of which 
517.9 sq. m. are classed as ``productive'' (forests covering 
172 sq. m. and vineyards 8.2 sq. m.).  It is one of the least 
mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, 
to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which 
rise low hills.  The surface of the country is beautifully 
diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating 
with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its 
tributaries.  It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of 
Baden (q.v.) and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are 
very extensive saline springs.  Just below Brugg the Reuss 
and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined 
castle of Habsburg, the old convent of Konigsfelden (with 
fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman 
settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch].  The total population 
in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but 
numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990 
Jews.  The capital of the canton is Aarau (q.v.), while 
other important towns are Baden (q.v.), Zofingen (4591 
inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349 
inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588 
inhabitants).  Aargau is an industrious and prosperous canton, 
straw-plaiting, tobacco-growing, silk-ribbon weaving, and 
salmon-fishing in the Rhine being among the chief industries.  
As this region was, up to 1415, the centre of the Habsburg 
power, we find here many historical old castles (e.g. 
Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (e.g. 
Wettingen, Muri), founded by that family, but suppressed in 
1841, this act of violence being one of the main causes 
of the civil war called the ``Sonderbund War,'' in 1847 in 
Switzerland.  The cantonal constitution dates mainly from 
1885, but since 1904 the election of the executive council 
of five members is made by a direct vote of the people.  The 
legislature consists of members elected in the proportion of 
one to every 1100 inhabitants.  The ``obligatory referendum'' 
exists in the case of all laws, while 5000 citizens have the 
right of ``initiative'' in proposing bills or alterations 
in the cantonal constitution.  The canton sends 10 members 
to the federal Nationalrat, being one for every 20,000, 
while the two Standerate are (since 1904) elected by 
a direct vote of the people.  The canton is divided into 
eleven administrative districts, and contains 241 communes. 


1415 the Aargau region was taken from the Habsburgs by the Swiss 
Confederates.  Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen, 
Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts, 
named the Freie Amter or ``free bailiwicks'' (Mellingen, 
Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, 
were ruled as ``subject lands'' by all or certain of the 
Confederates.  In 1798 the Bernese bit became the canton of 
Aargau of the Helvetic Republic, the remainder forming the 
canton of Baden.  In 1803, the two halves (plus the Frick 
glen, ceded in 1802 by Austria to the Helvetic Republic) 
were united under the name of Kanton Aargau, which was then 
admitted a full member of the reconstituted Confederation. 

See also Argovia (published by the Cantonal Historical 
Society), Aarau, from 1860; F. X. Bronner, Der Kanton Aargau, 
2 vols., St Gall and Bern, 1844; H. Lehmann, Die argauische 
Strohindustrie, Aarau, 1896; W. Merz, Die mittelalt.  
Burganlagen und Wehrbauten d.  Kant.  Argau (fine illustrated 
work on castles), Aarau, 2 vols., 1904--1906; W. Merz and 
F. E. Welti, Die Rechtsquellen d.  Kant. Argau, 3 vols., 
Aarau, 1898--1905; J. Muller, Der Aargau, 2 vols., Zurich, 
1870; E. L. Rochholz, Aargauer Weisthumer, Atarau, 1877; E. 
Zschokke, Geschichte des Aargaus, Aarau, 1903. (W. A. B. C.) 

AARHUS, a seaport and bishop's see of Denmark, on the 
east coast of Jutland, of which it is the principal port; 
the second largest town in the kingdom, and capital of 
the amt (county) of Aarhus.  Pop. (1901) 51,814.  The 
district is low-lying, fertile and well wooded.  The town 
is the junction of railways from all parts of the country.  
The harbour is good and safe, and agricultural produce is 
exported, while coal and iron are among the chief imports.  
The cathedral of the 13th century (extensively restored) is 
the largest church in Denmark.  There is a museum of art and 
antiquities.  To the south-west (13 m. by rail), a picturesque 
region extends west from the railway junction of Skanderborg, 
including several lakes, through which flows the Gudenaa, 
the largest river in Jutland, and rising ground exceeding 
500 ft. in the Himmelbjerg.  The railway traverses this 
pleasant district of moorland and wood to Silkeborg, a modern 
town having one of the most attractive situations in the 
kingdom.  The bishopric of Aarhus dates at least from 951. 

AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish 
priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites 
out of Egypt (see EXODUS; MOSES) . The greater part of 
his life-history is preserved in late Biblical narratives, 
which carry back existing conditions and beliefs to the 
time of the Exodus, and find a precedent for contemporary 
hierarchical institutions in the events of that period.  
Although Aaron was said to have been sent by Yahweh (Jehovah) 
to meet Moses at the ``mount of God'' (Horeb, Ex.iv.27),he 
plays only a secondary part in the incidents at Pharaoh's 
court.  After the ``exodus'' from Egypt a striking account 
is given of the vision of the God of Israel vouchsafed to 
him and to his sons Nadab and Abihu on the same holy mount 
(Ex. xxiv. 1 seq. 9-11), and together with Hur he was at the 
side of Moses when the latter, by means of his wonder-working 
rod, enabled Joshua to defeat the Amalekites (xvii. 8-16).  
Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when 
Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of 
the Law (xxiv. 12-15), and when the people, in dismay at the 
prolonged absence of their leader, demanded a god, it was at 
the instigation of Aaron that the golden calf was made (see 
CALF, GOLDEN). This was regarded as an act of apostasy 
which, according to one tradition, led to the consecration 
of the Levites, and almost cost Aaron his life (cp. Deut. 
ix. 20). The incident paves the way for the account of the 
preparation of the new tables of stone which contain a series 
of laws quite distinct from the Decalogue (q.v.) (Ex. xxxiii. 
seq.).  Kadesh, and not Sinai or Horeb, appears to have been 
originally the scene of these incidents (Deut. xxxiii. 8 
seq. compared with Ex. xxxii. 26 sqq.), and it was for some 
obscure offence at this place that both Aaron and Moses were 
prohibited from entering the Promised Land (Num. xx.).  In 
what way they had not ``sanctified'' (an allusion in the 
Hebrew to Kadesh ``holy'') Yahweh is quite uncertain, and 
it would appear that it was for a similar offence that the 
sons of Aaron mentioned above also met their death (Lev. x. 3; 
cp.  Num. xx. 12, Deut. xxxii. 51). Aaron is said to have 
died at Moserah (Deut. x. 6), or at Mt. Hor; the latter is 
an unidentified site on the border of Edom (Num. xx. 23, 
xxxiii. 37; for Moserah see ib. 30-31), and consequently 
not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the 
traditional scene from the time of Josephus (Ant. iv. 4. 7). 

Several difficulties in the present Biblical text appear to 
have arisen from the attempt of later tradition to find a 
place for Aaron in certain incidents.  In the account of the 
contention between Moses and his sister Miriam (Num. xii.), 
Aaron occupies only a secondary position, and it is very doubtful 
whether he was originally mentioned in the older surviving 
narratives.  It is at least remarkable that he is only thrice 
mentioned in Deuteronomy (ix. 20, x. 6, xxxii. 50). The 
post-exilic narratives give him a greater share in the plagues of 
Egypt, represent him as high-priest, and confirm his position 
by the miraculous budding of his rod alone of all the rods of 
the other tribes (Num. xvii.; for parallels see Gray comm. 
ad loc., p. 217).  The latter story illustrates the growth 
of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of 
priestly ritual: the old account of Korah's revolt against the 
authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes (a) 
the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and (b) 
the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites 
against the rest of the Levites, a development which can 
scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv. 15 seq.). 

Aaron's son Eleazar was buried in an Ephraimite locality 
known after the grandson as the ``hill of Phinehas'' (Josh. 
xxiv. 33). Little historical information has been preserved of 
either.  The name Phinehas (apparently of Egyptian origin) 
is better known as that of a son of Eli, a member of the 
priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of 
Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have 
belonged.  The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical 
names and those of clans related to Moses is very noteworthy, 
and it is a curious coincidence that the name of Aaron's 
sister Miriam appears in a genealogy of Caleb (1 Chron. iv. 
17) with Jether (cp. JETHRO) and Heber (cp. KENITES). In 
view of the confusion of the traditions and the difficulty of 
interpreting the details sketched above, the recovery of the 
historical Aaron is a work of peculiar intricacy.  He may 
well have been the traditional head of the priesthood, and 
R. H. Kennett has argued in favour of the view that he was 
the founder of the cult at Bethel (Journ. of Theol.  Stud., 
1905, pp. 161 sqq.), corresponding to the Mosaite founder 
of Dan (q.v.). This throws no light upon the name, which 
still remains quite obscure: and unless Aaron (Aharon) is 
based upon Aron, ``ark'' (Redslob, R. P. A. Dozy, J. P. 
N. Land), names associated with Moses and Aaron, which are, 
apparently, of South Palestinian (or North-Arabian) origin. 

For the literature and a general account of the Jewish 
priesthood, see the articles LEVTTES and PRIEST. . (S. A. C.) 

AARON'S ROD, the popular name given to various tall flowering 
plants (``hag taper,', ``golden rod,'' &c.).  In architecture 
the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, 
or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the 
Biblical references in Exodus vii. 10 and Numbers xvii. 8). 

AARSSENS, or AARSSEN, FRANCIS VAN (1572-1641), a 
celebrated diplomatist and statesman of the United Provinces.  
His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan 
van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, 
as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of 
France.  He took a considerable part in the negotiations of 
the twelve years' truce in 1606.  His conduct of affairs having 
displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by 
Oldenbarneveldt in 1616.  Such was the hatred he henceforth 
conceived against his former benefactor, that he did his 
very utmost to effect his ruin.  He was one of the packed 
court of judges who in 1619 condemned the aged statesman to 
death.  For his share in this judicial murder a deep stain 
rests on the memory of Aarssens.  He afterwards became the 
confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and 
afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their 
conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic.  He was sent 
on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and 
displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu 
ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time. 

AASEN, IVAR (1813-1896), Norwegian philologist and 
lexicographer, was born at Aasen i Orsten, in Sondmore, 
Norway, on the. 5th of August 1813.  His father, a small 
peasant-farmer named Ivar Jonsson, died in 1826.  He was 
brought up to farmwork, but he assiduously cultivated all 
his leisure in reading, and when he was eighteen he opened an 
elementary school in his native parish.  In 1833 he entered 
the household of H. C. Thoresen the husband of the eminent 
writer Magdalene Thoresen, in Hero, and here he picked up 
the elements of Latin.  Gradually, and by dint of infinite 
patience and concentration, the young peasant became master 
of many languages, and began the scientific study of their 
structure.  About 1841 he had freed himself from all the 
burden of manual labour, and could occupy his thoughts with 
the dialect of his native district, the Sondmore; his 
first publication was a small collection of folk-songs in 
the Sondmore language (1843) . His remarkable abilities now 
attracted general attention, and he was helped to continue his 
studies undisturbed.  His Grammar ofthe Norwegian Dialects 
(1848) was the result of much labour, and of journeys taken 
to every part of the country.  Aasen's famous Dictionary 
of the Norwegian Dialects appeared in its original form in 
1850, and from this publication dates all the wide cultivation 
of the popular language in Norwegian, since Aasen really did 
no less than construct, out of the different materials at his 
disposal, a popular language or definite folke-maal for 
Norway.  With certain modifications, the most important of which 
were introduced later by Aasen himself, this artificial language 
is that which has been adopted ever since by those who write in 
dialect, and which later enthusiasts have once more endeavoured 
to foist upon Norway as her official language in the place of 
Dano-Norwegian.  Aasen composed poems and plays in the composite 
dialect to show how it should be used; one of these dramas, 
The Heir (1855), was frequently acted, and may be considered 
as the pioneer of all the abundant dialect-literature of the 
last half-century, from Vinje down to Garborg.  Aasen continued 
to enlarge and improve his grammars and his dictionary.  He 
lived very quietly in lodgings in Christiania, surrounded by 
his books and shrinking from publicity, but his name grew into 
wide political favour as his ideas about the language of the 
peasants became more and more the watch-word of the popular 
party.  Quite early in his career, 1842, he had begun to 
receive a stipend to enable him to give his entire attention 
to his philological investigations; and the Storthing--. 
conscious of the national importance of his woth---treated hm 
in this respect with more and more generosity as he advanced in 
years.  He continued his investigations to the last, but it 
may be said that, after the 1873 edition of his Dictionary, 
he added but little to his stores.  Ivar Aasen holds perhaps 
an isolated place in literary history as the one man who has 
invented, or at least selected and constructed, a language 
which has pleased so many thousands of his countrymen that 
they have accepted it for their schools, their sermons 
and their songs.  He died in Christiania on the 23rd of 
September 1896, and was buried with Public honours. (E. G.) 

AB, the fifth month of the ecclesiastical and the 
eleventh of the civil year of the Jews.  It approximately 
Corresponds to the period of the 15th of July to the 15th of 
August.  The word is of Babylonian origin, adopted by the 
Jews with other calendar names after the Babylonian exile.  
Tradition ascribes the death of Aaron to the first day of Ab. 
On the ninth is kept the Fast of Ab, or the Black Fast, to 
bewail the destruction of the first temple by Nebuchadrezzar 
(586 B.C.) and of the second by Titus (A.D. 70). 

ABA. (1) A form of altazimuth instrument, invented by, and Cabled 
after, Antoine d'Abbadie; (2) a rough homespun manufactured in 
Bulgariai (3) a long coarse shirt worn by the Bedouin Arabs. 

ABABDA (the Gebadei of Pliny, probably the Troglodytes of 
classical writers), a nomad tribe of African ``Arabs,, of Hamitic 
origin.  They extend from the Nile at Assuan to the Red Sea, 
and reach northward to the Kena-Kosseir road, thus occupying 
the southern border of Egypt east of the Nile.  They call 
themselves ``sons of the Jinns.'' With some of the clans of 
the Bisharin (q.v.) and possibly the Hadendoa (q.v.) they 
represent the Blemmyes of classic geographers, and their location 
to-day is almost identical with that assigned them in Roman 
times.  They were constantly at war with the Romans, who at 
last subsidized them.  In the middle ages they were known as 
Beja (q.v.), and convoyed pilgrims from the Nile valley to 
Aidhab, the port of embarkation for Jedda.  From time immemorial 
they have acted as guides to caravans through the Nubian 
desert and up the Nile valley as far as Sennar.  To-day many of 
them are employed in the telegraph service across the Arabian 
desert.  They intermarried with the Nuba, and settled in small 
Colonies at Shendi and elsewhere long before the Egyptian 
invasion (A.D. 1820-1822).  They are still great trade 
carriers, and visit very distant districts.  The Ababda of 
Egypt, numbering some 30,000, are governed by an hereditary 
``chief.'' Although nominally a vassal of the Khedive he pays no 
tribute.  Indeed he is paid a subsidy, a portion of the 
road-dues, in return for his safeguarding travellers from Bedouin 
robbers.  The sub-sheikhs are directly responsible to him.  
The Ababda of Nubia, reported by Joseph von Russegger, who 
visited the country in 1836, to number some 40,000, have since 
diminished, having probably amalgamated with the Bisharin, 
their hereditary enemies when they were themselves a powerful 
nation.  The Ababda generally speak Arabic (mingled with 
Barabra [Nubian] words), the result of their long-continued 
contact with Egypt; but the southern and south-eastern portion 
of the tribe in many cases still retain their Beja dialect, 
ToBedawiet.  Those of Kosseir will not speak this before 
strangers, as they believe that to reveal the mysterious 
dialect would bring ruin on them.  Those nearest the Nile 
have much fellah blood in them.  As a tribe they claim an Arab 
origin, apparently through their sheikhs.  They have adopted 
the dress and habits of the fellahin, unlike their kinsmen 
the Bisharin and Hadendoa, who go practically naked.  They 
are neither so fierce nor of so fine a physique as these 
latter.  They are lithe and well built, but small: the average 
height is little more than 5 ft., except in the sheikh clan, 
who are obviously of Arab origin.  Their complexion is more 
red than black, their features angular, noses straight and hair 
luxuriant.  They bear the character of being treacherous and 
faithless, being bound by no oath, but they appear to be honest 
in money matters and hospitable, and, however poor, never 
beg.  Formerly very poor, the Ababda became wealthy after 
the British occupation of Egypt.  The chief settlements are in 
Nubia, where they live in villages and employ themselves in 
agriculture.  Others of them fish in the Red Sea and then 
hawk the salt fish in the interior.  Others are pedlars, 
while charcoal burning, wood-gathering and trading in gums 
and drugs, especially in senna leaves, occupy many.  Unlike 
the true Arab, the Ababda do not live in tents, but build 
huts with hurdles and mats, or live in natural caves, as 
did their ancestors in classic times.  They have few horses, 
using the camel as beast of burden or their ``mount'' in 
war.  They live chiefly on milk and durra, the latter 
eaten either raw or roasted.  They are very superstitious, 
believing, for example, that evil would overtake a family 
if a girl member should, after her marriage, ever set eyes 
on her mother: hence the Ababda husband has to make his 
home far from his wife's village.  In the Mahdist troubles 
(1882-1898) many ``friendlies'' were recruited from the tribe. 

For their earlier history see BEJA; see also BISHARIN, 
HADENDOA, KABBABish; and the following authorities:---Sir 
F. R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (Lond. 
1891); Giuseppe Sergi, Africa: Antropologia della Stirpe 
Camitica (Turin, 1897); A. H. Keane, Ethnology of Egyptian 
Sudan (Lond. 1884); Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by 
Count Gleichen (Lond. 1905); Joseph von Russegger, Die 
Reisen in Afrika (Stuttgart, 1841-1850). (T. A. J.) 

ABACA, or ABAKA, a native name for the plant Musa textilis, 
which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp (q.v.). . 

ABACUS (Gr. abax, a slab Fr. abaque, tailloir), in 
architecture, the upper member of the capital of a column.  
Its chief function is to provide a larger supporting surface 
for the architrave or arch it has to carry.  In the Greek Doric 
order the abacus is a plain square slab.  In the Roman and 
Renaissance Doric orders it is crowned by a moulding.  In the 
Archaic-Greek Ionic order, owing to the greater width of the 
capital, the abacus is rectangular in plan, and consists of a 
carved ovolo moulding.  In later examples the abacus is square, 
except where there are angle volutes, when it is slightly 
curved over the same.  In the Roman and Renaissance Ionic 
capital, the abacus is square with a fillet On the top of an 
ogee moulding, but curved over angle volutes.  In the Greek 
Corinthian order the abacus is moulded, its sides are concave 
and its angles canted (except in one or two exceptional Greek 
capitals, where it is brought to a sharp angle); and the same 
shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and 
Composite capitals, in some cases with the ovolo moulding 
carved.  In Romanesque architecture the abacus is square with 
the lower edge splayed off and moulded or carved, and the 
same was retained in France during the medieval period; but 
in England,in Early English work, a circular deeply moulded 
abacus was introduced, which in the 14th and 15th centuries 
was transformed into an octagonal one.  The diminutive of 
Abacus, ABACISCUS, is applied in architecture to the chequers 
or squares of a tessellated pavement . ``Abacus'' is also the 
name of an instrument employed by the ancients for arithmetical 
calculations; pebbles, hits of bone or coins being used as 
counters.  Fig. 1 shows a Roman abacus taken from an ancient 
monument.  It contains seven long and seven shorter rods 
or bars, the former having four perforated beads running 
on them and the latter one.  The bar marked 1 indicates 
units, X tens, and so on up to millions.  The beads on the 
shorter bars denote fives,--five units, five tens, &c. The 
rod O and corresponding short rod are for marking ounces; 
and the short quarter rods for fractions of an ounce. 

The Swan-Pan of the Chinese (fig. 2) closely resembles 
the Roman abacus in its construction and use.  Computations 
are made with it by means of balls of bone or ivory running 
on slender bamboo rods, similar to the simpler board, 
fitted up with beads strung on wires, which is employed in 
teaching the rudiments of arithmetic in English schools. 

FIG. 2.--Chinese Swan-Pan.  The name of ``abacus'' is also 
given, in logic, to an instrument, often called the ``logical 
machine,'' analogous to the mathematical abacus.  It is 
constructed to show all the possible combinations of a set of 
logical terms with their negatives, and, further, the way in which 
these combinations are affected by the addition of attributes 
or other limiting words, i.e. to simplify mechanically the 
solution of logical problems.  These instruments are all more 
or less elaborate developments of the ``logical slate,'' on 
which were written in vertical columns all the combinations 
of symbols or letters which could be made logically out of a 
definite number of terms.  These were compared with any given 
premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed 
off.  In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a 
single slip of wood or similar substance, which is moved by a 
key; incompatible combinations can thus be mechanically removed 
at will, in accordance with any given series of premises.  
The principal examples of such machines are those of W. S. 
Jevons (Element.  Lessons in Logic, C. xxiii.), John Venn 
(see his Symbolic Logic, 2nd ed., 1894, p. 135), and Allan 
Marquand (see American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1885, pp. 
303-7, and Johns Hopkins University Studies in Logic, 1883). 

ABADDON, a Hebrew word meaning ``destruction.'' In poetry 
it comes to mean ``place of destruction,'' and so the 
underworld or Sheol (cf. Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11). In Rev. 
ix. 11 Abaddon ((Abaddon) is used of hell personified, 
the prince of the underworld.  The term is here explained 
as Apollyon (q.v.), the ``destroyer.', W. Baudissin 
(Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklo padie) notes that Hades and 
Abaddon in Rabbinic writings are employed as personal names, 
just as shemayya in Dan. iv. 23, shamayim (``heaven''), 
and makom (``place'') among the Rabbins, are used of God. 

ABADEH, a small walled town of Persia, in the province of 
Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft. in a fertile 
plain on the high road between Isfahan and Shiraz, 140 m. 
from the former and 170 m. from the latter place.  Pop. 
4000.  It is the chief place of the Abadeh-Iklid district, 
which has 30 villages; it has telegraph and post offices, 
and is famed for its carved wood-work, small boxes, trays, 
sherbet spoons, &c., made of the wood of pear and box trees. 

ABAE (rabai), a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in 
Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, 
one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. i. 46). It was 
rich in treasures (Herod. viii. 33), but was sacked by the 
Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state.  The 
oracle was, however, still consulted, e.g. by the Thebans 
before Leuctra (Paus. iv. 32. 5). The temple seems to have 
been burnt again during the Sacred War, and was in a very 
dilapidated state when seen by Pausanias (x. 35), though 
some restoration, as well as the building of a new temple, 
was undertaken by Hadrian.  The sanctity of the shrine 
ensured certain privileges to the people of Abac (Bull.  
Corresp.  Hell. vi. 171), and these were confirmed by the 
Romans.  The polygonal wabs of the acropolis may still be 
seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill 
standing about 500 ft. above the little plain of Exarcho; 
one gateway remains, and there are also traces of town walls 
below.  The temple site was on a low spur of the hill, below the 
town.  An early terrace wall supports a precinct in which are 
a stoa and some remains of temples; these were excavated by the 
British School at Athens in 1894, but very little was found. 

See also W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, ii. p. 163i Journal 
of Hellenic Studies, xvi. pp. 291-312 (V. W. Yorke). . (E. GR.) 

ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian 
government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m.  S.S.W. 
of Krasnoyarsk, in lat. 54 deg. 20' N., long. 91 deg. 40' E. This is 
considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and 
is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues 
of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics.  
Peter the Great had a fort built here in 1707.  Pop. 2000. 

ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various 
species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a 
richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl.  This sort 
of Haliotis is also commonly called ``ear-shell,'' and in 
Guernsey ``ormer'' (Fr. ormier, for oreille de mer). 
The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and 
other places on the southern Californian coast, and when 
polished makes a beautiful ornament.  The mollusc itself is 
often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan. 

ABANA (or AMANAH, classical Chrysorrhoas) and PHARPAR, 
the ``rivers of Damascus'' (2 Kings v. 12), now generally 
identified with the Barada (i.e. ``cold'') and the A`waj 
(i.e. ``crooked'') respectively, though if the reference 
to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic 
version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern 
Taura.  Both streams run from west to east across the plain of 
Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose 
themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the 
borders of the great Arabian desert.  John M'Gregor, who gives 
an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the 
Jordan, affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, 
the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana 
and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as 
one of the most complete and extensive in the world.  As the 
Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge, 
its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or ``rivers'', the 
name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana. 

ABANCOURT, CHARLES XAVIER JOSEPH DE FRANQUE VILLE D', 
(1758-1792), French statesman, and nephew of Calonne.  He was 
Louis XVI.'s last minister of war (July 1792), and organized 
the defence of the Tuileries for the 10th of August.  Commanded 
by the Legislative Assembly to send away the Swiss guards, he 
refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent 
to Orleans to be tried.  At the end of August the Assembly 
ordered Abancourt and the other prisoners at Orleans to 
be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude 
Fournier, ``the American.'' At Versailles they learned of the 
massacres at Paris, and Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners 
were murdered in cold blood on the 8th of September 1792.  
Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime. 

ABANDONMENT (Fr. abandonnement, from abandonner, to 
abandon, relinquish; abandonner was originally equivalent 
to mettrea bandon, to leave to the jurisdiction, i.e. of 
another, bandon being from Low Latin bandum, bannum, order, 
decree, ``ban''), in law, the relinquishment of an interest, 
claim, privilege or possession.  Its signification varies 
according to the branch of the law in which it is employed, 
but the more important uses of the word are summarized below. 

ABANDONMENT OF AN ACTION is the discontinuance of proceedings 
commenced in the High Court of Justice either because the 
plaintiff is convinced that he will not succeed in his action 
or for other reasons.  Previous to the Judicature Act of 1875, 
considerable latitude was allowed as to the time when a suitor 
might abandon his action, and yet preserve his right to bring 
another action on the same suit (see NONSUIT); but since 1875 
this right has been considerably curtailed, and a plaintiff who 
has deilvered his reply (see PLEADING), and afterwards wishes 
to abandon his action, can generally obtain leave so to do only 
on condition of bringing no further proceedings in the matter. 

ABANDONMENT IN MARINE INSURANCE is the surrender of the ship 
or goods insured to the insurers, in the case of a constructive 
total loss of the thing insured.  For the requisites and 
effects of abandonment in this sense See INSURANCE, MARINE. 

ABANDONMENT OF WIFE AND CHILDREN is dealt with under 
DESERTION, and the abandonment or exposure of a 
young child under the age of two, which is an indictable 
misdemeanour, is dealt with under CHILDREN, CRUELTY TO. 

ABANDONMENT OF DOMICILE is the ceasing to reside permanently 
in a former domicile coupled with the intention of choosing a new 
domicile.  The presumptions which will guide the court in deciding 
whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be 
inferred from the facts of each individual case.  See DOMICILE. 

ABANDONMENT OF AN EASEMENT is the relinquishment of some 
accommodation or right in another's land, such as right of 
way, free access of light and air, &c. See EASEMENT. 

ABANDONMENT OF RAILWAYS has a legal signification in England 
recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of 
Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a 
railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it. 

ABANO, PIETRO D, (1250-1316), known also as PETRUS DE 
APONO or APONENSIS, Italian physician and philosopher, 
was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name 
in 1250, or, according to others, in 1246.  After studying 
medicine and philosophy at Paris he settled at Padua, where 
he speedily gained a great reputation as a physician, and 
availed himself of it to gratify his avarice by refusing 
to visit patients except for an exorbitant fee.  Perhaps 
this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to 
be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations 
being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the 
devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the 
philosopher's stone.  He was twice brought to trial by the 
Inquisition; on the first occasion he was acquitted, and he 
died (1316) before the second trial was completed.  He was 
found guilty, however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed 
and burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the 
Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public 
proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in 
effigy.  In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical 
and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian 
writers.  His best known works are the Conciliator differentiarum 
quae inter philosophos et medicos versantur (Mantua, 1472; 
V.enice, 1476), and De venenis eorumque remediis (1472), 
of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593. 

ABANO BAGNI, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of 
Padua, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei; it is 6 m.  S.W. 
by rail from Padua.  Pop. (1901) 4556.  Its hot springs and 
mud baths are much resorted to, and were known to the Ronlans 
as Aponi fons or Aquae Patavinae. Some remains of the 
ancient baths have been discovered (S. Mandruzzato, Trattato 
dei Bagni d' Abano, Padua, 1789).  An oracle of Geryon lay 
near, and the so-called sortes Praenestinae (C.I.L. i., 
Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and 
used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century. 

ABARIS, a Scythian or Hyperborean, priest and prophet 
of Apollo, who is said to have visited Greece about 770 
B.C., or two or three centuries later.  According to 
the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living 
without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of 
the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked 
miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod. iv. 36; 
Iamblichus, De Fit. Pythag. xix. 28). Suidas credits him 
with several works: Scythian oracles, the visit of Apollo to 
the Hyperboreans, expiatory formulas and a prose theogony. 

ABATED, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and 
metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the 
surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round 
the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief. 

ABATEMENT (derived through the French abattre, from the 
Late Latin battere, to beat), a beating down or diminishing or 
doing away with; a term used especially in various legal phrases. 

ABATEMENT OF A NUISANCE is the remedy allowed by law to 
a person or public authority injured by a public nuisance 
of destroying or removing it, provided no breach of the 
peace is committed in doing so.  In the case of private 
nuisances abatement is also allowed provided there be no 
breach of the peace, and no damage be occasioned beyond 
what the removal of the nuisance requires. (See NUISANCE.) 

ABATEMENT OF FREEHOLD takes place where, after the death of 
the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands before 
the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter out of 
possession.  It differs from intrusion, which is a similar 
entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for life, to 
the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man; and from 
disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent expulsion 
of a person seised of the freehold. (See FREEHOLD.) 

ABATEMENT OE DEBTS AND LEGACIES. When the equitable assets 
(see ASSETS) of a deceased person are not sufficient to 
satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate 
proportionately, and they must accept a dividend.  Also, in 
the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which 
they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the 
legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given 
specially to any particular legacy (see LEGACY). Annuities 
are also subject to the same rule as general legacies. 


ABATEMENT IN PLEADING, or plea in abatement, was the 
defeating or quashing of a particular action by some matter of 
fact, such as a defect in form or the personal incompetency 
of the parties suing, pleaded by the defendant.  It did not 
involve the merits of the cause, but left the right of action 
subsisting.  In criminal proceedings a plea in abatement was at 
one time a common practice in answer to an indictment, and was 
set up for the purpose of defeating the indictment as framed, 
by alleging misnomer or other misdescription of the defendant.  
Its effect for this purpose was nullified by the Criminal Law 
Act 1826, which required the court to amend according to the 
truth, and the Criminal Procedure Act 1851, which rendered 
description of the defendant unnecessary.  All pleas in abatement 
are now abolished (R.S.G.  Order 21, r. 20). See PLEADING. 

ABATEMENT IN LITIGATION. In civil proceedings, no action 
abates by reason of the marriage, death or bankruptcy of any 
of the parties, if the cause of action survives or continues, 
and does not become defective by the assignment, creation or 
devolution of any estate or title pendente lite (R.S.C. Order 
17, r. 1). Criminal proceedings do not abate on the death of 
the prosecutor, being in theory instituted by the crown, but 
the crown itself may bring about their termination without any 
decision on the merits and without the assent of the prosecutor. 

ABATEMENT OF FALSE LIGHTS. By the Merchant Shipping Act 
1854, the general lighthouse authority (see LIGHTHOUSE) has 
power to order the extinguishment or screening of any light 
which may be mistaken for a light proceeding from a lighthouse. 

ABATEMENT IN COMMERCE is a deduction sometimes made at a 
custom-house from the fixed duties on certain kinds of goods, on 
account of damage or loss sustained in warehouses.  The rate and 
conditions of such deductions are regulated, in England, by the 
Customs Consolidation Act 1853. (See also DRAWBACK; REBATE.) 

ABATEMENT IN HERALDRY is a badge in coat-armour, indicating some 
kind of degradation or dishonour.  It is called also rebatement. 

ABATI, or DELL' ABBATO, NICCOLO (1512--1571), a celebrated 
fresco-painter of Modena, whose best works are there and at 
Bologna.  He accompanied Primaticcio to France, and assisted 
in decorating the palace at Fontainebleau (1552--1571).  His 
pictures exhibit a combination of skill in drawing, grace 
and natural colouring.  Some of his easel pieces in oil are 
in different collections; one of the finest, in the Dresden 
Gallery, represents the martyrdom of St Peter and St Paul. 

ABATIS,ABATTIS or ABBATTIS (a French word meaning 
a heap of material thrown), a term in field fortification 
for an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid 
in a row, with the tops directed towards the enemy and 
interlaced or tied with wire.  The abatis is used alone or 
in combination with wire-entanglements and other obstacles. 

ABATTOIR (from abattre, to strike down), a French word often 
employed in English as an equivalent of ``slaughter-house'' 
(q.v.), the place where animals intended for food are killed. 

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN (1679-1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of 
Protestant parents at Uzes, in Languedoc.  His father died when 
he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him 
educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his 
escape.  For two years his brother and he lived as fugitives in 
the mountains of the Cevennes, but they at last reached Geneva, 
where their mother afterwards joined them on escaping from 
the imprisonment in which she was held from the time of their 
flight.  Abauzit at an early age acquired great proficiency in 
languages, physics and theology.  In 1698 he went to Holland, 
and there became acquainted with Pierre Bayle, P. Jurieu and J. 
Basnage.  Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac 
Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders of his 
discoveries.  Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of 
his Principia an error pointed out by Abauzit, and, when 
sending him the Commercium Epistolicum, said, ``You are 
well worthy to judge between Leibnitz and me.'' The reputation 
of Abauzit induced William III. to request him to settle in 
England, but he did not accept the king's offer, preferring 
to return to Geneva.  There from 1715 he rendered valuable 
assistance to a society that had been formed for translating 
the New Testament into French.  He declined the offer of 
the chair of philosophy in the university in 1723, but 
accepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the 
city of his adoption.  Here he died at a good old age, in 
1767.  Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful 
versatility.  Whatever chanced to be discussed,it used to be 
said of Abauzit, as of Professor W. Whewell of more modern 
times, that he seemed to have made it a subject of particular 
study.  Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises, 
addressed to him, in his Nouvelle Heloise, a fine panegyric; 
and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come 
to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen 
Abauzit.  Little remains of the labours of this intellectual 
giant, his heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers 
that came into their possession, because their own religious 
opinions were different.  A few theological, archaeological 
abd astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the 
Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed 
several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique 
(1767).  He wrote a work throwing doubt on the canonical 
authority of the Apocalypse, which called forth a reply 
from Dr Leonard Twells.  He also edited and made valuable 
additions to J. Spon's Histoire de la republique de Geneve. 
A collection of his writings was published at Geneva in 
1770 (OEuvres de feu M. Abauzit), and another at London 
in 1773 (OEuvres diverses de M. Abauzit). Some of them 
were translated into English by Dr Edward Harwood (1774). 

Information regarding Abauzit will be found in J. 
Senebier's HIstoire Litteraire de Geneve, Harwood's 
Miscellanies, and W. Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica (1824). 

'ABAYE, the name of a Babylonian 'amora (q.v.), 
born in the middle of the 3rd century.  He died in 339. 

'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of thc Babylonian 'amora (q.v.) of 
the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study 
of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led 
to the compilation of the Talmud.  He is commonly known as Rab. 

ABBADIDES, a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the 
downfall of the western caliphate.  It lasted from about 1023 
till 1091, but during the short period of its existence was 
singularly active and typical of its time.  The founder of 
the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in 
1023.  He was the chief of an Arab family settled in the city 
from the first days of the conquest.  The Beni-abbad were not 
of ancient descent, though the poets, whom they paid largely, 
made an illustrious pedigree for them when they had become 
powerful.  They were, however, very rich.  Abd-ul-Qasim gained 
the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful 
resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping 
at the fragments of the caliphate.  At first he professed to 
rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles, 
but when his power became established he dispensed with this 
show of republican government, and then gave himself the 
appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor 
who professed to be the caliph Hisham II. When Abd-ul-Qasim 
died in 1042 he had created a state which, though weak in 
itself, was strong as compared to the little powers about 
it.  He had made his family the recognized leaders of the 
Mahommedans of Arab and native Spanish descent against 
the Berber element, whose chief was the king of Granada.  
Abbad, surnamed El Motaddid, his son and successor, is 
one of the most remarkable figures in Spanish Mahommedan 
history.  He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes 
of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the 
stamp of Fiiipo Maria Visconti.  El Motaddid was a poet and 
a lover of letters, who was also a poisoner, a drinker of 
wine, a sceptic and treacherous to the utmost degree.  Though 
he waged war all through his reign he very rarely appeared in 
the field, but directed the generals, whom he never trusted, 
from his ``lair'' in the fortified palace, the Alcazar of 
Seville.  He killed with his own hand one of his sons who had 
rebelled against him.  On one occasion he trapped a number 
of his enemies, the Berber chiefs of the Ronda, into visiting 
him, and got rid of them by smothering them in the hot room 
of a bath.  It was his taste to preserve the skulls of the 
enemies he had killed--those of the meaner men to be used as 
flower-pots, while those of the princes were kept in special 
chests.  His reign until his death on the 28th of February 
1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense 
of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief 
rival the king of Granada.  These incessant wars weakened the 
Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of 
the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the 
kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little 
states.  After 1063 he was assailed by Fernando El Magno of 
Castile and Leon, who marched to the gates of Seville, and 
forced him to pay tribute.  His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim 
Abenebet---who reigned by the title of El Motamid--was the 
third and last of the Abbadides, He was a no less remarkable 
person than his father and much more amiable.  Like him he was 
a poet, and a favourer of poets.  El Motamid went, however, 
considerably further in patronage of literature than his father, 
for he chose as his favourite and prime minister the poet Ibn 
Ammar.  In the end the vanity and featherheadedness of Ibn 
Ammar drove his master to kill him.  El Motamid was even 
more influenced by his favourite wife, Romaica, than by his 
vizir.  He had met her paddling in the Guadalquivir, purchased 
her from her master, and made her his wife.  The caprices 
of Romaica, and the lavish extravagance of Motamid in his 
efforts to please her, form the subject of many stories.  
In politics he carried on the feuds of his family with the 
Berbers, and in his efforts to extend his dominions could be 
as faithless as his father.  His wars and his extravagance 
exhausted his treasury, and he oppressed his subjects by 
taxes.  In 1080 he brought down upon himself the vengeance of 
Alphonso VI. of Castile by a typical piece of flighty oriental 
barbarity.  He had endeavoured to pay part of his tribute to the 
Christian king with false money.  The fraud was detected by a 
Jew, who was one of the envoys of Alphonso.  El Motamid, in 
a moment of folly and rage, crucified the Jew and imprisoned 
the Christian members of the mission.  Alphonso retaliated 
by a destructive raid.  When Alphonso took Toledo in 1085, 
El Motamid called in Yusef ibn Tashfin, the Almoravide (see 
SPAIN, History, and ALMORAVIDES). During the six years 
which preceded his deposition in 1091, El Motamid behaved 
with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political 
folly.  He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusef by betraying 
the other Mahommedan princes to him, and intrigued to secure 
the alliance of Alphonso against the Almoravide.  It was 
probably during this period that he surrendered his beautiful 
daughter Zaida to the Christian king, who made her his 
concubine, and is said by some authorities to have married 
her after she bore him a son, Sancho.  The vacillations and 
submissions of El Motamid did not save him from the fate 
which overtook his fellow-princes.  Their scepticism and 
extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullahs gave Yusef 
a ``fetva'' authorzing him to remove them in the interest of 
religion.  In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville.  El 
Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his 
sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order 
to save his own life.  He died in prison in Africa in 1095. 

AUTHORITIES.--Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, 
Leiden, 1861; and Historia Abbadidarum (Scriptorum 
Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. II.) 

ABBADIE, ANTOINE THOMSON D', (1810-1897), and ARNAUD MICHEL 
D', (1815-1893), two brothers notable for their travels in 
Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century.  They 
were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish 
mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815.  The parents 
removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received 
a careful scientific education.  In 1835 the French Academy 
sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results 
being published at a later date (1873) under the title of 
Observations relatives a! la physique du globe faites au 
Bresil et en Ethiopie. The younger Abbadie spent some 
time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for 
Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838.  They visited 
various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known 
districts of Ennarea and Kaffa, sometimes together and 
sometimes separately.  They met with many difficulties and 
many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues, 
Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed 
in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries.  After 
collecting much valuable information concerning the geography, 
geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the 
brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their 
materials for publication.  The younger brother, Arnaud, paid 
another visit to Abyssinia in 1853.  The more distinguished 
brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies 
relating both to his geographical results and his political 
intrigues.  He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who 
impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to 
Kana.  But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers 
have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts, 
though wrong in his contention--hotly contested by Beke--that 
the Blue Nile was the main stream.  The topographical results 
of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860-1873 in 
Geodesie d'Ethiopie, full of the most valuable information and 
illustrated by ten maps.  Of the Geographie de l'Ethiopie 
(Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published.  In Un 
Catalogue raisonne de manuscrits ethiopiens (Paris, 1859) 
is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by 
Antoine.  He also compiled various vocabularies, including 
a Dictionnaire de la langue amarinna (Paris, 1881), and 
prepared an edition of the Shepherd of Hermas, with the 
Latin version, in 1860.  He published numerous papers dealing 
with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient 
inscriptions.  Under the title of Reconnaissances magnetiques 
he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations 
made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red 
Sea and the Levant.  The general account of the travels of 
the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the 
title of Douze ans dans la Haute Ethiopie. Both brothers 
received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 
1850.  Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a 
member of the Academy of Sciences.  He died in 1897, and 
bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs 
a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its 
producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million 
stars.  His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.) 

ABBADIE, JAKOB (1654?-1727), Swiss Protestant divine, 
was born at Nay in Bern.  He studied at Sedan, Saumur and 
Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of 
doctor in theology at the age of seventeen.  After spending 
some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church, 
where he had great success as a preacher, he accompanied 
Marshal Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became 
minister of the French church in the Savoy, London.  His 
strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in 
his elaborate defence of the Revolution (Defense de la 
nation britannique, 1692) as well as in his history of the 
conspiracy of 1696 (Histoire de la grande conspiration 
d'Angleterre). The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe 
in Ireland.  He died in London in 1727.  Abbadie was a man 
of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known 
by his religious treatises, several of which were translated 
from the original French into other languages and had a wide 
circulation throughout Europe.  The most important of these are 
Traite de la verite de la religion chretienne (1684); its 
continuation, Traite de la divinite de Jesus-Christ 
(1689); and L'Art de se connaitre soi-meme (1692). 

'ABBAHU, the name of a Palestinian 'amora (q.v.) 
who flourished c. 279-320. 'Abbahu encouraged the 
study of Greek by Jews.  He was famous as a collector of 
traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud. 

ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses benJoseph), French 
rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of 
the 13th century.  He is also known as Yarhi from his birthplace 
(Heb.  Yerah, i.e. moon, lune), and he further took the 
name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel.  The descendant 
of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself 
to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself 
acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides 
as well as with the Talmud.  In Montpellier, where he lived 
from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence 
of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of 
the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old 
Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and 
revelation.  He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards 
collected under the title Minhat Kenaot, i.e. ``Jealousy 
Offering'') called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret 
of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy.  Ben Adret, 
with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a 
letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the 
study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years 
of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal 
section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 
1305.  The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain 
and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study 
of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish 
rabbis.  On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Philip 
IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he 
published the letters connected with the controversy.  His 
subsequent history is unknown.  Beside the letters, he was 
the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law. 

AUTHORITIES.--Edition of the Minhat Kenaot by M. L. 
Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, Les rabbins francais, 
pp. 647 foll.; Perles, Salomo ben Abrahann ben Adereth, 
pp. 15-54; Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v. ``Abba Mari.'' 

ABBAS I. (1813-1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun 
Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning 
dynasty.  As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha 
(q.v.), his real or supposed uncle.  The death of Ibrahim 
in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August 
following, on the death of Mehemet Alh--who had been deposed 
in July 1848 on account of mental weakness,--Abbas succeeded 
to the pashalik.  He has been generally described as a mere 
voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish 
gentleman of the old school.  He was without question a 
reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his 
time shut up in his palace.  He undid, as far as lay in his 
power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad.  Among 
other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories 
and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 
men.  He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering 
Egypt, but at the instance of the British government 
allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to 
Cairo.  In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two 
of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha. 

ABBAS II. (1874-- ), khedive of Egypt.  Abbas Hilmi Pasha, 
great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of 
July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive 
of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892.  When a boy he visited 
England, and he had an English tutor for some time in 
Cairo.  He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there 
passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna.  In addition to 
Turkish, his mother tongue, he acquired fluency in Arabic, 
and a good conversational knowledge of English, French and 
German.  He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden 
death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was 
barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority 
at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne.  For 
some time he did not co-operate very cordially with Great 
Britain.  He was young and eager to exercise his new 
power.  His throne and life had not been saved for him by the 
British, as was the case with his father.  He was surrounded 
by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for 
some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary 
as his great-uncle Abbas I. But in process of time he learnt 
to understand the importance of British counsels.  He paid 
a second visit to England in 1900, during which he frankly 
acknowledged the great good the British had done in Egypt, 
and declared himself ready to follow their advice and to 
co-operate with the British officials administering Egyptian 
affairs.  The establishment of a sound system of native 
justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest 
of the Sudan, the inauguration of the stupendous irrigation 
works at Assuan, the increase of cheap, sound education, 
each received his approval and all the assistance he could 
give.  He displayed more interest in agriculture than in 
statecraft, and his farm of cattle and horses at Koubah, 
near Cairo, would have done credit to any agricultural 
show in England; at Montaza, near Alexandria, he created 
a similar establishment.  He married the Princess Ikbal 
Hanem and had several children.  Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, 
the heir-apparent, was born on the 20th of February 1899. 

ABBAS I. (e. 1557-1628 or 1629), shah of Persia, called 
the Great, was the son of shah Mahommed (d. 1586) . In the 
midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of 
Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in 
1586.  Determined to raise the fallen fortunes of his country, 
he first directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbegs, 
who occupied and harassed Khorasan.  After a long and severe 
struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle 
near Herat in 1597, and drove them out of his dominions.  In 
the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole 
of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, 
or regained, a large extent of territory.  By the victory he 
gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the 
Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I. was forced to cede Shirvan and 
Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars 
were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas 
made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing 
the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 
1623.  In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, 
by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was 
diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the 
shah.  When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris 
to the Indus.  Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his 
successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and 
of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in 
the administration of his kingdom.  He encouraged commerce, 
and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much 
to facilitate it.  To foreigners, especially Christians, he 
showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony 
and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his 
confidence.  His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds 
of tyranny and cruelty.  His own family, especially, suffered 
from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and 
the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders. 

See The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir 
Robert Sherley, &c. (London, 1823); Sir C. R. Markham, 
General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, 1874). 

ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, 
the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan 
empire.  The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim 
to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D. 566-652), 
the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they 
regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as 
opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya.  Throughout 
the second period of the Omayyads, representatives of this 
family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by 
the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the 
reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, 
their moral character and their administration in general, 
and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine 
jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the 
empire.  In the reign of Merwan II. this opposition culminated 
in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent 
from Abbas, who, supported hy the province of Khorasan, achieved 
considerable successes, but was captured (A.D. 747) and died 
in prison (as some hold, assassinated).  The quarrel was taken 
up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu'l-Abbas 
as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab 
(750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph. 

The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual 
strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, 
in place of the old-fashioned austerity of thought and 
manners.  Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred 
the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against 
the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid 
(786--809) and Mamun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary 
splendour.  But the empire as a whole stagnated and then decayed 
rapidly.  Independent monarchs established themselves in 
Africa and Khorasan (Spain had remained Omayyad throughout), 
and in the north-west the Greeks successfully encroached.  
The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish 
slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim 
(833-842).  Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was 
constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed 
b.  Raik.  Province after province renounced the authority 
of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally 
Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb. 28th, 1258).  
The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, 
confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, 
but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who 
was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I. 

See CALIPHATE (Sections B, 14 and C), where a 
detailed account of the dynasty will be found. 

ABBAS MIRZA (c. 1783-1833), prince of Persia, was a 
younger son of the shah, Feth Ali, but on account of his 
mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed 
him.  Entrusted with the government of a part of Persia, he 
sought to rule it in European fashion, and employed officers 
to reorganize his army.  He was soon at war with Russia, and 
his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, 
anxious to checkmate one another in the East.  Preferring 
the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against 
Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance, 
and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous 
peace.  He gained some successes during a war between Turkey 
and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his 
army, and a treaty was signed in 1823.  His second war with 
Russia, which began in 1825, was attended with the same want of 
success as the former one, and Persia was forced to cede some 
territory.  When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought 
to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was 
nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the 
task died at Meshed in 1833.  In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed 
Mirza, succeeded Feth Ali as shah.  Abbas was an intelligent 
prince, possessed some literary taste, and it noteworthy 
on account of the comparative simplicity of his life. 

ABBAS-TUMAN, a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of 
Tiflis, 50 m.  S.W. of the Borzhom railway station and 65 
m.  E. of Batum, very picturesquely situated in a cauldron-shaped 
valley.  It has hot sulphur baths (93 1/2 deg. -118 1/2 deg.  
Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.). 

ABBAZIA, a popular summer and winter resort of Austria, in 
Istria, 56 m.  S.E. of Trieste by rail.  Pop. (1900) 2343.  It 
is situated on the Gulf of Quarnero in a sheltered position at 
the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4580 ft.), and is surrounded 
by beautiiul woods of laurel.  The average temperature is 50 deg.  
Fahr. in winter, and 77 deg.  Fahr. in summer.  The old abbey, 
San Giacomo della Priluca, from which the place derives its 
name, has been converted into a villa.  Abbazia is frequented 
annually by about 16,000 visitors.  The whole sea-coast to 
the north and south of Abbazia is rocky and picturesque, 
and contains several smaller winter-resorts.  The largest 
of them is Lovrana (pop. 513), situated 5 m. to the south. 

ABBESS (Lat. abbatissa, fem. form of abbas, abbot), 
the female superior of an abbey or convent of nuns.  The 
mode of election, position, rights and authority of an abbess 
correspond generally with those of an abbot (q.v.). The 
office is elective, the choice being by the secret votes of the 
sisters from their own body.  The abbess is solemnly admitted 
to her office by episcopal benediction, together with the 
conferring of a staff and pectoral cross, and holds for life, 
though liable to be deprived for misconduct.  The council of 
Trent fixed the qualifying age at forty, with eight years of 
profession.  Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience 
of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending 
even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the 
bishop.  As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the 
spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot.  
She cannot ordain, confer the veil, nor excommunicate.  In 
England abbesses attended ecclesiastical councils, e.g. that 
of Becanfield in 694, where they signed before the presbyters. 

By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and 
nuns.  This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France 
and Spain, and even to Rome itself.  At a later period, A.D. 
1115, Robert, the founder of Fontevraud, committed the government 
of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior. 

In the German Evangelical church the title of abbess (Aebtissin) 
has in some cases--e.g. Itzehoe--survived to designate the 
heads of abbeys which since the Reformation have continued as 
Stifte, i.e. collegiate foundations, which provide a home 
and an income for unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth, 
called canonesses (Kanonissinen) or more usually Stiftsdamen. 
This office of abbess is of considerable social dignity, and 
is sometimes filled by princesses of the reigning houses. 

ABBEVILLE, a town of northern France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 
m. from its mouth in the English Channel, and 28 m.  N,W. of 
Amiens on the Northern railway.  Pop. (1901) 18,519; (1906) 
18,971.  It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, and is 
built partly on an island and partly on both sides of the 
river, which is canalized from this point to the estuary.  The 
streets are narrow, and the houses are mostly picturesque old 
structures, built of wood, with many quaint gables and dark 
archways.  The most remarkable building is the church of St 
Vulfran, erected in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.  The 
original design was not completed.  The nave has only two bays 
and the choir is insignificant.  The facade is a magnificent 
specimen of the flamboyant Gothic style, flanked by two Gothic 
towers.  Abbeville has several other old churches and an 
hotel-de-ville, with a belfry of the 13th century.  Among 
the numerous old houses, that known as the Maison de Francois 
Ie, which is the most remarkable, dates from the 16th century.  
There is a statue of Admiral Courbet (d. 1885) in the chief 
square.  The public institutions include tribunals of first instance 
and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, and a communal 
college.  Abbeville is an important industrial centre; in addition 
to its old-established manufacture of cloth, hemp-spinning, 
sugar-making, ship-building and locksmiths' work are carried on; 
there is active commerce in grain, but the port has little trade. 

Abbeville, the chief town of the district of Ponthieu, first 
appears in history during the 9th century.  At that time 
belonging to the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards 
governed by the counts of Ponthieu.  Together with that county, 
it came into the possession of the Alencon and other French 
families, and afterwards into that of the house of Castillo, 
from whom by marriage it fell in 1272 to Edward I., king of 
England.  French and English were its masters by turns till 
1435 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the duke of 
Burgundy.  In 1477 it was annexed by Louis XI., king of France, 
and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in 
the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown. 

ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (1852- ), American painter, was born at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of April 1852.  He left 
the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at the 
age of nineteen to enter the art department of the publishing 
house of Harper & Brothers in New York, where, in company 
with such men as Howard Pyle, Charles Stanley Reinhart, Joseph 
Pennell and Alfred Parsons, he became very successful as an 
illustrator.  In 1878 he was sent by the Harpers to England 
to gather material for illustrations of the poems of Robert 
Herrick.  These, published in 1882, attracted much attention, 
and were followed by illustrations for Goldsmith's She 
Stoops to Conquer (1887), for a volume of Old Songs 
(1889), and for the comedies (and a few of the tragedies) of 
Shakespeare.  His water-colours and pastels were no less 
successful than the earlier illustrations in pen and ink.  
Abbey now became closely identified with the art life of 
England, and was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters 
in Water-Colours in 1883.  Among his water-colours are ``The 
Evil Eye'' (1877); ``The Rose in October'' (1879); ``An Old 
Song'' (1886); ``The Visitors'' (1890), and ``The Jongleur'' 
(1892).  Possibly his best known pastels are ``Beatrice,'' 
``Phyllis,'' and ``Two Noble Kinsmen.'' In 1890 he made his 
first appearance with an oil painting, ``A May Day Morn,'' at 
the Royal Academy in London.  He exhibited ``Richard duke of 
Gloucester and the Lady Anne'' at the Royal Academy in 1896, 
and in that year was elected A.R.A., becoming a full R.A. in 
1898.  Apart from his other paintings, special mention must 
be made of the large frescoes entitled ``The Quest of the Holy 
Grail,'' in the Boston Public Library, on which he was occupied 
for some years; and in 1901 he was commissioned by King Edward 
VII. to paint a picture of the coronation, containing many 
portraits elaborately grouped.  The dramatic subjects, and the 
brilliant colouring of his on pictures, gave them pronounced 
individuality among the works of contemporary painters.  
Abbey became a member not only of the Royal Academy, but also 
of the National Academy of Design of New York, and honorary 
member of the Royal Bavarian Society, the Societe Nationale 
des Beaux Arts (Paris), the American Water-Colour Society, 
etc.  He received first class gold medals at the International 
Art Exhibition of Vienna in 1898, at Philadelphia in 1898, 
at the Paris Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900, and at Berlin in 
1903; and was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour. 

ABBEY (Lat. abbatia; from Syr. abba, father), a 
monastery, or conventual establishment, under the government 
of an ABBOT or an ABBESS. A priory only differed from 
an abbey in that the superior bore the name of prior instead 
of abbot. This was the case in all the English conventual 
cathedrals, e.g. Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the 
archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior 
of the monastery being termed prior.  Other priories were 
originally offshoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots 
of which they continued subordinate; but in later times the 
actual distinction between abbeys and priories was lost. 

The earliest Christian monastic communities (see MONASTICISM) 
with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or 
huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode 
of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular 
asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement.  
The formation of such communities in the East does not date 
from the introduction of Christianity.  The example had been 
already set by the Essenes in Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt. 

In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics 
were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, 
at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves 
by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the 
surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the 
poor.  Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecution, 
drove them farther and farther away from the abodes of men 
into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts.  The deserts 
of Egypt swarmed with the ``cells'' or huts of these 
anchorites.  Anthony, who had retired to the Egyptian Thebaid 
during the persecution of Maximin, A.D. 312, was the most 
celebrated among them for his austerities, his sanctity, and 
his power as an exorcist.  His fame collected round him a 
host of followers, emulous of his sanctity.  The deeper he 
withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples 
became.  They refused to be separated from him, and built 
their ceils round that of their spiritual father.  Thus arose 
the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living 
each in his own little dwelling, united together under one 
superior.  Anthony, as Neander remarks (Church History, 
vol. iii. p. 316, Clark's trans.), ``without any conscious 
design of his own, had become the founder of a new mode 
of living in common, Coenobitism.'' By degrees order was 
introduced in the groups of huts.  They were arranged in 
lines like the tents in an encampment, or the houses in a 
street.  From this arrangement these lines of single cells 
came to be known as Laurae, Laurai, "streets" or "lanes." 

The real founder of coenobian koinos, common, and bios, 
life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian 
of the beginning of the 4th century.  The first community 
established by him was at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper 
Egypt.  Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 
monks.  Within fifty years from his death his societies could 
reckon 50,000 members.  These coenobia resembled vilIages, 
peopled by a hard-working religious community, ail of one 
sex.  The buildings were detached, small and of the humblest 
character.  Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H.R. iii. 
14), contained three monks.  They took their chief meal in a 
common refectory at 3 P.M., up to which hour they usually 
fasted.  They ate in silence, with hoods so drawn over their 
faces that they could see nothing but what was on the table 
before them.  The monks spent all the time, not devoted to 
religious services or study, in manual labour.  Palladius, 
who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the 
4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of 
Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 
carpenters, 12 cameldrivers and 15 tanners.  Each separate 
community had its own oeconomus or steward, who was subject 
to a chief oeconomus stationed at the head establishment.  
All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and 
by him shipped to Alexandria.  The money raised by the sale 
was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the 
communities, and what was over was devoted to charity.  Twice 
in the year the superiors of the several coenobia met at 
the chief monastery, under the presidency of an archimandrite 
(``the chief of the fold,'' from miandra, a fold), and at 
the last meeting gave in reports of their administration for the 
year.  The coenobia of Syria belonged to the Pachomian 
institution.  We learn many details concerning those in the 
vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings.  The monks 
lived in separate huts, kalbbia, forming a religious hamlet 
on the mountain side.  They were subject to an abbot, and 
observed a common rule. (They had no refectory, but ate their 
common meal, of bread and water only, when the day's labour 
was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors,) 
Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms. 

Santa Laura, Mount Athos. 

The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of 
space and convenience of access from one part of the community 
to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly 
arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium.  Large 
piles of building were erected, with strong outside walls, 
capable of resisting the assaults of an enemy, within which 
all the necessary edifices were ranged round one or more 
open courts, usually surrounded with cloisters.  The usual 
Eastern arrangement is exemplified in the plan of the convent 
of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Laura, the designation of a 
monastery generally, being converted into a female saint). 

This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is 
surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing 
an area of between 3 and 4 acres.  The longer side extends to 
a length of about 500 feet.  There is only one main entrance, 
on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron 
doors.  Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant 
feature in the monasteries of the Levant.  There is a small 
postern gate at L. The enceinte comprises two large open 
courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister 
galleries of wood or stone.  The outer court, which is much the 
larger, contains the granaries and storehouses (K), and the 
kitchen (H) and other offices connected with the refectory 
(G). Immediately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storied 
guest-house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is 
surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' cells 
(II).  In the centre of this court stands the catholicon 
or conventual church, a square building with an apse of 
the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed 
narthex.  In front of the church stands a marble fountain 
(F), covered by a dome supported on columns.  Opening from 
the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in 
the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform 
building, about 100 feet each way, decorated within with 
frescoes of saints.  At the upper end is a semicircular 
recess, recalling the triclinium of the Lateran Palace 

                                                  A. Gateway. 
                                                  B. Chapels.
                                                  C. Guest-house.
                                                  D. Church.
                                                  E. Cloister.
                                                  F. Fountain.
                                                  G. Refectory.
                                                  H. Kitchen.
                                                  I. Cells.
                                                  K. Storehouses.
                                                  L. Postern gate.
                                                  M. Tower.
FIG. 1.---Monastery of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Lenoir). 

at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the hegumenos or 
abbot.  This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the 
oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells. 

Vatopede 

St Laura is exceeded in magnitude by the convent of Vatopede 
also on Mount Athos.  This enormous establishment covers at 
least 4 acres of ground, and contains so many separate buildings 
within its massive walls that it resembles a fortified town.  It 
lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is 
described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince.  
The immense refectory, of the same cruciform shape as that of 
St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at its 24 marble tables. 

The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir, 
shows a church of three aisles, with cellular apses, and 
two ranges of cells on either side of an oblong gallery. 

Benedictine. 

Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development 
to Benedict of Nursia (born A.D. 480).  His rule was 
diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation 
on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and 
every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far 
exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and 
splendour.  Few great towns in Italy were without their 
Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great 
centres of population in England, France and Spain.  The number 
of these monasteries founded between A.D. 520 and 700 is 
amazing.  Before the Council of Constance, A.D. 1415, no 
fewer than 15,070 abbeys had been established of this order 
alone.  The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly 
arranged ofter one plan, modified where necessary (as at 
Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close to the 
steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local 
circumstances.  We have no existing examples of the earlier 
monasteries of the Benedictine order.  They have all yielded 
to the ravages of time and the violence of man.  But we 
have fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the 
great Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D. 820, 
which puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a 
monastery of the first class towards the early part of the 9th 
century.  This curious and interesting plan has been made 
the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, 1844) and by 
Professor Robert Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. v. pp. 
86-117.  To the latter we are indebted for the substance of 
the following description, as well as for the plan, reduced 
from his elucidated transcript of the original preserved 

 FIG. 2.---Plan of Coptic Monastery. 
A. Narthex. B. Church.
C. Corridor, with cells on each side.
D. Staircase.

in the archives of the convent.  The general apperance 
of the convent is that of a town of isolated houses with 
streets running between them.  It is evidently planned in 
compliance with the Benedictine rule, which enjoined that, 
if possible, the monastery should contain within itself 
every necessary of life, as well as the buildings more 
intimately connected with the religious and social life of its 
inmates.  It should comprise a mill, a bakehouse, stables 
and cow-houses, together with accommodation for carrying 
on all necessary mechanical arts within the walls, so as to 
obviate the necessity of the monks going outside its limits. 

The general distribution of the buildings may be thus 
described:-The church, with its cloister to the south, occupies 
the centre of a quadrangular area, about 430 feet square.  The 
buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into 
groups.  The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of the 
religious life of the community.  In closest connexion with 
the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the 
monastic line and its daily requirements---the refectory for 
eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social 
intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary 
conference.  These essential elements of monastic life 
are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded by a covered 
arcade, affording communication sheltered ftom the elements 
between the various buildings.  The infirmary for sick monks, 
with the physician's house and physic garden, lies to the 
east.  In the same group with the infirmary is the school for 
the novices.  The outer school, with its headmaster's house 
against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside the 
convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house, 
that he might have a constant eye over them.  The buildings 
devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups,--one 
for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks 
visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and 
pilgrims.  The first and third are placed to the right and 
left of the common entrance of the monastery,---the hospitium 
for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the 
church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor 
on the south side next to the farm buildings.  The monks are 
lodged in a guest-house built against the north wall of the 
church.  The group of buildings connected with the material 
wants of the establishment is placed to the south and west 
of the church, and is distinctly separated from the monastic 
buildings.  The kitchen, buttery and offices are reached by a 
passage from the west end of the refectory, and are connected 
with the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still farther 
away.  The whole of the southern and western sides is devoted to 
workshops, stables and farm-buildings.  The buildings, with some 
exceptions, seem to have been of one story only, and all but 
the church were probably erected of wood.  The whole includes 
thirty-three separate blocks.  The church (D) is cruciform, 
with a nave of nine bays, and a semicircular apse at either 
extremity.  That to the west is surrounded by a semicircular 
colonnade, leaving an open ``paradise'' (E) between it and 
the wall of the church.  The whole area is divided by screens 
into various chapels.  The high altar (A) stands immediately 
to the east of the transept, or ritual choir; the altar 
of St Paul (B) in the eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in 
the western apse.  A cylindrical campanile stands detached 
from the church on either side of the western apse (FF). 

The ``cloister court', (G) on the south side of the nave of the 

 FIG. 3.--Ground-plan of St 

 
  CHURCH.                          U. House for blood-letting.
  A. High altar.                   V. School.
  B. Altar of St Paul.             W. Schoolmaster's lodgings.
  C. Altar of St Peter.            X1X1. Guest-house for those
  D. Nave.                                  of superior rank
  E. Paradise.                     X2X2. Guest-house for the poor.
  FF. Towers.                      Y. Guest-chamber for strange monks.
  MONASTIC BUILDINGS 
  G. Cloister.                     MENIAL DEPARTMENT.
  H. Calefactory, with             Z. Factory.
     dormitory over.               a. Threshing-floor
  I. Necessary.                    b. Workshops.
  J. Abbot's house.                c, c. Mills.
  K. Refectory.                    d. Kiln.
  L. Kitchen.                      e. Stables.
  M. Bakehouse and brewhouse.      f Cow-sheds.
  N. Cellar.                       g. Goat-sheds.
  O. Parlour.               (over. h. Pig-sties. i. Sheep-folds.
  P1. Scriptorium with library  k, k, k. Servants' and workmen's
  P2. Sacristy and vestry.                     sleeping-chambers.
  Q. House of Novices--1.chapel;   l. Gardener's house
    2. refectory; 3. calefactory;  m,m. Hen and duck house.
    4. dormitory; 5. master's room n. Poultry-keeper's house.
    6. chambers.                   o. Garden.
  R. Infirmary--1--6 as above in   q. Bakehouse for sacramental
     the house of novices.
  S. Doctor's house.               s, s, s. Kitchens.
  T. Physic garden.                t, t, t. Baths.
 

church has on its east side the ``pisalis'' or ``calefactory', 
(H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed by 
flues beneath the floor.  On this side in later monasteries 
we invariably find the chapterhouse, the absence of 
which in this plan is somewhat surprising.  It appears, 
however, from the inscriptions on the plan itself, that the 
north walk of the cloisters served for the purposes of a 
chapter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long 
sides.  Above the calefactory is the ``dormitory'' opening 
into the south transept of the church, to enable the monks 
to attend the nocturnal services with readiness.  A passage 
at the other end leads to the ``necessarium'' (I), a portion 
of the monastic buildings always planned with extreme 
care.  The southern side is occupied by the ``refectory'' 
(K), from the west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen 
(L) is reached.  This is separated from the main buildings 
of the monastery, and is connected by a long passage with 
a building containing the bake house and brewhouse (M), and 
the sleeping-rooms of the servants.  The upper story of the 
refectory is the ``vestiarium,'' where the ordinary clothes of 
the brethren were kept.  On the western side of the cloister 
is another two story building (N). The cellar is below, 
and the larder and store-room above.  Between this building 
and the church, opening by one door into the cloisters, and 
by another to the outer part of the monastery area, is the 
``parlour'' for interviews with visitors from the external 
world (O). On the eastern side of the north transept is the 
``scriptorium'' or writing-room (P1), with the library above. 

To the east of the church stands a group of buildings comprising 
two miniature conventual establishments, each complete in 
itself.  Each has a covered cloister surrounded by the usual 
buildings, i.e. refectory, dormitory, &c., and a church or 
chapel on one side, placed back to back.  A detached building 
belonging to each contains a bath and a kitchen.  One of these 
diminutive convents is appropriated to the ``oblati'' or novices 
(Q), the other to the sick monks as an ``imfirmary'' (R). 

The ``residence of the physicians'' (S) stands contiguous to the 
infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east corner of 
the monastery.  Besides other rooms, it contains a drug store, 
and a chamber for those who are dangerously ill.  The ``house 
for bloodletting and purging'' adjoins it on the west (U). 

The ``outer school,'' to the north of the convent area, contains 
a large schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or 
partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed 
the dwellings of the scholars.  The head-master's house (W) 
is opposite, built against the side wall of the church.  The 
two ``hospitia'' or `' guest-houses'' for the entertainment 
of strangers of different degrees (X1 X2) comprise a large 
common chamber or refectory in the centre, surrounded by 
sleeping-apartments.  Each is provided with its own brewhouse 
and bakehouse, and that for travellers of a superior order has 
a kitchen and storeroom, with bedrooms for their servants and 
stables for their horses.  There is also an ``hospitium'' for 
strange monks, abutting on the north wall of the church (Y). 

Beyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the convent 
area to the south, stands the `factory'' (Z), containing 
workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoemakers, sellarii), 
cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, curriers, 
fullers, smiths and goldsmiths, with their dwellings in the 
rear.  On this side we also find the farmbuildings, the large 
granary and threshing-floor (a), mills (c), malthouse 
(d). Facing the west are the stables (e), ox-sheds 
(f), goatstables (gl, piggeries (h), sheep-folds (i), 
together with the servants' and labourers' quarters (k). 
At the south-east corner we find the hen and duck house, and 
poultry-yard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (n). 
Hard by is the kitchen garden (o), the beds bearing the 
names of the vegetables growing in them, onions, garlic, 
celery, lettuces, poppy, carrots, cabbages, &c., eighteen in 
all.  In the same way the physic garden presents the names 
of the medicinal herbs, and the cemetery (p) those of 
the trees, apple, pear, plum, quince, &c., planted there. 

Canterbury Cathedral. 

A curious bird's-eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and its 
annexed conventual buildings, taken about 1165, is preserved 
in the Great Psalter in the library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge.  As elucidated by Professor Willis,1 it exhibits 
the plan of a great Benedictine monastery in the 12th century, 
and enables us to compare it with that of the 9th as seen at St 
Gall.  We see in both the same general principles of arrangement, 
which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling 
us to determine with precision the disposition of the various 
buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls 
exist.  From some local reasons, however, the cloister and 
monastic buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far 
more commonly the case, on the south of the church.  There is 
also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting at St Gall. 

The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate 
groups.  The church forms the nucleus.  In immediate contact 
with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the 
group of buildings devoted to the monastic life.  Outside of 
these, to the west and east, are the ``halls and chambers 
devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every 
monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as 
guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, 
travellers, pilgrims or paupers.'' To the north a large 
open court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, 
intentionally placed as remote as possible from the conventual 
buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bakehouse, 
brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay servants of the 
establishment.  At the greatest possible distance from the 
church, beyond the precinct of the convent, is the eleemosynary 
department.  The almonry for the relief of the poor, 
with a great hall annexed, forms the paupers' hospitium. 

The most important group of buildings is naturally that devoted 
to monastic life.  This includes two Cloisters, the great 
cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially connected with 
the daily life of the monks,---the church to the south, the 
refectory or frater-house here as always on the side opposite 
to the church, and farthest removed from it, that no sound or 
smell of eating might penetrate its sacred precincts, to the 
east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted undercroft, and the 
chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgings of the cellarer to the 
west.  To this officer was committed the provision of the 
monks' daily food, as well as that of the guests.  He was, 
therefore, appropriately lodged in the immediate vicinity of 
the refectory and kitchen, and close to the guest-hall.  A 
passage under the dormitory leads eastwards to the smaller 
or infirmary cloister, appropriated to the sick and infirm 
monks.  Eastward of this cloister extend the hall and chapel of 
the infirmary, resembling in form and arrangement the nave and 
chancel of an aisled church.  Beneath the dormitory, looking 
out into the green court or herbarium, lies the ``pisalis'' 
or ``calefactory,'' the common room of the monks.  At its 
north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the 
necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman 
hall, 145 ft. long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five seats.  It 
was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries, 
constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and 
health, a stream of water running through it from end to 
end.  A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west for 
the accommodation of the conventual officers, who were bound 
to sleep in the dormitory.  Close to the refectory, but outside 
the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected with it: 
to the north, the kitchen, 47 ft. square, surmounted by a 
lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the 
butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its 
own.  Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two 
lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, 
at which the monks washed before and after taking food. 

The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three 
groups.  The prior's group ``entered at the south-east angle 
of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the 
cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or 
nobility who were assigned to him.'' The cellarer's buildings 
were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary visitors 
of the middle class were hospitably entertained.  The inferior 
pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry, 
just within the gate, as far as possible from the other two. 

Westminster Abbey. 

Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Benedictine 
abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as they 
can be traced, with those described above.  The cloister and 
, monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church.  
Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, 
was the refectory, with its lavatory at the door.  On the 
eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised 
on a vaulted substructure and communicating with the south 
transept.  The chapter-house opens out of the same alley of the 
cloister.  The small cloister lles to the south-east of 
the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have 
the remains of the infirmary with the table hall, the 
refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers.  The 
abbot's house formed a small courtyard at the west entrance, 
close to the inner gateway.  Considerable portions of this 
remain, including the abbot's parlour. celebrated as ``the 
Jerusalem Chamber,'' his hall, now used for the Westminster 
King's Scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond. 

York. 

St Mary's Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is annexed, 
exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements.  The precincts 
are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three sides, 
the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the fourth 
side.  The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) to the 
north.  Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is now 
the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new-comers paid 
their devotions immediately on their arrival.  Near the 
gate to the south was the guest-hall or hospitium (T). 
The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains to 
enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the 
cloister-court with the chapterhouse (B), the refectory (I), 
the kitchen-court with its offices (K, O, O) and the other 
principal apartments.  The infirmary has perished completely. 

Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrangements, 
dependent upon local circumstances, e.g. the dormitory of 
Worcester runs from east to west, from the west walk of the 
cloister, and that of Durham is built over the west, instead of 

                             FIG. 4

 St Mary's Abbey, York (Benedictine).--Churton's Monnastic Ruins.
 A. Church.                        O. Offices.
 B. Chapter-house.                 P. Cellars.
 C. Vestibule to ditto.            Q. Uncertain. 
 E. Library or scriptorium.        R. Passage to abbot's house.
 F. Calefactory.                   S. Passage to common house.
 G. Necessary.                     T. Hospitium.
 H. Parlour.                       U. Great gate.
 I. Refectory.                     V. Porter's lodge.
 K. Great kitchen and court.       W. Church of St Olaf.
 L. Cellarer's office.             X. Tower.
 M. Cellars.                       Y. Entrance from Bootham.
 N. Passage to cloister.
 

as usual, over the east walk; but, as a general rule, the arrangements 
deduced from the examples described may be regarded as invariable. 

The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of 
decay and revival.  With growth in popular esteem came increase 
in material wealth, leading to luxury and worldliness.  The 
first religious ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was 
relaxed, until by the 10th century the decay of discipline 
was so complete in France that the monks are said to have 
been frequently unacquainted with the rule of St Benedict, 
and even ignorant that they were bound by any rule at 
all.  The reformation of abuses generally took the form of 
the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more 
stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural 
arrangements.  One of the earliest of these reformed orders 
was the Cluniac. This order took its name from,the little 
village of Cluny, 12 miles N.W. of Macon, near which, about 
A.D. 909, a reformed Benedictine abbey was founded by William, 
duke of Aquitaine and count of Auvergne, under Berno, abbot of 
Beaume.  He was succeeded by Odo, who is often regarded as 
the founder of the order.  The fame of Cluny spread far and 
wide.  Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the 
old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in affiliation 
to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in 
large numbers, all owing allegiance to the ``archabbot,'' 
established at Cluny.  By the end of the 12th century the 
number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various 
countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.  The monastic 
establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive 
and magnificent in France.  We may form some idea of its 
enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, A.D. 
1245, Pope Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve cardinals, 

         FIG. 5--Abbey of Cluny, from 

 
 A. Gateway.        F. Tomb of St Hugh.  M. Bakehouse.
 B. Narthex.        G. Nave.             N. Abbey buildings.
 C. Choir.          H. Cloister.         O. Garden.
 D. High-altar.     K. Abbot's house.    P. Refectory.
 E. Retro-altar.    L. Guest-house.
 

a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals of the 
Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), and three 
of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, count of Flanders 
and emperor of Constantinople, the duke of Burgundy, and 
six lords, visited the abbey, the whole party, with their 
attendants, were lodged withn the monastery without disarranging 
the monks, 400 in number.  Nearly the whole of the abbey 
buildings, including the magnificent church, were swept away 
at the close of the 18th century.  When the annexed ground-plan 
was taken, shortly before its destruction, nearly all the 
monastery, with the exception of the church, had been rebuilt. 

The church, the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable 
resemblance to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast 
dimensions.  It was 656 ft. high.  The nave (G) had double 
vaulted aisles on either side.  Like Lincoln, it had an 
eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with 
apsidal chapels to the east.  The western transept was 213 
ft. long, and the eastern 123 ft.  The choir terminated in 
a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also 
semicircular.  The western entrance was approached by an 
ante-church, or narthex (B), itself an aisled church of 
no mean dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a 
stately flight of steps bearing a large stone cross.  To the 
south of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense 
size, placed much farther to the west than is usually the 
case.  On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory 
(P), an immense building, 100 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, 
accommodating six longitudinal and three transverse rows of 
tables.  It was adorned with the portraits of the chief 
benefactors of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects.  The 
end wall displayed the Last Judgment.  We are unhappily unable 
to identify any other of the principal buildings (N). The 
abbot's residence (K), still partly standing, adjoined the 
entrance-gate.  The guest-house (L) was close by.  The bakehouse 
(M), also remaining, is a detached building of immense size. 

English Cluniac 

The first English house of the Cluniac order was that of 
Lewes, founded by the earl of Warren, c. A.D. 1077.  Of 
this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings exist.  
The best preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle Acre, 
Norfolk, and Wenlock, Shropshire.  Ground-plans of both are 
given in Britton's Architectural Antiquities. They show 
several departures from the Benedictine arrangement.  In 
each the prior's house is remarkably perfect.  All Cluniac 
houses in England were French colonies, governed by priors 
of that nation.  They did not secure their independence nor 
become ``abbeys'' till the reign of Henry VI. The Cluniac 
revival, with all its brilliancy, was but short-lived.  
The celebrity of this, as of other orders, worked its moral 
ruin.  With their growth in wealth and dignity the Cluniac 
foundations became as worldly in life and as relaxed in 
discipline as their predecessors, and a fresh reform was needed. 

Cistercian 

The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in 
the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion, 
and a longer and more honourable existence.  Owing its real 
origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in 
the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, 
educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its 
name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost 
inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and 
Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order 
are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety 
of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, 
subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the 
first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux 
(de Clara Valle), A.D. 1116.  The rigid self-abnegation, 
which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation 
of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and 
other buildings erected by them.  The characteristic of the 
Cistercian abbeys was the extremest simplicity and a studied 
plainness.  Only one tower--a central one --was permitted, and 
that was to be very low.  Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets 
were prohibited.  The triforium was omitted.  The windows 
were to be plain and undivided, and it was forbidden to 
decorate them with stained glass.  All needless ornament was 
proscribed.  The crosses must be of wood; the candlesticks of 
iron.  The renunciation of the world was to be evidenced 
in all that met the eye.  The same spirit manifested itself 
in the choice of the sites of their monasteries.  The more 
dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, 
the more did it please their rigid mood.  But they came 
not merely as ascetics, but as improvers.  The Cistercian 
monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep well-watered 
valleys.  They always stand on the border of a stream; not 
rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend over it.  These 
valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different 
aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their 
retirement.  Wide swamps, deep morasses, tangled thickets, 
wild impassable forests, were their prevailing features.  The 
``bright valley,'' Clara Vallis of St Bernard, was known 
as the ``valley of Wormwood,'' infamous as a den of robbers. 
``It was a savage dreary solitude, so utterly barren that 
at first Bernard and his companions were reduced to live on 
beech leaves.''-(Milman's Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 335.) 

Clairvaux 

All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of the 
locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan.  The 
general arrangement and distribution of the various
buildings, which went to make up one of these vast 
establishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's own 
abbey of Clairvaux, which is here given.  It will be observed 
that the abbey precincts are surrounded by a strong wall, 
furnished at intervals with watch-towers and other defensive 
works.  The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, 
artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow 
through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with 
an abundant supply in every part, for the litigation of 
the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the 
brotherhood and for the use of the offices and workshops. 

The precincts are divided across the centre by a wall, 
running from N. to S., into an outer and inner ward,--the 
former containing the menial, the latter the monastic 
buildings.  The precincts are entered by a gateway (P), at 
the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower 
ward.  Here the barns, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops 
and workmen,s lodgings were placed, without any regard to 
symmetry, convenience being the only consideration.  Advancing 
eastwards, we have before us the wall separating the 

    FIG. 6.--.Clairvaux, No. 1 (Cistercian), General 

 
  A. Cloisters.         I. Wine-press and       O. Public presse.
  B. Ovens, and corn          hay-chamber       P. Gateway.
       oil-mills        K. Parlour              R. Remains of old monastery
  C. St Bernard's cell. L. Workshops and.
  D. Chief entrance.         workmen's lodgings S. Oratory.
  E. Tanks for fish.                            V. Tile-works.
  F. Guest-house.       M. Slaughter-house.     X. Tile-kiln.
  G. Abbot's house.     N. Barns and stables.   V. Water-courses.
  H. Stables.
 

outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording communication 
between the two.  On passing through the gateway, the outer 
court of the inner ward was entered, with the western facade 
of the monastic church in front.  Immediately on the right 
of entrance was the abbot's house (G), in close proximity to 
the guest-house (F). On the other side of the court were the 
stables, for the accommodation of the horses of the guests 
and their attendants (H). The church occupied a central 
position.  To the south was the great cloister (A), 
surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and farther to 
the east the smaller cloister, opening out of which were 
the infirmary, novices' lodgings and quarters for the aged 
monks.  Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic 
buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards, 
and tank for fish.  The large fish-ponds, an indispensable 
adjunct to any ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation 
of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and 
which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these 
vast establishments, were placed outside the abbey walls. 

Plan No. 2 furninshes the ichnography of the distinctly 
monastic buildings on a larger scale.  The usually unvarying 
arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept 
this as a type of the monasteries of this order.  The church 
(A) is the chief feature.  It consists of a vast nave of 
eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept and short 
apsidal choir. (It may be remarked that the eastern limb in 
all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably short, and 
usually square.) To the east of each limb of the transept 
are two square chapels, divided according to Cistercian 
rule by solid walls.  Nine radiating chapels, similarly 
divided, surround the apse.  The stalls of the monks, 
forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern bays of the 
nave.  There was a second range of stalls in the extreme 
western bays of the nave for the fratres conversi, or lay 
brothers.  To the south of the church, so as to secure as 
much sun as possible, the cloister was invariably placed, 
except when local reasons forbade it.  Round the cloister 
(B) were ranged the buildings connected with the monks' daily 
life.  The chapter-house (C) always opened out of the east 
walk of the cloister in a line with the south transept. 

      FIG. 7.--Clairvaux, No. 2 (Cistercian), Monastic 

 
  A. Church.            L. Lodgings of novices.   S. Cellars and storehouses.
  B. Cloister. 
  C. Chapter-house.     M. Old guest-house.       T. Water-course.
  D. Monks' parlour.    N. Old abbot's lodgings.  U. Saw-mill and oil mill
  E. Calefactory. 
  F. Kitchen and court. O. Cloister of            V. Currier's shop.
  G. Refectory.            supernumerary monks.
  H. Cemetery.                                    X. Sacristy.
  I. Little cloister.   P. Abbot's hall.          Y. Little library.
  K. Infirmary.         Q. Cell of St Bernard.    Z. Undercroft of dormitory.
                        R. Stables.
 

In Cistercian houses this was quadrangular, and was divided 
by pillars and arches into two or three aisles.  Between 
it and the transept we find the sacristy (X), and a small 
book-room (Y) armariolum, where the brothers deposited the 
volumes borrowed from the library.  On the other side of the 
chapter-house, to the south, is a passage (D) communicating 
with the courts and buildings beyond.  This was sometimes 
known as the parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the 
privilege of conversation here.  Here also, when iscipline 
became relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission, 
were allowed to display their goods.  Beyond this we often 
find the calefactorium or day-room--an apartment warmed 
by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half 
frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after 
the conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease 
their sandals and get themselves ready for the work of the 
day.  In the plan before us this apartment (E) opens from the 
south cloister walk, adjoining the refectory.  The place usually 
assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substructure of the 
dormitory (Z). The dormitory, as a rule, was placed on the 
east side of the cloister, running over the calethetory and 
chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight 
of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal 
services.  Opening out of the dormitory was always the 
necessarium, planned with the greatest regard to health and 
cleanliness, a water-course invariably running from end to 
end.  The refectory opens out of the south cloister at G. 
The position of the refectory is usually a marked point of 
difference between Benedictine and Cistercian abbeys.  In the 
former, as at Canterbury, the refectory ran east and west 
parallel to the nave of the church, on the side of the cloister 
farthest removed from it.  In the Cistercian monasturies, to 
keep the noise and smell of dinner still farther away from 
the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, 
at right angles to the axis of the church.  It was often 
divided, sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three 
aisles.  Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, 
was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at 
dinner-time.  The buildings belonging to the material life of 
the monks lay near the refectory, as far as possible from the 
church, to the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer 
court was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery 
and larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running 
water.  Farther to the west, projecting beyond the line of 
the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments 
(SS), serving as cellars and storehouses, above which was 
the dormitory of the conversi. Detached from these, and 
separated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various 
workshops, which convenience repuired to be banished to 
the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned 
by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals 
and leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired. 

Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to the small 
cloister (l), opening from the north side of which were eight 
small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in copying works 
for the library, which was placed in the upper story, accessible 
by a turret staircase.  To the south of the small cloister 
a long hall will be noticed.  This was a lecture-hall, or 
rather a hall for the religious disputations customary among the 
Cistercians.  From this cloister opened the infirmary (K), 
with its hall, chapel, cells, blood-letting house and other 
dependencies.  At the eastern verge of the vast group of buildings 
we find the novices' lodgings (L), with a third cloister 
near the novices' quarters and the original guest-house (M). 
Detached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was the 
original abbot's house (N), with its dining-hall (P). Closely 
adjoining to this, so that the eye of the father of the whole 
establishment should be constantly over those who stood the 
most in need of his watchful care,--those who were training 
for the monastic life, and those who had worn themselves 
out in its duties,--was a fourth cloister (O), with annexed 
buildings, devoted to the aged and infirm members of the 
establishment.  The cemetery, the last resting-place of the 
brethren, lay to the north side of the nave of the church (H). 

It will be seen from the above account that the arrangement of 
a Cistercian monastery was in accordance with a clearly defined 
system, and admirably adapted to its purpose.  The base court 
nearest to the outer wall contained the buildings belonging to 
the functions of the body as agriculturists and employers of 
labour.  Advancing into the inner court, the buildings`devoted 
to hospitality are found close to the entrance; while those 
connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren, 
--the kitchen, cellars, &c.,--form a court of themselves 
outside the cloister and quite detached from the church.  
The church refectory, dormitory and other buildings belonging 
to the professional life of the brethren surround the great 
cloister.  The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' cells, 
library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the 
literary life of the community.  The requirements of sickness 
and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary 
cloister and that for the aged and infirm members of the 
establishment.  The same group contains the quarters of the novices. 

This stereotyped arrangement is further shown by the 
illustration of the mother establishment of Citeaux. 

Citeaux. 

A cross (A), planted on the high road, directs travellers to 
the gate of the monastery. reached by an avenue of trees.  On 
one side of the gate-house (B) is a long building (C), probably 
the almonry, with a dormitory above for the lower class of 
guests.  On the other side is a chapel (D). As soon as the 
porter heard a stranger knock at the gate, he rose, saying, 
Deo gratias, the opportunity for the exercise of hospitality 
being regarded as a cause for thankfulness.  On opening the 
door he welcomed the new arrival with a blessing --Benedicite. 
He fell on his knees before him, and then went to inform the 
abbot.  However important the abbot's occupations might 
be, he at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had 
sent.  He also threw himself at his guest's feet, and 
conducted him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the 
gate.  After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest 
to the care of the brother hospitaller, whose duty it was 
to provide for his wants and conduct the beast on which he 
might be riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the inner 
gatehouse (E). This inner gate conducted into the base court 
(T), round which were placed the barns, stables, cow-sheds, &c. 
On the eastern side stood the dormitory of the lay brothers, 
fratres conversi (G), detached from the cloister, with 
cellars and storehouses below.  At H, also outside the monastic 
buildings proper, was the abbot's house, and annexed to it the 
guest-house.  For these buildings there was a separate door 
of entrance into the church (S). The large cloister, with its 
surrounding arcades, is seen at V. On the south end projects 
the refectory (K), with its kitchen at I, accessible from 
the base court.  The long gabled building on the east side of 
the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapter-house 
and calefactory, with the monks' dormitory above (M), 
communicating with the south transept of the church.  At L 
was the staircase to the dormitory.  The small cloister is at 
W, where were the carols or cells of the scribes, with the 
library (P) over, reached by a turret staircase.  At R we see 
a portion of the infirmary.  The whole precinct is surrounded 
by a strong buttressed wall (XXX), pierced with arches, 

            FIG. 8.---Bird's-eye view of 

 
 A. Cross.            H. Abbot's house.            R. Infirmary.
 B. Gate-house.       I. Kitchen.                  S. Door to the church
 C. Almonry.          K. Refectory.                   for the lay brothers.
 D. Chapel.           L. Staircase to dormitory.
 E. Inner gate-house.                              T. Base court.
 F. Stable.           M. Dormitory.                V. Great cloister.
 G. Dormitory of lay  N. Church.                   W. Small cloister.
        brethren.     P. Library.                  X. Boundary wall.
 

through which streams of water are introduced.  It will 
be noticed that the choir of the church is short, and has 
a square end instead of the usual apse.  The tower, in 
accordance with the Cistercian rule, is very low.  The windows 
throughout accord with the studied simplicity of the order. 

Kirkstall Abbey. 

The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such extensive 
and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, Kirkstall, 
Tintern, Netley, &c., were mainly arranged after the same 
plan, with slight local variations.  As an example, we give 
the groundplan of Kirkstall Abbey. which is one of the best 
preserved.  The church here is of the Cistercian type, with 
a short chancel of two squares, and transepts with three 
eastward chapels to each, divided by solid walls (2 2 2). 
The whole is of the most studied plainness.  The windows 
are unornamented, and the nave has no triforium.  The 
cloister to the south (4) occupies the whole length of the 
nave.  On the east side stands the two-aisled chapter-house 
(5), between which and the south transept is a small 
sacristy (3), and on the other side two small apartments, 
one of which was probably the parlour (6). Beyond this 
stretches southward the calefactory or day-room of the monks 
(14).  Above this whole range of building runs the monks' 
dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the 
church.  At the other end were the necessaries.  On thc south 
side of the cloister we have the remains of the old refectory 
(11), running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, 
and the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the 
inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual 
in Cistercian houses, from north to south.  Adjacent to this 
apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pantry and buttery.  
The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near the refectory 
entrance.  The western side of the cloister is, as usual, 
occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the upper story 
the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Extending from the 

      FIG. 9 Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire 

 
 1. Church.                         10. Common room.
 2. Chapels.                        11. Old refectory.
 3. Sacristy.                       12. New refectory.
 4. Cloister.                       13. Kitchen court.
 5. Chapter-house.                  14. Calefactory or day-room.
 6. Parlour.                        15. Kitchen and offices.
 7. Punishment cell (?).            16-19. Uncertain; perhaps offices
 8. Cellars, with dormitories for            connected with the infirmary.
      conversi over.
 9. Guest-house.                    20. Infirmary or abbot's house.
 

south-east angle of the main group of buildings are the 
walls and foundations of a secondary group of considerable 
extent.  These have been identified either with the hospitium 
or with the abbot's house, but they occupy the position in 
which the infirmary is more usually found.  The hall was 
a very spacious apartment, measuring 83 ft. in length by 
48 ft. 9 in. in breadth, and was divided by two rows of 
columns.  The fish-ponds lay between the monastery and 
the river to the south.  The abbey mill was situated 
about 80 yards to the north-west.  The millpool may be 
distinctly traced, together with the gowt or mill stream. 

Fountains Abbey. 

Fountains Abbey, first founded A.D. 1132, is one of the 
largest and best preserved Cistercian houses in England.  
But the earlier buildings received considerable additions 
and alterations in the later period of the order, causing 
deviations from the strict Cistercian type.  The church 
stands a short distance to the north of the river Skell, the 
buildings of the abbey stretching down to and even across the 
stream.  We have the cloister (H) to the south, with the 
three-aisled chapter-house (I) and calefactory (L) opening from 
its eastern walk, and the refectory (S), with the kitchen (Q) 
and buttery (T) attached, at right angles to its southern walk. 

     FIG. 10.--Ground-plan of Fountains Abbey, 

 
 A. Nave of the church.     N. Cellar.              Z. Gate-house.
 B. Transept.               O. Brewhouse.              ABBOT'S HOUSE.
 C. Chapels.                P. Prisons.                 1. Passage
 D. Tower.                  Q. Kitchen.                 2. Great hall.
 E. Sacristy.               R. Offices.                 3. Refectory.
 F. Choir.                  S. Refectory.               4. Refectory.
 G. Chapel of nine alters.  T. Buttery.                 5. Storehouse.
 H. Cloister.               U. Cellars and storehouses. 6. Chapel.
 I. Chapter-house.          V. Necessary.               7. Kitchen.
 K. Base court.             W. Infirmary (?).           8. Ashpit.
 L. Calefactory.            X. Guest-houses.            9. Yard.
 M. Water-course.           Y. Mill bridge.            10. Kitchen tank.
 

Parallel with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure 
(U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and 
store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversi 
above.  This building extended across the river.  At its S.W. 
corner were the necessaries (V), also built, as usual, above 
the swiftly flowing stream.  The monks' dormitory was in its 
usual position above the chapter-house, to the south of the 
transept.  As peculiarities of arrangement may be noticed 
the position of the kitchen (Q), between the refectory and 
calefactory, and of the infirmary (W) (unless there is some 
error in its designation) above the river to the west, adjoining 
the guest-houses (XX).  We may also call attention to the 
greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 
1203-1211, and carried on by his successor, terminating, like 
Durham Cathedral, in an eastern transept, the work of Abbot 
John of Kent, 1220-1247, and to the tower (D), added not long 
before the dissolution by Abbot Huby, 1494-1526, in a very 
unusual position at the northern end of the north transept.  
The abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of 
this class of buildings in the kingdom, stands south to the 
east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided by 
the kitchen court (R), surrounded by the ordinary domestic 
offices.  A considerable portion of this house was erected on 
arches over the Skell.  The size and character of this house, 
probably, at the time of its erection, the most spacious 
house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, bespeaks 
the wide departure of the Cistercian order from the stern 
simplicity of the original foundation.  The hall (2) was one 
of the most spacious and magnificent apartments in medieval 
times, measuring 170 ft. by 70 ft.  Like the hall in the 
castle at Winchester, and Westminster Hall, as originally 
built, it was divided by 18 pillars and arches, with 3 
aisles.  Among other apartments, for the designation of which 
we must refer to the ground-plan, was a domestic oratory or 
chapel, 46 1/2 ft. by 23 ft. and a kitchen (7), 50 ft. by 38 
ft.  The whole arrangements and character of the building 
bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble 
father of a body of hard-working brethren, bound by vows to a 
life of poverty and self-denying toil.  In the words of Dean 
Milman, ``the superior, once a man bowed to the earth with 
humility, care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit 
bound with a cord, with naked feet, had become an abbot 
on his curvetting palfrey, in rich attire, with his silver 
cross before him, travelling to take his place amid the 
lordliest of the realm.'' --(Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 330.) 

Austin Canons. 

The buildings of the Austin canons or Black canons (so 
called from the colour of their habit) present few distinctive 
peculiarities.  This order had its first seat in England at 
Colchester, where a house for Austin canons was founded about 
A.D. 1105, and it very soon spread widely.  As an order 
of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks 
and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish 
priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length 
to accommodate large congregations.  The choir is usually 
long, and is sometimes, as at Llanthony and Christ Church 
(Twynham), shut off from the aisles, or, as at Bolton, Kirkham, 
&c., is destitute of aisles altogether.  The nave in the northern 
houses, not unfrequently, had only a north aisle, as at Bolton, 
Brinkburn and Lanercost.  The arrangement of the monastic 
buildings followed the ordinary type.  The prior's lodge was 
almost invariably attached to the S.W. angle of the nave. 

Bristol Cathedral. 

The annexed plan of the Abbey of St Augustine's at Bristol, 
now the cathedral church of that city, shows the arrangement 
of the buildings, which departs very little from the 
ordinary Benedictine type.  The Austin canons' house at 
Thornton, in Lincolnshire, is remarkable for the size 
and magnificence of its gate-house, the upper floors of 
which formed the guest-house of the establishment, and for 
possessing an octagonal chapter-house of Decorated date. 

Premonstratensians. 

The Premonstratensian regular canons, or White canons, had 
as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most perfect 
remaining are those of Easby.  Yorkshire, and Bayham, Kent.  
The head house of the order in England was Welbeck.  This order 
was a reformed branch of the Austin canons, founded, A.D. 
1119, by Norbert (born at Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, c. 
1080) at Premontre, a secluded marshy valley in the forest 
of Coucy in the diocese of Laon.  The order spread widely.  
Even in the founder's lifetime it possessed houses in Syria and 
Palestine.  It long maintained its rigid austerity, till in 
the course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its 
members sank into indolence and luxury.  The Premonstratensians 
were brought to England shortly after A.D. 1140, and were 
first settled at Newhouse, in Lincolnshire, near the Humber.  
The ground-plan of Easby Abbey, owing to its situation on the 
edge of the steeply sloping banks of a river, is singularly 
irregular.  The cloister is duly placed on the south side of the 
church, and the chief buildings occupy their usual positions 
round it.  But the cloister garth, as at Chichester, is not 
rectangular, and all the surrounding buildings are thus made 
to sprawl in a very awkward fashion.  The church follows 
the plan adopted by the Austin canons in their northern 
abbeys, and has only one aisle to the nave--that to the 
north; while the choir is long, narrow and aisleless.  Each 
transept has an aisle to the east, forming three chapels. 

The church at Bayham was destitute of aisles either to nave or 
choir.  The latter terminated in a three-sided apse.  This church 
is remarkable for its exceeding narrowness in proportion to its 
length.  Extending in longitudinal dimensions 257 ft., it is 

    FIG. 11.--St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (Bristol 

 
 A. Church.            H. Kitchen.         S. Friars' lodging.
 B. Great cloister.    I. Kitchen court.   T. King's hall.
 C. Little cloister.   K. Cellars.         V. Guest-house.
 D. Chapter-house.     L. Abbot's hall.    W. Abbey gateway.
 E. Calefactory.       P. Abbot's gateway. X. Barns, stables, &c
 F. Refectory.         R. Infirmary.       Y. Lavatory.
 G. Parlour.
 

not more than 25 ft. broad.  Stern Premonstratensian canons 
wanted no congregations, and cared for no possessions; 
therefore they built their church like a long room. 

Carthusians. 

The Carthusian order, on its establishment by St Bruno, 
about A.D. 1084, developed a greatly modified form and 
arrangement of a monastic institution.  The principle of this 
order, which combined the coenobitic with the solitary life, 
demanded the erection of buildings on a novel plan.  This 
plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his twelve 
companions at the original institution at Chartreux, near 
Grenoble, was maintained in all the Carthusian establishments 
throughout Europe, even after the ascetic severity of the order 
had been to some extent relaxed, and the primitive simplicity 
of their buildings had been exchanged for the magnificence 
of decoration which characterizes such foundations as the 
Certosas of Pavia and Florence.  According to the rule of 
St Bruno, all the members of a Carthusian brotherhood lived 
in the most absolute solitude and silence.  Each occupied a 
small detached cottage, standing by itself in a small garden 
surrounded by high walls and connected by a common corridor or 
cloister.  In these cottages or cells a Carthusian monk 
passed his time in the strictest asceticism, only leaving 
his solitary dwelling to attend the services of the Church, 
except on certain days when the brotherhood assembled in the 
refectory.  The peculiarity of the arrangements of a Carthusian 
monastery, or charter-house, as it was called in England, 
from a corruption of the French chartreux, is exhibited 
in the plan of that of Clermont, from Viollet-le-Duc. 

Clermont. 

The whole establishment is surrounded hy a wall, furnished 
at intervals with watch towers (R) . The enclosure is divided 
into two courts, of which the eastern court, surrounded by a 
cloister, from from which the cottages of the monks (I) open, 
is musch the larger.  The two courts are divided by the main 
buildings of the monastery, including the church, the sanctuary 
(A), divided from B, the monks' choir, by a screen with two 
altars, the smaller cloister to the south (S) surrounded by 
the chapter-house (E), the refectory (X)---these buildings 
occupying their normal position--and the chapel of Pontgibaud 
(K). The kitchen with its offices (V) lies behind the 
relectory, accessible ftom the outer court without entering the 
cloister.  To the north of the church, beyond the sacristy 
(L), and the side chapels (M), we find the cell of the sub-prior 
(a), with its garden.  The lodgings of the prior (G) occupy 
the centre of the outer court, immediately in front of the 
west door of the church, and face the gateway of the convent 
(O). A small raised court with a fountain (C) is before 
it.  This outer court also contains the guest-chambers (P), 
the stables and lodgings of the lay brothers (N), the barns 
and granaries (Q), the dovecot (H) and the bakehouse (T). 
At Z is the prison.  In this outer court, in all the earlier 
foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in 
addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and 
inner courts are connected by a long passage (F), wide enough 
to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the cells of the 
brethren with fuel.  The number of cells surrounding the great 

                                                A. Church. 
                                                B. Monks' choir.
                                                C. Prior's garden.
                                                D. Great cloister.
                                                E. Chapter-house.
                                                F. Passage.
                                                G. Prior's lodgings.
                                                H. Dovecot.
                                                I. Cells.
                                                K. Chapel of Pontgibaud.
                                                L. Sacristy.
                                                M. Chapel.
                                                N. Stables.
                                                O. Gateway.
                                                P. Guest-chambers.
                                                Q. Barns and granaries.
                                                R. Watch-tower.
                                                S. Little cloister.
                                                T. Bakehouse.
                                                V. Kitchen.
                                                X. Refectory.
                                                Y. Cemetery.
                                                Z. Prison.
                                                a. Cell of subprior
                                                b. Garden of do.
          FIG. 12.--Carthusian monastery of Clermont. 

cloister is 18. They are all arranged on a uniform plan.  
Each little dwelling contains three rooms: a sitting-room 
(C), warmed by a stove in winter; a sleeping-room (D), 
furnished with a bed, a table, a bench, and a bookcase; and 
a closet (E). Between the cell and the cloister gallery (A) 
is a passage or corridor (B), cutting off the inmate of the 
cell from all sound or movement which might interrupt his 
meditations.  The superior had free access to this corridor, and 
through open niches was able to inspect the garden without being 
seen.  At I is the hatch or turn-table, in which the daily 
allowance of food was deposited by a brother appointed for that 
purpose, affording no view either inwards or outwards.  H is the 
garden, cultivated by the occupant of the cell.  At K is the 
wood-house.  F is a covered walk, with the necessary at the end. 


The above arrangements are found with scarcely any variation 
in all the charter-houses of western Europe.  The Yorkshire 
Charter-house of Mount Grace, founded by Thomas Holland, the 
young duke of Surrey, nephew of Richard II. and marshal of 
England, during the revival of the popularity of the order, 
about A.D. 1397, is the most perfect and best preserved English 
example.  It is characterized by all the simplicity of the 
order.  The church is a modest building, long, narrow and 
aisleless.  Within the wall of enclosure are two courts.  
The smaller of the two, the south, presents the usual 
arrangement of church, refectory, &c., opening out of a 
cloister.  The buildings are plain and solid.  The northern 
court contains the cells, 14 in number.  It is surrotmded by a 
double stone wall, the two walls being about 30 ft. or 40 ft. 
apart.  Between these, each in its own garden, stand the cells; 
low-built two-storied cottages, of two or three rooms on the 
ground-floor, lighted by a larger and a smaller window to the 
side, and provided with a doorway to the court, and one at the 
back, opposite to one in the outer wall, through which the 
monk may have conveyed the sweepings of his cell and the refuse 
of his garden to the ``eremus'' beyond.  By the side of the 
door to the court is a little hatch through which the daily 
pittance of food was supplied, so contrived by turning at an 
angle in the wall that no one could either look in or look 
out.  A very perfect example of this hatch---an arrangement 
belonging to all Carthusian houses--exists at Miraflores, near 
Burgos, which remains nearly as it was completed in 1480. 

                                                A. Cloister gallery. 
                                                B. Corridor.
                                                C. Living-room.
                                                D. Sleeping-room.
                                                E. Closets.
                                                F. Covered walk.
                                                G. Necessary.
                                                H. Garden.
                                                I. Hatch.
                                                K. Wood-house.
             FIG. 13--Carthusian cell, Clermont. 

There were only nine Carthusian houses in England.  The 
earliest was that at Witham in Somersetshire, founded 
by Henry II., by whom the order was first brought into 
England.  The wealthiest and most magnificent was that of 
Sheen or Richmond in Surrey, founded by Henry V. about A.D. 
1414.  The, dimensions of the buildings at Sheen are stated 
to have been remarkably large.  The great court measured 
300 ft. by 250 ft.; the cloisters were a square of 500 ft.; 
the hall was 110 ft. in length by 60 ft. in breadth.  The 
most celebrated historically is the Charter house of London, 
founded by Sir Walter Manny A.D. 1371, the name of which 
is preserved by the famous public school established on the 
site by Thomas Sutton A.D. 1611, now removed to Godalming. 

Mendicant Friars. 

An article on monastic arrangements would be incomplete without 
some account of the convents of the Mendicant or Preaching 
Friars, including the Black Friars or Dominicans, the Grey 
or Franciscans, the White or Carmelites, the Eremite or 
Austin, Friars.  These orders arose at the beginning of the 
13th century, when the Benedictines, together with their 
various reformed branches, had terminated their active 
mission, and Christian Europe was ready for a new religious 
revival.  Planting themselves, as a rule, in large towns, 
and by preference in the poorest and most densely populated 
districts, the Preaching Friars were obliged to adapt their 
buildings to the requirements of the site.  Regularity of 
arrangement, therefore, was not possible, even if they had 
studied it.  Their churches, built for the reception of 
large congregations of hearers rather than worshippers, form 
a class by themselves, totally unlike those of the elder 
orders in ground-plan and character.  They were usually long 
parallelograms unbroken by transepts.  The nave very usually 
consisted of two equal bodies, one containing the stalls 
of the brotherhood, the other left entirely free for the 
congregation.  The constructional choir is often wanting, 
the whole church forming one uninterrupted structure, with 
a continuous range of windows.  The east end was usually 
square, but the Friars Church at Winchelsea had a polygonal 
apse.  We not unfrequently find a single transept, sometimes of 
great size, rivalling or exceeding the nave.  This arrangement 
is frequent in Ireland, where the numerous small friaries 
afford admirable exemplifications of these peculiarities of 
ground-plan.  The friars' churches were at first destitute of 
towers; but in the 14th and 15th centuries, tall, slender towers 
were commonly inserted between the nave and the choir.  The 
Grey Friars at Lynn, where the tower is hexagonal, is a good 
example.  The arrangement of the monastic buildings is equally 
peculiar and characteristic.  We miss entirely the regularity 
of the buildings of the earlier orders.  At the Jacobins at 
Paris, a cloister lay to the north of the long narrow church 
of two parallel aisles, while the refectory--a room of immense 
length, quite detached from the cloister--stretched across 
the area before the west front of the church.  At Toulouse the 
nave also has two parallel aisles, but the choir is apsidal, 
with radiating chapel.  The refectory stretches northwards at 
right angles to the cloister, which lies to the north of the 
church, having the chapter-house and sacristy on the east. 

Norwich.  Gloucester. 

As examples of English friaries, the Dominican house at 
Norwich, and those of the Dominicans and Franciscans at 
Gloucester, may be mentioned.  The church of the Black 
Friars of Norwich departs from the original type in the 
nave (now St Andrew's Hall), in having regular aisles.  In 
this it resembles the earlier examples of the Grey Friars at 
Reading.  The choir is long and aisleless; an hexagonal tower 
between the two, like that existing at Lynn, has perished.  Thc 
cloister and monastic buildings remain tolerably perfect to the 
north.  The Dominican convent at Gloucester still exhibits the 
cloister-court, on the north side of which is the desecrated 
church.  The refectory is on the west side and on the south 
the dormitory of the 13th century.  This is a remarkably good 
example.  There were 18 cells or cubicles on each side, divided 
by partitions, the bases of which remain.  On the east side 
was the prior's house, a building of later date.  At the Grey 
or Franciscan Friars, the church followed the ordinary type in 
having two equal bodies, each gabled, with a continuous range of 
windows.  There was a slender tower between the nave and the choir. 

Hulne. 

Of the convents of the Carmelite or White Friars we have a 
good example in the Abbey of Hulne, near Alnwick, the first 
of the order in England, founded A.D. 1240.  The church 
is a narrow oblong, destitute of aisles, 123 ft. long by 
only 26 ft. wide.  The cloisters are to the south, with 
the chapter-house, &c., to the east, with the dormitory 
over.  The prior's lodge is placed to the west of the 
cloister.  The guest-houses adjoin the entrance gateway, to 
which a chapel was annexed on the south side of the conventual 
area.  The nave of the church of the Austin Friars or Eremites 
in London is still standing.  It is of Decorated date, and 
has wide centre and side aisles, divided by a very light and 
graceful arcade.  Some fragments of the south walk of the 
cloister of the Grey Friars remained among the buildings of 
Christ's Hospital (the Blue-Coat School), while they were still 
standing.  Of the Black Friars all has perished but the 
name.  Taken as a whole, the remains of the establishments of 
the friars afford little warrant for the bitter invective of 
the Benedictine of St Alban's, Matthew Paris:---``The friars 
who have been founded hardly 40 years have built residences 
as the palaces of kings.  These are they who, enlarging day 
by day their sumptuous edifices, encircling them with lofty 
walls, lay up in them their incalculable treasures, imprudently 
transgressing the bounds of poverty and violating the very 
fundamental rules of their profession.'' Allowance must here be 
made for jealousy of a rival order just rising in popularity. 

Cells. 

Every large monastery had depending upon it one or more smaller 
establishments known as cells. These cells were monastic 
colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and planted on some 
outlying estate.  As an example, we may refer to the small 
religious house of St Mary Magdalene's, a cell of the great 
Benedictine house of St Mary's, York, in the valley of the 
Witham, to the south-east of the city of Lincoln.  This consists 
of one long narrow range of building, of which the eastern part 
formed the chapel and the western contained the apartments of 
the handful of monks of which it was the home.  To the east 
may be traced the site of the abbey mill, with its dam and 
mill-lead.  These cells, when belonging to a Cluniac house, 
were called Obedientiae. The plan given by Viollet-le-Duc 
of the Priory of St Jean des Bons Hommes, a Cluniac cell, 
situated between the town of Avallon and the village of 
Savigny, shows that these diminutive establishments comprised 
every essential feature of a monastery,---chapel, cloister, 
chapter-room, refectory, dormitory, all grouped according to the 
recognized arrangement.  These Cluniac obedientiae differed 
from the ordinary Benedictine cells in being also places of 
punishment, to which monks who had been guilty of any grave 
infringement of the rules were relegated as to a kind of 
penitentiary.  Here they were placed under the authority of a 
prior, and were condemned to severe manual labour, fulfilling 
the duties usually executed by the lay brothers, who acted as 
farmservants.  The outlying farming establishments belonging to 
the monastic foundations were known as villae or granges. 
They gave employment to a body of conversi and labourers 
under the management of a monk, who bore the title of Brother 
Hospitaller ---the granges, like their parent institutions, 
affording shelter and hospitality to belated travellers. 

AUTHORITIES.--Dugdale, Monasticon; Lenoir, 
Architecture monastique (1852--1856); Veollet-le-Duc, 
Dictionnaire raisonnee de l'architecture francaise; 
Springer, Klosterleben und Klosterkunst (1886); Kraus, 
Geschichte der christlichen Kunst (1896). (E. V.) 

ABBON OF FLEURY, or ABBO FLORIACENSIS (c. 945-1004), a 
learned Frenchman, born near Orleans about 945. He distinguished 
himself in the schools of Paris and Reims, and was especially 
proficient in science as known in his time.  He spent two 
years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in 
restoring the monastic system, and was abbot of Romsey.  After 
his return to France he was made abbot of Fleury on the Loire 
(988).  He was twice sent to Rome by King Robert the Pious 
(986, 996), and on each occasion succeeded in warding off a 
threatened papal interdict.  He was killed at La Reole in 
1004, in endeavouring to quell a monkish revolt.  He wrote an 
Epitomie de vitis Romanorum pontificum, besides controversial 
treatises, letters, &c. (see Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. 
139).  His life, written by his disciple Aimoin of Fleury, in 
which much of Abbon's correspondence was reproduced, is of great 
importance as a source for the reign of Robert II., especially 
with reference to the papacy (cf. Migne, op. cit. vol. 139). 

See Ch. Pfister, Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux (1885); 
Cuissard-Gaucheron, ``L'Ecole de Fleury-sur-Loire a la fin du 10 
siecle,'' in Memoires de la societe de l'Orleanais, xiv. 
(Orleans, 1875); A. Molinier, Sources de l'histoire de France. 

ABBOT, EZRA (1819--1884), American biblical scholar, was 
born at Jackson, Waldo county, Maine, on the 28th of April 
1819.  He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1840; and in 
1847, at the request of Prof.  Andrews Norton, went to 
Cambridge, where he was principal of a public school until 
1856.  He was assistant librarian of Harvard University from 
1856 to 1872, and planned and perfected an alphabetical card 
catalogue, combining many of the advantages of the ordinary 
dictionary catalogues with the grouping of the minor topics 
under more general heads, which is characteristic of a systematic 
catalogue.  From 1872 until his death he was Bussey Professor 
of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation in the Harvard 
Divinity School.  His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages 
and the textual criticism of the New Testament, thoygh his 
work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive 
list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future 
life, appended to W. R. Alger's History of the Doctrine of 
a Future Life, as it has prevailed in all Nations and Ages 
(1862), and published separately in 1864.  His publications, 
though always of the most thorough and scholarly character, 
were to a large extent dispersed in the pages of reviews, 
dictionaries, concordances, texts edited by others, Unitarian 
controversial treatises, &c.; but he took a more conspicuous 
and more personal part in the preparation (with the Baptist 
scholar, Horatio B. Hackett) of the enlarged American edition 
of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the 
Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400 
articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical 
completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the 
American revision committee employed in connexion with the 
Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided 
in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to 
the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.  His principal 
single production, representing his scholarly method and 
conservative conclusions, was The Authorship af the Fourth 
Gospel: External Evidences (1880; second edition, by J. H. 
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and 
in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time 
probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, 
of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest 
treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.  
Abbot, though a layman, received the degree of S. T. D. from 
Harvard in 1872, and that of D.D. from Edinburgh in 1884. . He 
died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 21st of March 1884. 

See S. J. Barrows, Ezra Abbot (Cambridge, Mass., 1884). 

ABBOT, GEORGE (1562-1633), English divine, archbishop of 
Canterbury, was born on the 19th of October 1562, at Guildford in 
Surrey, where his father was a cloth-worker.  He studied, and 
then taught, at Balliol College, Oxford, was chosen master of 
University College in 1597, and appointed dean of Winchester in 
1600.  He was three times vice-chancellor of the university, 
and took a leading part in preparing the authorized version 
of the New Testament.  In 1608 he went to Scotland with the 
earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between the churches 
of England and Scotland.  He so pleased the king (James 
I.) in this affair that he was made bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry in 1609, was translated to the see of London a month 
afterwards, and in less than a year was raised to that of 
Canterbury.  His puritan instincts frequently led him not 
only into harsh treatment of Roman Catholics, but also into 
courageous resistance to the royal will, e.g. when he 
opposed the scandalous divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard 
against the earl of Essex, and again in 1618 when, at Croydon, 
he forbade the reading of the declaration permitting Sunday 
sports.  He was naturally, therefore, a promoter of the match 
between the elector palatine and the Princess Elizabeth, 
and a firm opponent of the projected marriage of the prince 
of Wales with the infanta of Spain.  This policy brought 
upon him the hatred of Laud (with whom he had previously 
come into collision at Oxford) and the court, though the 
king himself never forsook him.  In 1622, while hunting in 
Lord Zouch's park at Bramshill, Hampshire, a bolt from his 
cross-bow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of the 
keepers, who died within an hour, and Abbot was so greatly 
distressed by the event that he fell into a state of settled 
melancholy.  His enemies maintained that the fatal issue of 
this accident disqualified him for his office, and argued 
that, though the homicide was involuntary, the sport of 
hunting which had led to it was one in which no clerical 
person could lawfully indulge.  The king had to refer the 
matter to a commission of ten, though he said that ``an angel 
might have miscarried after this sort.'' The commission was 
equally divided, and the king gave a casting vote in the 
archbishop's favour, though signing also a formal pardon or 
dispensation.  After this the archbishop seldom appeared 
at the council, chiefly on account of his infirmities.  He 
attended the king constantly, however, in his last illness, 
and performed the ceremony of the coronation of Charles I. 
His refusal to license the assize sermon preached by Dr Robert 
Sibthorp at Northampton on the 22nd of February 1626-1627, in 
which cheerful obedience was urged to the king's demand for a 
general loan, and the duty proclaimed of absolute non-resistance 
even to the most arbitrary royal commands, led Charles to 
deprive him of his functions as primate, putting them in 
commission.  The need of summoning parliament, however, 
soon brought about a nominal restoration of the archbishop's 
powers.  His presence being unwelcome at court, he lived 
from that time in retirement, leaving Laud and his party in 
undisputed ascendancy.  He died at Croydon on the 5th of August 
1633, and was buried at Guildford, his native place, where 
he had endowed a hospital with lands to the value of L. 300 a 
year.  Abbot was a conscientious prelate, though narrow in view 
and often harsh towards both separatists and Romanists.  He 
wrote a large number of works, the most interesting being his 
discursive Exposition on the Prophet Jonah (1600), which was 
reprinted in 1845.  His Geography, or a Brief Description 
of the Whole World (1599), passed through numerous editions. 

The best account of him is in S. R. Gardiner's History of England. 

ABBOT, GEORGE (1603-1648), English writer, known as ``The 
Puritan,'' has been oddly and persistently mistaken for 
others.  He has been described as a clergyman, which he never 
was, and as son of Sir Morris (or Maurice) Abbot, and his 
writings accordingly entered in the bibliographical authorities 
as by the nephew of the archbishop of Canterbury.  One of the 
sons of Sir Morris Abbot was, indeed, named George, and he 
was a man of mark, but the more famous George Abbot was of a 
different family altogether.  He was son or grandson (it is 
not clear which) of Sir Thomas Abbot, knight of Easington, 
East Yorkshire, having been born there in 1603--1604, 
his mother (or grandmother) being of the ancient house of 
Pickering.  Of his early life and training nothing is 
known.  He married a daughter of Colonel Purefoy of Caldecote, 
Warwickshire, and as his monument, which may still be seen 
in the church there, tells, he bravely held the manor house 
against Princes Rupert and Maurice during the civil war.  As 
a layman, and nevertheless a theologian and scholar of rare 
ripeness and critical ability, he holds an almost unique 
place in the literature of the period.  The terseness of his 
Whole Booke of Job Paraphrased, or made easy for any to 
understand (1640, 4to), contrasts favourably with the usual 
prolixity of the Puritan expositors and commentators.  His 
Vindiciae Sabbathi (1641, 8vo) had a profound and lasting 
influence in the long Sabbatarian controversy.  His Brief 
Notes upon the Whole Book of Psalms (1651, 4to), as its date 
shows, was posthumous.  He died on the 2nd of February 1648. 

AUTHORITIES--MS.collections at Abbeyville for history of all 
of the name of Abbot, by J. T. Abbot, Esq., F.S.A., Darlington; 
Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, 1730 p. 1099; Wood's 
Athenae (Bliss), ii.141, 594; Cox's Literature of the Sabbath. 

ABBOT, ROBERT (1588?-1662?), English Puritan divine.  Noted 
as this worthy was in his own time, and representative in 
various ways, he has often since been confounded with others, 
e.g. Robert Abbot, bishop of Salisbury.  He is also wrongly 
described as a relative of Archbishop Abbot, from whom he 
acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his epistles 
dedicatory of A Hand of Fellowship to Helpe Keepe out Sinne 
and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that he had ``received all'' his 
``worldly maintenance,'' as well as ``best earthly countenance', 
and ``fatherly incouragements.', The worldly maintenance 
was the presentation in 1616 to the vicarage of Cranbrook in 
Kent.  He had received his education at Cambridge, where he 
proceeded M.A., and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford.  In 
1639, in the epistle to the reader of his most noticeable book 
historically, his Triall of our Church-Forsakers, he tells 
us, ``I have lived now, by God's gratious dispensation, above 
fifty years, and in the place of my allotment two and twenty 
full.'' The former date carries us back to 1588-1589, or 
perhaps 1587-1588 ---the ``Armada'' year---as his birth-time; 
the latter to 1616-1617 (ut supra). In his Bee Thankfull 
London and her Sisters (1626), he describes himself as 
formerly ``assistant to a reverend divine . . . now with 
God,'' and the name on the margin is ``Master Haiward of Wool 
Church (Dorset).'' This was doubtless previous to his going to 
Cranbrook.  Very remarkable and effective was Abbot's 
ministry at Cranbrook, where his parishioners were as his 
own ``sons and daughters'' to him.  Yet, Puritan though he 
was, he was extremely and often unfairly antagonistic to 
Nonconformists.  He remained at Cranbrook until 1643, when, 
Parliament deciding against pluralities of ecclesiastical 
offices, he chose the very inferior living of Southwick, 
Hants, as between the one and the other.  He afterwards 
succeeded the ``extruded'' Udall of St Austin's, London, 
where according to the Warning-piece he was still pastor in 
1657.  He disappears silently between 1657-1658 and 1662.  
Robert Abbot's books are conspicuous amongst the productions 
of his time by their terseness and variety.  In addition to 
those mentioned above he wrote Milk for Babes, or a Mother's 
Catechism for her Children (1646), and A Christian Family 
builded by God, or Directions for Governors of Families (1653). 

AUTHORITIES.--.Brook's Puritans, iii. 182, 3; Walker's 
Sufferings, ii. 183; Wood's Athenae (Bliss), i. 323; 
Palmer's Nonconf.  Mem. ii. 218, which confuses him most 
oddly of all with one of the ejected ministers of 1662. 

ABBOT, WILLIAM (1798--1843), English actor, was born in 
Chelsea, and made his first appearance on the stage at Bath 
in 1806, and his first London appearance in 1808.  At Covent 
Garden in 1813, in light comedy and melodrama, he made his 
first decided success.  He Was Pylades to Macready's Orestes 
in Ambrose Philips's Distressed Mother when Macready made 
his first appearance at that theatre (1816).  He created the 
parts of Appius Claudius in Sheridan Knowles's Virginius 
(1820) and of Modus in his Hunchback (1832).  In 1827 he 
organized the company, including Macready and Miss Smithson, 
which acted Shakespeare in Paris.  On his return to London 
he played Romeo to Fanny Kemble's Juliet (1830).  Two of 
Abbot's melodramas, The Youthful Days of Frederick the Great 
(1817) and Swedish Patriotism (1819), were produced at 
Covent Garden.  He died in poverty at Baltimore, Maryland. 

ABBOT (from the Hebrew ab, a father, through the Syriac 
abba, Lat. abbas, gen. abbatis, O.E. abbad, fr. late 
Lat. form abbad-em changed in 13th century under influence 
of the Lat. form to abbat, used abternatively till the end 
of the 17th century; Ger. Abt; Fr. abbe), the head and 
chief governor of a community of monks, called also in the 
East hegumenos or archimandrite.  The title had its origin 
in the monasteries of Syria, whence it spread through the 
East, and soon became accepted generally in all languages as 
the designation of the head of a monastery.  At first it was 
employed as a respectful title for any monk, as we learn from St 
Jerome, who denounced the custom on the ground that Christ had 
said, ``Call no man father on earth'' (in Epist. ad Gal. 
iv. 6, in Matt. xxiii. 9), but it was soon restricted to the 
superior.  The name ``abbot,'' though general in the West, 
was never universal.  Among the Dominicans, Carmelites, 
Augustinians, &c., the superior was called Praepositus, 
``provost,'' and Prior; among the Franciscans, Custos, 
``guardian''; and by the monks of Camaldoi, Major. 

In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction 
of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined.  
Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over 
several, each of which had its own abbot as well.  Cassian 
speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under 
him, a number exceeded in other cases.  By the rule of St 
Benedict, which, until the reform of Cluny, was the norm 
in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one 
community.  The rule, as was inevitable, was subject to 
frequent violations; but it was not until the foundation of 
the Cluniac Order that the idea of a supreme abbot, exercising 
jurisdiction over all the houses of an order, was definitely 
recognized.  New styles were devised to express this new 
relation; thus the abbot of Monte Cassino was called abbas 
abbatum, while the chiefs of other orders had the tities 
abbas generails, or magister or minister generalis. 

Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot 
any exception.  All orders of clergy, therefore, even the 
``doorkeeper,', took precedence of him.  For the reception 
of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the 
abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest 
church (Nocellae, 133, c. ii.).  This rule naturally proved 
inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at 
a distance from a city, and necessity compelled the ordination 
of abbots.  This innovation was not introduced without a 
struggle, ecclesiastical dignity being regarded as inconsistent 
with the higher spiritual life, but, before the close of 
the 5th century, at least in the East, abbots seem almost 
universally to have become deacons, if not presbyters.  The 
change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of 
abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th 
century, and partially so up to the 11th.  Ecclesiastical 
councils were, however, attended by abbots.  Thus at that 
held at Constantinople, A.D. 448, for the condemnation of 
Eutyches, 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops, 
and, c A.D. 690, Archbishop Theodore promulgated a 
canon, inhibiting bishops from compelling abbots to attend 
councils.  Examples are not uncommon in Spain and in England 
in Saxon times.  Abbots were permitted by the second council 
of Nicaea, A.D. 787, to ordain their monks to the inferior 
orders.  This rule was adopted in the West, and the strong 
prejudice against clerical monks having gradually broken down, 
eventually monks, almost without exception, took holy orders. 

Abbots were originally subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and 
continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th 
century.  The Code of Justinian (lib. i. tit. iii. de Ep. leg. 
xl.) expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight.  
The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot 
from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins, 
at the council of Arles, A.D. 456; but the exorbitant claims 
and exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to episcopal 
control is to be traced, far more than to the arrogance of 
abbots, rendered it increasingly frequent, and, in the 6th 
century, the practice of exempting religious houses partly or 
altogether from episcopal control, and making them responsible 
to the pope alone, received an impulse from Gregory the 
Great.  These exceptions, introduced with a good object, had 
grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century, virtually 
creating an imperium in imperio, and depriving the bishop 
of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his 
diocese.  In the 12th century the abbots of Fulda claimed 
precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.  Abbots more and 
more assumed almost episcopal state, and in defiance of the 
prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and 
others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves and 
sandals.  It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres 
was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th 
century, but the documents on which this claim is based are 
not genuine (J. Braun, Liturgische Gewandung, p. 453).  The 
first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II. 
in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of 
the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury (see MITRE). The 
mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban's, 
Bardney, Battle, Bury St Edmund's, St Augustine's Canterbury, 
Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glastonbury, Gloucester, 
St Benet's Hulme, Hyde, Malmesbury, Peterborough, Ramsey, 
Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, Tavistock, Thorney, Westminster, 
Winchcombe, St Mary's York.  Of these the precedence was 
originally yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in 
A.D. 1154 Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspear) granted it to the 
abbot of St Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought 
up.  Next after the abbot of St Alban's ranked the abbot of 
Westminster.  To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained 
that their mitre should be made of less costly materials, 
and should not be ornamented with gold, a rule which was soon 
entirely disregarded, and that the crook of their pastoral 
staff should turn inwards instead of outwards, indicating 
that their jurisdiction was limited to their own house. 

The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots was followed 
by an encroachment on episcopal functions, which had to be 
specially but ineffectually guarded against by the Lateran 
council, A.D. 1123.  In the East, abbots, if in priests' 
orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, as we have 
seen, permitted by the second Nicene council, A.D. 787, 
to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of reader; but 
gradually abbots, in the West also, advanced higher claims, 
until we find them in A.D. 1489 permitted by Innocent 
IV. to confer both the subdiaconate and diaconate.  Of 
course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting 
their own monks and vesting them with the religious habit. 

When a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese chose 
the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but the right 
of election was transferred by jurisdiction to the monks 
themselves, reserving to the bishop the confirmation of the 
election and the benediction of the new abbot.  In abbeys 
exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the confirmation and 
benediction had to be conferred by the pope in person, the house 
being taxed with the expenses of the new abbot's journey to 
Rome.  By the rule of St Benedict, the consent of the laity 
was in some undefined way required; but this seems never 
to have been practically enforced.  It was necessary that 
an abbot should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate 
birth, a monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable 
candidate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another 
convent, well instructed himself, and able to instruct others, 
one also who had learned how to command by having practised 
obedience.  In some exceptional cases an abbot was allowed 
to name his own successor.  Cassian speaks of an abbot in 
Egypt doing this; and in later times we have another example 
in the case of St Bruno.  Popes and sovereigns gradually 
encroached on the rights of the monks, until in Italy the 
pope had usurped the nomination of all abbots, and the king in 
France, with the exception of Cluny, Premontre and other 
houses, chiefs of their order.  The election was for life, 
unless the abbot was canonically deprived by the chiefs of 
his order, or when he was directly subject to them, by the 
pope or the bishop.  The ceremony of the formal admission of 
a Benedictine abbot in medieval times is thus prescribed by 
the consuetudinary of Abingdon.  The newly elected abbot was 
to put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed 
barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in a 
procession.  After proceeding up the nave, he was to kneel 
and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the choir, 
into which he was to be introduced by the bishop or his 
commissary, and placed in his stall.  The monks, then kneeling, 
gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, and rising, on the 
mouth, the abbot holding his staff of office.  He then put 
on his shoes in the vestry, and a chapter was held, and 
the bishop or his commissary preached a suitable sermon. 

The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, limited, 
however, by the canons of the church, and, until the general 
establishment of exemptions, by episcopal control.  As a 
rule, however, implicit obedience was enforced; to act 
without his orders was culpable; while it was a sacred duty 
to execute his orders, however unreasonable, until they were 
withdrawn.  Examples among the Egyptian monks of this blind 
submission to the commands of the superiors, exalted into 
a virtue by those who regarded the entire crushing of the 
individual will as the highest excellence, are detailed by 
Cassian and others,--- e.g. a monk watering a dry stick, 
day after day, for months, or endeavouring to remove a huge 
rock immensely exceeding his powers.  St Jerome, indeed, lays 
down, as the principle of the compact between the abbot and his 
monks, that they should obey their superiors in all things, 
and perform whatever they commanded (Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. de 
custod. virgin.). So despotic did the tyranny become in the 
West, that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to 
restrain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their 
monks and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St 
Columban ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very slight 
offences.  An abbot also had the power of excommunicating 
refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess. 

The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence 
by the brethren of his house.  When he appeared either in 
church or chapter all present rose and bowed.  His letters 
were received kneeling, like those of the pope and the 
king.  If he gave a command, the monk receiving it was also to 
kneel.  No monk might sit in his presence, or leave it without his 
permission.  The highest place was naturally assigned to him, 
both in church and at table.  In the East he was commanded to 
eat with the other monks.  In the West the rule of St Benedict 
appointed him a separate table, at which he might entertain 
guests and strangers.  This permission opening the door to 
luxurious living, the council of Aix, A.D. 817, decreed that 
the abbot should dine in the refectory, and be content with 
the ordinary fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a 
guest.  These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual 
to secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature 
abounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning the 
inordinate extravagance of the tables of the abbots.  When the 
abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his chaplains waited 
upon him with the dishes, a servant, if necessary, assisting 
them.  At St Alban's the abbot took the lord's seat, in the 
centre of the high table, and was served on silver plate, and 
sumptuously entertained noblemen, ambassadors and strangers of 
quality.  When abbots dined in their own private hall, the rule 
of St Benedict charged them to invite their monks to their table, 
provided there was room, on which occasions the guests were 
to abstain from quarrels, slanderous talk and idle gossiping. 

The ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be 
the same as that of the monks.  But by the 10th century the 
rule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent complaints of 
abbots dressing in silk, and adopting sumptuous attire.  They 
sometimes even laid aside the monastic habit altogether, and 
assumed a secular dress.1 This was a necessary consequence of 
their following the chase, which was quite usual, and indeed at 
that time only natural.  With the increase of wealth and power, 
abbots had lost much of their special religious character, and 
become great lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by 
celibacy.  Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with 
their men carrying bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs and 
huntsmen; and special mention is made of an abbot of Leicester, 
c. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the nobility in 
harehunting.  In magnificence of equipage and retinue the 
abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm.  They rode 
on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and housings, 
carrying hawks on their wrist, followed by an immense train of 
attendants.  The bells of the churches were rung as they 
passed.  They associated on equal terms with laymen of the 
highest distinction, and shared all their pleasures and 
pursuits.  This rank and power was, however, often used most 
beneficially.  For instance, we read of Whiting, the last 
abbot of Glastonbury, judicially murdered by Henry VIII., 
that his house was a kind of well-ordered court, where as 
many as 300 sons of noblemen and gentlemen, who had been sent 
to him for virtuous education, had been brought up, besides 
others of a meaner rank, whom he fitted for the universities.  
His table, attendance and officers were an honour to the 
nation.  He would entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at 
one time, besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a 
week.  He had his country houses and fisheries, and when 
he travelled to attend parliament his retinue amounted to 
upwards of 100 persons.  The abbots of Cluny and Vendome 
were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church. 

In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred 
to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system, 
as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and 
under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king, 
Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas 
Castrensis. It even came to be adopted by purely secular 
officials.  Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa 
was called Abbas Populi. Du Cange, in his glossary, also gives 
us Abbas Campanilis, Clocherii, Palatii, Scholaris, &c. 

Lay abbots (M. Lat. defensores, abbacomites, abbates laici, 
abbates milites, abbates saeculares or irreligiosi, 
abbatiarii, or sometimes simply abbates) were the outcome 
of the growth of the feudal system from the 8th century 
onwards.  The practice of commendation, by which---to meet 
a contemporary emergency--the revenues of the community were 
handed over to a lay lord, in return for his protection, 
early suggested to the emperors and kings the expedient of 
rewarding their warriors with rich abbeys held in commendam. 
During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting 
these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the 10th 
century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly 
established.  Even the abbey of St Denis was held in commendam 
by Hugh Capet.  The example of the kings was followed by the 
feudal nobles, sometimes by making a temporary concession 
permanent, sometimes without any form of commendation 
whatever.  In England the abuse was rife in the 8th 
century, as may be gathered from the acts of the council of 
Cloveshoe.  These lay abbacies were not merely a question of 
overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands 
of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the 
foundations, i.e. the more or less complete secularization of 


1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is 
charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman. 

spiritual institutions.  The lay abbot took his recognized 
rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of 
his fief as in the case of any other.  The enfeoffment of 
abbeys differed in form and degree.  Sometimes the monks were 
directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a 
substitute to perform the spirtual functions, known usually 
as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimas, 
monasticus, regularis). When the great reform of the 11th 
century had put an end to the direct jurisdiction of the lay 
abbots, the honorary title of abbot continued to be held by 
certain of the great feudal famines, as late as the 13th century 
and later, the actual head of the community retaining that of 
dean.  The connexion of the lesser lay abbots with the 
abbeys, especially in the south of France, lasted longer; 
and certain feudal families retained the title of abbes 
chevaliers (abbates milltes) for centuries, together with 
certain rights over the abbey lands or revenues.  The abuse was 
not confined to the West.  John, patriarch of Antioch, at the 
beginning of the 12th Century, informs us that in his time most 
monasteries had been handed over to laymen, bencficiarii, 
for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors. 

In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied the 
place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on 
the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior. 

The title abbe (Ital. abbate), as commonly used in the 
Catholic church on the European continent, is the equivalent 
of the English ``Father,'' being loosely applied to all who 
have received the tonsure.  This use of the title is said to 
have originated in the right conceded to the king of France, 
by the concordat between Pope Leo X. and Francis I. (1516), 
to appoint abbes commendataires to most of the abbeys in 
France.  The expectation of obtaining these sinecures drew 
young men towards the church in considerable numbers, and 
the class of abbes so formed ---abbes de cour they were 
sometimes called, and sometimes (ironically) abbes de sainte 
esperance, abbes of St Hope---came to hold a recognized 
position.  The connexion many of them had with the church 
was of the slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting 
the name of abbe, after a remarkably moderate course of 
theological study, practising celibacy and wearing a distinctive 
dress--a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar.  Being 
men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, many of the 
class found admission to the houses of the French nobility 
as tutors or advisers.  Nearly every great family had its 
abbe.  The class did not survive the Revolution; but the 
courtesy title of abbe, having long lost all connexion in 
people's minds with any special ecclesiastical function, remained 
as a convenient general term applicable to any clergyman. 

In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Abt) is 
sometimes bestowed, like abbe, as an honorary distinction, 
and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries 
converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations.  Of 
these the most noteworthy is the abbey of Lokkum in Hanover, 
founded as a Cistercian house in 1163 by Count Wilbrand of 
Hallermund, and reformed in 1593.  The abbot of Lokkum, who 
still carries a pastoral staff, takes precedence of all the 
clergy of Hanover, and is ex officio a member of the consistory 
of the kingdom.  The governing body of the abbey consists of 
abbot, prior and the ``convent'' of canons (Stiftsherren). 

See Joseph Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticae (1840); Du 
Cange, Glossarium med. et inf.  Lat. (ed. 1883); J. Craigie 
Robertson, Hist. of the Christian Church (1858-1873); Edmond 
Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus (Venice, 1783); C. 
F. R. de Montalembert, Les moines d'occident depuis S. Benoit 
jusqu'a S. Bernard (1860--1877); Achille Luchaire, Manuel 
des institutions francaises (Par. 1892). (E.V.; W.A.P.) 

1 The Architectural History of the Conventual Buildings of 
the Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury. By the Rev. Robert 
Willis.  Printed for the Kent Archaeological Society, 1869. 

ABBOTSFORD, formerly the residence of Sir Walter Scott, 
situated on the S. bank of the Tweed, about 3 m.  W. of Melrose, 
Roxburghshire, Scotland, and nearly 1 m. from Abbotsford Ferry 
station on the North British railway, connecting Selkirk and 
Galashiels.  The nucleus of the estate was a small farm of 100 
acres, called Cartleyhole, nicknamed Clarty (i.e. muddy) 
Hole, and bought by Scott on the lapse of his lease (1811) 
of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel.  It was added to 
from time to time, the last and principal acquisition being 
that of Toftfield (afterwards named Huntlyburn), purchased in 
1817.  The new house was then begun and completed in 1824.  
The general ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular 
outlines, one side overlooking the Tweed; and the style is 
mainly the Scottish Baronial.  Into various parts of the fabric 
were built relics and curiosities from historical structures, 
such as the doorway of the old Tolbooth in Edinburgh.  Scott 
had only enjoyed his residence one year when (1825) he met 
with that reverse of fortune which involved the estate in 
debt.  In 1830 the library and museum were presented to him 
as a free gift by the creditors.  The property was wholly 
disencumbered in 1847 by Robert Cadell, the publisher, who 
cancelled the bond upon it in exchange for the family's share 
in the copyright of Sir Walter's works.  Scott's only son Walter 
did not live to enjoy the property, having died on his way 
from India in 1847.  Among subsequent possessors were Scott's 
son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, J. R. Hope Scott, Q.C., and his 
daughter (Scott's great-granddaughter), the Hon. Mrs Maxwell 
Scott.  Abbotsford gave its name to the ``Abbotsford Club,'' 
a successor of the Bannatyne and Maitland clubs, founded 
by W. B. D. D. Turnbull in 1834 in Scott's honour, for 
printing and publishing historical works connected with his 
writings.  Its publications extended from 1835 to 1864. 

See Lockhart, Life of Scott; Washington Irving, Abbotsford 
and Newstead Abbey; W. S. Crockett, The Scott Country. 

ABBOTT, EDWIN ARROTT (1838- ), English schoolmaster and 
theologian, was born on the 20th of December 1838.  He 
was educated at the City of London school and at St John's 
College, Cambridge, where he took the highest honours in the 
classical, mathematical and theological triposes, and became 
fellow of his college.  In 1862 he took orders.  After holding 
masterships at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and at 
Clifton College, he succeeded G. F. Mortimer as headmaster 
of the City of London school in 1865 at the early age of 
twenty-six.  He was Hulsean lecturer in 1876.  He retired 
in 1889, and devoted himself to literary and theological 
pursuits.  Dr Abbott's liberal inclinations in theology 
were prominent both in his educational views and in his 
books.  His Shakespearian Grammar (1870) is a permanent 
contribution to English philology.  In 1885 he published a 
life of Francis Bacon.  His theological writings include three 
anonymously published religious romances--Philochristus 
(1878), Onesimus (1882), Sitanus (1906).  More weighty 
contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The 
Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book 
on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article 
``The Gospels'' in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable 
stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St 
Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898), 
Johannine Vocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906). 

His brother, Evelyn Abbott (1843-1901), was a well-known tutor of 
Balliol, Oxford, and author of a scholarly History of Greece. 

ABBOTT, EMMA (1849-1891), American singer, was born at 
Chicago and studied in Milan and Paris.  She had a fine soprano 
voice, and appeared first in opera in London under Colonel 
Mapleson's direction at Covent Garden, also singing at important 
concerts.  She organized an opera company known by her name, 
and toured extensively in the United States, where she had 
a great reputation.  In 1873 she married E. J. Wethereil.  
She died at Salt Lake City on the 5th of January 1891. 

ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879), American writer of books for the 
young, was born at Hallowell, Maine, on the 14th of November 
1803.  He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1820; studied at 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, 1822, and 1824; was 
tutor in 1824-1825, and from 1825 to 1829 was professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy in Amherst College; was 
licensed to preach by the Hampshire Association in 1826; 
founded the Mount Vernon School for young ladies in Boston in 
1829, and was principal of it in 1829--1833; was pastor of 
Eliot Congregational Church (which he founded), at Roxbury, 
Mass., in 1834-1835; and was, with his brothers, a founder, 
and in 1843--1851 a principal of Abbott's Institute, and in 
1845--1848 of the Mount Vernon School for boys, in New York 
City.  He was a prolific author, writing juvenile stories, 
brief histories and biographies, and religious books for 
the general reader, and a few works in popular science.  
He died on the 31st of October 1879 at Farmington, Maine, 
where he had spent part of his time since 1839, and where 
his brother Samuel Phillips Abbott founded in 1844 the Abbott 
School, popularly cailed ``Little Blue.'' Jacob Abbott's 
``Rollo Books''-Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in 
Europe, &c. (28 vols.)---are the best known of his writings, 
having as their chief characters a representative boy and his 
associates.  In them Abbott did for one or two generations 
of young American readers a service not unlike that performed 
earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at 
Home, Sandford and Merton, and the Parent's Assistant. Of 
his other writings (he produced more than two hundred volumes 
in all), the best are the Franconia Stories (10 vols.), 
twenty-two volumes of biographical histories in a series of 
thirty-two volumes (with his brother John S. C. Abbott), and 
the Young Christian,---all of which had enormous circulations. 

His sons, Benjamin Vaughan Abbott (1830-1890), Austin Abbott 
(1831-1896), both eminent lawyers, Lyman Abbott (q.v.), and 
Edward Abbott (1841-1908), a clergyman, were also well-known 
authors.  See his Young Christian, Memorial Edition, with 
a Sketch of the Author by one of his sons, i.e. Edward 
Abbott (New York, 1882), with a bibliography of his works. 

ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805-1877), American writer, 
was born in Brunswick, Maine, on the 18th of September 
1805.  He was a brother of Jacob Abbott, and was associated 
with him in the management of Abbott's Institute, New York 
City, and in the preparation of his series of brief historical 
biographies.  He is best known, however, as the author of 
a partisan and unscholarly, but widely popular and very 
readable History of Napoleon Bonaparte (1855), in which 
the various elements and episodes in Napoleon's career are 
treated with some skill in arrangement, but with unfailing 
adulation.  Dr Abbott graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825, 
prepared for the ministry at Andover Theological Seminary, 
and between 1830 and 1844, when he retired from the ministry, 
preached successively at Worcester, Roxbury and Nantucket, 
Massachusetts.  He died at Fair Haven, Connecticut, on the 17th 
of June 1877.  He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian 
ethics, and of histories, which now seem unscholarly and 
untrustworthy, but were valuable in their time in cultivating 
a popular interest in history.  In general, except that 
he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and 
style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. 

ABBOTT, LYMAN (1835- ), American divine and author, was 
born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 18th of December 1835, 
the son of Jacob Abbott.  He graduated at the University 
of New York in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1856; but soon abandoned the legal profession, and, 
after studying theology with his uncle, J. S. C. Abbott, 
was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church in 
1860.  He was pastor of a church in Terre Haute, Indiana, in 
1860-1865, and of the New England Church in New York City in 
1865--1869.  From 1865 to 1868 he was secretary of the American 
Union (Freedman's) Commission.  In 1869 he resigned his pastorate 
to devote himself to literature.  He was an associate editor of 
Harper's Magazine, was editor of the Illustrated Christian 
Weekly, and was co-editor (1876-1881) of The Christian 
Union with Henry Ward Beecher, whom he succeeded in 1888 as 
pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn.  From this pastorate he 
resigned ten years later.  From 1881 he was editor-in-chief 
of The Christian Union, renamed The Outlook in 1893; this 
periodical reflected his efforts toward social reform, and, in 
theology, a liberality, humanitarian and nearly unitarian.  
The latter characteristics marked his published works also. 

His works include Jesus of Nazareth (1869); Illustrated 
Commentary on the New Testament (4 vols., 1875); A Study 
in Human Nature (1885); Life of Christ (1894); Evolution 
of Christianity (Lowell Lectures, 1896); The Theology of 
an Evolutionist (1897); Christianity and Social Problems 
(1897); Life and Letters of Paul, (1898); The Life that 
Really is (1899); Problems of Life (1900); The Rights 
of Man (1901); Henry Ward Beecher (1903); The Christian 
Ministry (1905); The Personality of God (1905); Industrial 
Problems (1905); and Christ's Secret of Happiness (1907).  
He edited Sermons of Henry Ward Beecher (2 vols., 1868). 

ABBOTTADAD, a town of British India, 4120 ft. above 
sealevel, 63 m. from Rawalpindi, the headquarters of the 
Hazara district in the N.W. Frontier Province, called after 
its founder, Sir James Abbott, who settled this wild district 
after the annexation of the Punjab.  It is an important 
military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of 
a brigade in the second division of the northern army corps.  
In 1901 the population of the town and cantonment was 7764. 

ABBREVIATION (Lat. brevis, short), strictly a shortening; 
more particularly, an ``abbreviation'' is a letter or group 
of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to 
represent them for the sake of brevity.  Abbreviations, both 
of single words and of phrases, having a meaning more or 
less fixed and recognized, are common in ancient writings 
and inscriptions (see PALAEOGRAPHY and DIPLOMATIC), and 
very many are in use at the present time.  A distinction is 
to be observed between abbreviations and the contractions 
that are frequently to be met with in old manuscripts, and 
even in early printed books, whereby letters are dropped 
out here and there, or particular collocations of letters 
represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols.  The commonest 
form of abbreviation is the substitution for a word of its 
initial letter; but, with a view to prevent ambiguity, one 
or more of the other letters are frequently added.  Letters 
are often doubled to indicate a plural or a superlative. 

I. CLASSICAL ABBREVIATIONS.---The following list 
contains a selection from the abbreviations that occur 
in the writings and inscriptions of the Romans:-- 


 
                                  A.
 A.         Absolvo, Aedilis, Aes, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annus, Antiquo,
              Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum, Aut.
 A.A.       Aes alienum, Ante audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum.
 AA.        Augusti. AAA. Augusti tres.
 A.A.A.F.F. Auro argento acre flando feriundo.1
 A.A.V.     Alter ambove.
 A.C.       Acta causa, Alins civis.
 A.D.       Ante diem; e.g. A.D.V. Ante diem quintum.
 A.D.A.     Ad dandos agros.
 AEO.       Aedes, Aedilis, Aedilitas.
 AEM. and AIM.        Aemilius, Aemilia.
 AER.       Aerarium. AER.P. Aere publico.
 A.F.       Acture fide, Auli filius.
 AG.        Ager, Ago, Agrippa.
 A.G.       Ammo grato, Aulus Gellius.
 A.L.AE. and A.L.E.  Arbitrium litis aestimandae.
 A.M. and A.MILL.    Ad milliarium.
 AN.        Aniensis, Annus, Ante.
 ANN.       Annales, Anni, Annona.
 ANT.       Ante, Antonius.
 A.O.       Alii omnes, Amico optimo.
 AP.        Atppius, Apud.
 A.P.       Ad pedes, Aedilitia potestate.
 A.P.F.     Auro (or argento) publico feriundo.
 A.P.M.     Amico posuit monumentum, Annorum plus minus.
 A.P.R.C.   Anno post Romam conditam.
 ARG.       Argentum.
 AR.V.V.D.D.Aram votam volens dedicavit, Arma votiva dono dedit.
 AT         A tergo. Also A TE. and A TER.
 A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare oportere.
 AV.        Augur, Augustus, Aurelius.
 A.V.       Annos vixit.
 A.V.C.     Ab urbe condita.
 AVG.       Augur, Augustus.
 AVGG.      Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tres.
 AVT.PR.R.  Auctoritas provinciae Romanorum.
 
                                  B.
 B.         Balbius, Balbus, Beatus, Bene, Beneficiarius, Beneficium,
            Bonus, Brutus, Bustum.
 B.for V.      Berna Bivus, Bixit.
 B.A.       Bixit anos, Bonis auguriis, Bonus amabilis.
 BB.or B.B.    Bene bene, i.e. optime, Optimus.
 B.D.       Bonae deae, Bonum datum.
 B.DD.      Bonis deabus.
 B.D.S.M. Bene de se merenti.
 B.F.       Bona femina, Bona fides, Bona fortuna, Bonum factum.
 B.F.       Bona femina, Bona filia.
 B.H.       Bona hereditaria, Bonorum heres.
 B.I.       Bonum judicium. B.I.I. Boni judicis judicium.
 B.M.       Beatae memoriae, Bene merenti.
 B.N.       Bona nostra, Bonum nomen.
 BN.H.I.    Bona hic invenies.
 B.P.       Bona paterna, Bonorum potestas, Bonum publicum.
 B.Q.       Bene quiescat, Bona quaesita.
 B.RP.N.    Boho reipublicae natus.
 BRT.       Britannicus.
 B.T.       Bonorum tutor, Brevi tempore.
 B.V.       Bene vale, Bene vixit, Bonus vir.
 B.V.V.     Balnea vina Venus.
 BX.        Bixit, for vixit.
 
                                  C.
 C.         Caesar, Cains, Caput, Causa, Censor, Civis, Conors, Colonia,
                Comitialis (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo, Custos.
 C.         Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con.
 C.B.       Civis bonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui bono.
 C.C.       Calumniae causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimae, Consilium
                cepit, Curiae consulto.
 C.C.C.     Calumniae cavendae causa.
 C.C.F.     Caesar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Cains Caii filius.
 CC.VV.     Clarissimi viri.
 C.D.       Caesaris decreto, Cains Decius, Comitialibus diebus.
 CES.       Censor, Censores. CESS. Censores.
 C.F.       Causa fiduciae, Conjugi fecit, Curavit faciendum.
 C.H.       Custos heredum, Custos hortorum.
 C.I.       Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex. .
 CL.        Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonia.
 CL.V.      Clarissimus vir, Clypeum vovit.
 C.M.       Caius Marius, Causa mortis.
 CN.        Cnaeus.
 COH.       Coheres, Conors.
 COL.       Collega, Collegium, Colonia, Columna.
 COLL.      Collega, Coloni, Coloniae.
 COM.       Comes, Comitium, Comparatum.
 CON.       Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Consularis.
 COR.       Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus.
 COS.       Consiliarius, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consules.
 C.P.       Carissimus or Clarissimus puer, Civis publicus, Curavit
                ponendum.
 C.R.       Cains Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum.
 CS.        Caesar, Communis, Consul.
 C.V.       Clarissimus or Consularis vir.
 CVR.       Cura, Curator, Curavit, Curia.
 
                                  D.
 D.         Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Decimus, Decius, Decretum, Decurio,
                Deus, Dicit, &c., Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus, Donum.
 D.C.       Decurio coloniae, Diebus comitialibus, Divus Caesar.
 D.D.       Dea Dia, Decurionum decreto, Dedicavit, Deo dedit, Dono dedit.
 D.D.D.     Datum decreto decurionum, Dono dedit dedicavit.
 D.E.R.     De ea re.
 DES.       Designatus.
 D.I.       Dedit imperator, Diis immortalibus, Diis inferis.
 D.l.M.     Deo invicto Mithrae, Diis inferis Manibus.
 D.M.       Deo Magno, Dignus memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolo malo.
 D.O.M.     Deo Optimo Maximo.
 D.P.S.     Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo perpetuo sacrum, De pecunia
                sua.
 
                                  E.
 E.         Ejus, Eques, Erexft, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex.
 EG.        Aeger, Egit, Egregius.
 E.M.       Egregiae memoriae, Ejusmodi, Erexit monumentum.
 EQ.M.      Equitum magister.
 E.R.A.     Ea res agitur.
 
                                  F.
 F.         Fabius, Facere, Fecit, &c., Familia, Fastus (dies), Felix,
                Femina, Fides, Filius, Flamen, Fortuna, Frater, Fuit, Functus.
 F.C.       Faciendum curavit, Fidei commissume, Fiduciae causa.
 F.D.       Fidem dedit, Flamen Dialis, Fraude donavit.
 F.F.F.     Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fato.
 FL.        Filius, Flamen, Flaminius, Flavius.
 F.L.       Favete linguis, Fecit libens, Felix liber.
 FR.        Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius.
 F.R.       Forum Romanum.
 
                                  G.
 G.         Gaius (=Caius), Gallia, Gaudium, Gellius, Gemma, Gens,
                Gesta, Gratia.
 G.F.       Gemma fidelis (applied to a legion). So G.P.F. Gemma
                pia fidelis.
 GL.        Gloria.
 GN.        Genius, Gens, Genus, Gnaeus (=Cnaeus).
 G.P.R.     Genro populi Romani.
 
 H.
 H.         Habet, Heres, Hic, Homo, Honor, Hora.
                HER. Heres, Herennius. HER. and HERC. Hercules.
 H.L.       Hac lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loco.
 H.M.       Hoc monumentum, Honesta mulier, Hora mala.
 H.S.E.     Hic sepultus est, Hic situs est.
 H.V.       Haec urbs, Hic vivit, Honeste vixit, Honestus vir.
 
                                  I.
 I.         Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infra, Inter, Invictus, Ipse, Isis,
                Judex, Julius, Junius, Jupiter, Justus.
 IA.        Jam, Intra.
 I.C.       Julius Caesar, Juris Consultum, Jus civile.
 ID.        Idem, Idus, Interdum.
 l.D.       Inferis diis, Jovi dedicatnm, Jus dicendum, Jussu Dei.
 I.D.M.     Jovi deo magno.
 I.F.       In foro, In fronte.
 I.H.       Jacet hic, In honestatem, Justus homo.
 IM.        Imago, Immortalis, Immunis, Impensa.
 IMP.       Imperator, Imperium.
 I.O.M.     Jovi optimo maximo.
 I.P.       In publico, Intra provinciam, Justa persona.
 I.S.V.P.   Impensa sua vivus posuit.
 
                                  K.
 K.         Kaeso, Caia, Calumnia, Caput, Carus, Castra.
 K., KAL. and KL.   Kalendae.
 
                                  L.
 L.         Laelius, Legio, Lex, Libens, Liber, Libra, Locus, Lollius,
                Lucius, Ludus.
 LB.        Libens, Liberi, Libertus.
 L.D.D.D.   Locus datus decreto decurionum.
 LEG.       Legatus, Legio.
 LIB.       Liber, Liberalitas, Libertas, Libertus, Librarius.
 LL.        Leges, Libentissime, Liberti.
 L.M.       Libens merito, Locus monumenti.
 L.S.       Laribus sacrum, Libens solvit, Locus sacer.
 LVD.       Ludus.
 LV.P.F.    Ludos publicos fecit.
 
                                  M.
 M.         Magister, Magistratus, Magnus, Manes, Marcus, Marins,
                Marti, Mater, Memoria, Mensis, Miles, Monumentum, Mortuus,
                Mucius, Mulier.
 M'.        Manius.
 M.D.       Magno Deo, Manibus diis, Matri deum, Merenti dedit.
 MES.       Mensis. MESS. Menses.
 M.F.       Mala fides, Marci filius, Monumentum fecit.
 M.I.       Matri Idaeae, Matii Isidi, Maximo Jovi.
 MNT. and      MON. Moneta.
 M.P.       Male positus, Monumentum posuit.
 M.S.       Manibus sacrum, Memoriae sacrum, Manu scriptum.
 MVN.       Municeps, or municipium; so also MN., MV. and MVNIC.
 M.V.S.     Marti ultori sacrum, Merito votum solvit.
 
                                  N.
 N.         Natio, Natus, Nefastus (dies), Nepos, Neptunus, Nero,
                Nomen, Non, Nonae, Noster, Novus, Numen, Numerius,
                Numerus, Nummus.
 NEP.       Nepos, Neptunus.
 N.F.C.     Nostrae fidei commissum.
 N.L.       Non licet, Non liquet, Non longe.
 N.M.V.     Nobilis memoriae vir.
 NN.        Nostri. NN., NNO. and NNR. Nostrorum.
 NOB.       Nobilis. NOB., NOBR. and NOV. Novembris.
 N.P.       Nefastus primo (i.e. priore parto diei), Non potest.
 
                                  O.
 O.         Ob, Officium, Omnis, Oportet, Optimus, Opus, Ossa.
 OB.        Obiit, Obiter, Orbis.
 O.C.S.     Ob cives servatos.
 O.H.F.     Omnibus honoribus functus.
 O.H.S.S.   Ossa hic sita sunt.
 OR. Hora,  Ordo, Ornamentum.
 O.T.B.Q.   Ossa tua bene quiescant.
 
                                  P.
 P.         Pars, Passus, Pater, Patronus, Pax, Perpetuus, Pes, Pius,
                Plebs, Pondo, Populus, Post, Posuit, Praeses, Praetor,
                Primus, Pro, Provincia, Publicus, Publius, Puer.
 P.C.       Pactum conventum, Patres conscripti, Pecunia constituta,
 Ponendum curavit, Post consulatum, Potestate censoria.
 P.F.       Pia fidelis, Pius felix, Promissa fides, Publii filius.
 P.M.       Piae memoriae, Pius minus, Pontifex maximus.
 P.P.       Pater patratus, Pater patriae, Pecunia publica, Praepositus,
 Primipilus, Propraetor.
 PR.        Praeses, Praetor, Pridie, Princeps.
 P.R.       Permissu reipublicae, Populus Romanus.
 P.R.C.     Post Romam conditam.
 PR.PR.     Praefectus praetorii, Propraetor.
 P.S.       Pecunia sua, Plebiscitum, Proprio sumptu, Publicae saluti.
 P.V.       Pia victrix, praefectus urbi, Praestantissimus vir.
 
                                  Q.
 Q.         Quaestor, Quando, Quantus, Que, Qui, Quinquennalis,
                Quintus, Quirites.
 Q.D.R.     Qua de re.
 Q.I.S.S.   Quae infra scripta sunt; so Q.S.S.S. Quae supra, &c.
 QQ.        Quaecunque, Quinquennalis, Quoque.
 Q.R.       Quaestor reipublicae.
 
                                  R.
 R.         Recte, Res, Respublica, Retro, Rex, Ripa, Roma, Romanus,
                Rufus, Rursus.
 R.C.       Romana civitas, Romanus civis.
 RESP. and RP.       Respublica.
 RET.P. and RP.      Retro pedes.
 
                                  S.
 S.         Sacrum, Scriptus, Semis, Senatus, Sepultus, Servius,
                Servus, Sextus, Sibi, Sine, Situs, Solus, Solvit, Sub, Suus.
 SAC.       Sacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum.
 S.C.       Senatus consultum.
 S.D.       Sacrum diis, Salutem dicit, Senatus decreto, Sententiam
 S.D.M.       Sacrum diis Manibus, Sine dolo malo.
 SER.       Servius, Servus.
 S.E.T.L.   Sit ei terra levis.
 SN.        Senatus, Sententia, Sine.
 S.P.       Sacerdos perpetua, Sine pecunia, Sua pecunia.
 S.P.Q.R.   Senatus populusque Romanus.
 S.S.       Sanctissimus senatus, Supra scripture.
 S.V.B.E.E.Q.V.          Si vales bene est, ego quidem valeo.
 
                                  T.
 T.         Terminus, Testamentum, Titus, Tribunus, Tu, Turma, Tutor.
 TB., TI. and TIB.   Tiberius.
 TB., TR. and TRB.   Tribunus.
 T.F.       Testamentum fecit, Titi filius, Titulum fecit, Titus Flavius.
 TM.        Terminus, Testamentum, Thermae.
 T.P.       Terminum posuit, Tribunicia potestate, Tribunus plebis.
 TVL.       Tullius, Tunus.
 
                                  V.
 V.         Urbs, Usus, Uxor, Vale, Verba, Vestalis, Vester, Vir, Vivus,
                Vixit, Volo, Votum.
 VA.        Veterano assignatus, Vixit annos.
 V.C.       Vale conjux, Vir clarissimus, Vir consularis.
 V.E.       Verum etiam, Vir egregius, Visum est.
 V.F.       Usus fructus, Verba fecit, Vivus fecit.
 V.P.       Urbis praefectus, Vir perfectissimus, Vivus posuit.
 V.R.       Urbs Roma, Uti rogas, Votum reddidit.
 
 II. MEDIEVAL ABBREVIATIONS.--Of the different kinds of
 abbreviations in use in the middle ages, the following are
 examples:--
 A.M.       Ave Maria.
 B.P.       Beatus Paulus, Beatus Petrus. .
 CC.        Carissimus (atso plur. Carissimi), Clarissimus, Circum.
 D.         Deus, Dominicus, Dux.
 D.N.PP.    Dominus hoster Papa.
 U.F.       Felicissimus, Fratres, Pandectae (prob. for Gr. II).
 I.C. or I.X.    Jesus Christus.
 I.D.N.     In Dei nomine.
 KK.        Karissimus (or-mi).
 MM.        Magistri, Martyres, Matrimonium, Meritissimus.
 O.S.B.     Ordinis Sancti Benedicti.
 PP.        Papa, Patres, Piissimus.
 R.F.       Rex Francorum.
 R.P.D.     Reverendissimus Pater Dominus.
 S.C.M.     Sacra Caesarea Majestas.
 S.M.E.     Sancta Mater Ecclesia.
 S.M.M.     Sancta Mater Maria.
 S.R.I.     Sanctum Romanum Imperium.
 S.V.       Sanctitas Vestra, Sancta Virgo.
 V.         Venerabilis, Venerandus. .
 V.R.P.     Vestra Reverendissima Paternitas.
 
 III. ABBREVIATIONS NOW IN USE.--The import of these
 will often be readily understood from the connexion in which
 they occur. There is no occasion to explain here the common
 abbreviations used for Christian names, books of Scripture,
 months of the year, points of the compass, grammatical and
 mathematical terms, or familiar titles, like ``Mr,'' &c.
 
 The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may
 be conveniently classified under the following headings:-
 
 I. ABBREVIATED TITLES AND DESIGNATIONS.
 A.A.       Associate of Arts.
 A.B.       Able-bodied seaman; (in America) Bachelor of Arts.
 A.D.C.     Aide-de-Camp.
 A.M.       (Artium Magister), Master of Arts.
 A.R.A.     Associate of the Royal Academy.
 A.R.I.B.A. Associate of the Royal Institution of British Architects.
 A.R.S.A.   Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
 B.A.       Bachelor of Arts.
 Bart.      Baronet.
 B.C.L.     Bachelor of Civil Law.
 B.D.       Bachelor of Divinty.
 B.LL.      Bachelor of Laws.
 B.Sc.      Bachelor of Science.
 C.         Chairman.
 C.A.       Chartered Accountant.
 C.B.       Companion of the Bath.
 C.E.       Civil Engineer.
 C.I.E.     Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire.
 C.M.       (Chirurgiae Magister), Master in Surgery.
 C.M.G.     Companion of St Michael and St George.
 C.S.I.     Companion of the Star of India.
 D.C.L.     Doctor of Civil Law.
 D.D.       Doctor of Divinity.
 D.Lit. or Litt. D.   Doctor of Literature.
 D.M.       Doctor of Medicine (Oxford).
 D.Sc.      Doctor of Science.
 D.S.O.     Distinguished Service Order.
 Ebor.      (Eboracensis) of York.2
 F.C.S.     Fellow of the Chemical Society.
 F.D.       (Fidei Defensor), Defender of the Faith.
 F.F.P.S.   Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow)
 F.G.S.     Fellow of the Geological Society.
 F.K.Q.C.P.I.             Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians
 in Ireland.
 F.L.S.     Fellow of the Linnaean Society.
 F.M.       Field Marshal.
 F.P.S.     Fellow of the Philological Society.
 F.R.A.S.   Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
 F.R C.P.   Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
 F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
 F.R.C.S.   Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.
 F.R.G.S.   Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
 F.R.H.S.   Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society.
 F.R.Hist.Soc.            Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.
 F.R.I.B.A. Fellow of the Royal Institution of British Architects.
 F.R.S.     Fellow of the Royal Society.
 F.R.S.E.   Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
 F.R.S.L.   Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
 F.S.A.     Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
 F.S.S.     Fellow of the Statistical Society.
 F.Z.S.     Fellow of the Zoological Society.
 G.C.B.     Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.
 G.C.H.     Knight Grand Cross of Hanover.
 G.C.I.E.   Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian
                Empire.
 G.C.M.G.   Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George.
 G.C.S.I.   Knight Grand Commander of the Star of india.
 G.C.V.O.   Knight Grand Commander of the Victorian Order.
 H.H.       His or Her Highness.
 H.I.H.     His or Her Imperial Highness.
 H.I.M.     His or Her Imperial Majesty.
 H.M.       His or Her Majesty.
 H.R.H.     His or Her Royal Highness.
 H.S.H.     His or Her Serene Highness.
 J.         Judge.
 J.C.D.     (Juris Canonici Doctor, or Juris Civilis Doctor),
                Doctor of Canon or Civil Law.
 J.D.       (Juris utriusque Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law.
 J.P.       Justice of the Peace.
 K.C.       King's Counsel.
 K.C.B.     Knight Commander of the Bath.
 K.C.I.E.   Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.
 K.C.M.G.   Knight Commander of St Michael and St George.
 K.C.S.I.   Knight Commander of the Star of India.
 K.C.V.O.   Knight Commander of the Victorian Order.
 K.G.       Knight of the Garter.
 K.P.       Knight of St Patrick.
 K.T.       Knight of the Thistle.
 L.A.H.     Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall.
 L.C.C.     London County Council, or Councillor.
 L.C.J.     Lord Chief Justice
 L.J.       Lord Justice.
 L.L.A.     Lady Literate in Arts.
 LL.B.      (Legum Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Laws.
 LL.D.      (Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws.
 LL.M.      (Legum Magister), Master of Laws.
 L.R.C.P.   Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians.
 L.R.C.S.   Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons.
 L.S.A.     Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society.
 M.A.       Master of Arts.
 M.B.       (Medicinae Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Medicine
 M.C.       Member of Congress.
 M.D.       (Medicinae Doctor), Doctor of Medicine.
 M.Inst.C.E.             Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers.
 M.P.       Member of Parliament.
 M.R.       Master of the Rolls.
 M.R.C.P.   Member of the Royal College of Physicians.
 M.R.C.S.   Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
 M.R.I.A.   Member of the Royal Irish Academy.
 Mus.B.     Bachelor of Music.
 Mus.D.     Doctor of Music.
 M.V.O.     Member of the Victorian Order.
 N.P.       Notary Public.
 O.M.       Order of Merit.
 P.C.       Privy Councillor.
 Ph.D.      (Philosophiae Doctor), Doctor of Philosophy.
 P.P.       Parish Priest.
 P.R.A.     President of the Royal Academy.
 R.         (Rex, Regina), King, Queen.
 R. & I.    Rex et Imperator.
 R.A.       Royal Academician, Royal Artillery.
 R.A.M.     Royal Academy of Music.
 R.E.       Royal Engineers.
 Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.
 R.M.       Royal Marines, Resident Magistrate.
 R.N.       Royal Navy.
 S. or St.             Saint.
 S.S.C.     Solicitor before the Supreme Courts of Scotland.
 S.T.P.     (Sacrosanctae Theologiae Professor), Professor of Sacred
                 Theology.
 V.C.       Vice-Chancellor, Victoria Cross.
 V.G.       Vicar-General.
 V.S.       Veterinary Surgeon.
 W.S.       Writer to the Signet [in Scotland]. Equivalent to Attorney
 
 2. ABBREVIATIONS DENOTING MONIES, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.
 ac.    acre.                  lb. or lb.  (libra), pound (weight).
 bar.   barrel.                 m. or mi. mile, minute.
 bus.   bushel.                 m. minim.
 c.     cent.                  mo. month.
 c. (or cub.) ft. &c. cubic foot,&c.   na. nail.
 cwt.   hundredweight.         oz. ounce.
 d.     (denarius), penny. pk. peck.
 deg.   degree.                po. pole.
 dr.    drachm or dram.    pt. pint.
 dwt.   pennyweight.            q. (quadrans), farthing.
 f.     franc.                 qr. quarter.
 fl.    florin.                qt. quart.
 ft.    foot.                  ro. rood.
 fur.   furlong.               Rs.4 rupees.
 gal.   gallon.                 s. or / (solidus), shilling.
 gr.    grain.                  s. or sec. second.
 h. or hr. hour.           sc. or scr. scruple.
 hhd.   hogshead.          sq. ft. &c, square foot, &c.
 in.    inch.                  st. stone.
 kilo.  kilometre.             yd. yard.
 L.,3 L. ,2 or l. (libra), pound (money).
 
 3. MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS.
 
 A.         Accepted.
 A.C.       (Ante Christum), Before Christ.
 acc., a/c. or acct.        Account.
 A.D.       (Anno Domini), In the year of our Lord.
 A.E.I.O.U. Austriae est imperare orbi universo,5 or
                Alles Erdreich Ist Oesterreich Unterthan.
 Aet. or Aetat.            (Aetatis, [anno]), In the year of his age.
 A.H.       (Anno Hegirae), In the year of the Hegira (the Mohammedan
                era).
 A.M.       (Anno Mundi), In the year of the world.
 A.M.       (Ante meridiem), Forenoon.
 Anon.      Anonymous.
 A.U.C.     (Anno urbis conditae), In the year from the building
                of the city (i.e. Rome).
 A.V.       Authorized version of the Bible.
 b.         born.
 B.V.M.     The Blessed Virgin Mary.
 B.C.       Before Christ.
 c.         circa, about.
 C.         or Cap. (Caput), Chapter.
 C.         Centigrade (or Celsius's) Thermometer.
 cent.6 (Centnim), A hundred, frequently L. 100.
 Cf. or cp.       (Confer), Compare.
 Ch. or Chap.     Chapter.
 C.M.S.     Church Missionary Society.
 Co.        Company, County.
 C.O.D.     Cash on Delivery.
 Cr.        Creditor.
 curt.      Current, the present month.
 d.         died.
 D.G.       (Dei gratia), By the grace of God.
 Do.        Ditto, the same.
 D.O.M.     (Deo Optimo Maximo), To God the Best and Greatest.
 Dr.        Debtor.
 D.V.       (Deo volente), God willing.
 E.& O.E.   Errors and omissions excepted.
 e.g.       (Exempti gratia), For example.
 etc. or &c.     (Et caetera), And the rest; and so forth.
 Ex.        Example.
 F. or Fahr.     Fahrenheit's Thermometer.
 
 fec. (Fecit),   He made (or did) it.
 fl.        Flourished.
 Fo. or Fol.     Folio.
 f.o.b.     Free on board.
 G.P.O.     General Post Office.
 H.M.S.     His Majesty's Ship, or Service.
 Ib. or Ibid.    (Ibidem), In the same place.
 Id.        (Idem), The same.
 ie. (Id est),   That is.
 I.H.S.     A symbol for ``Jesus,', derived from the first three letters
                of the Greek (I E S); the correct origin was lost
                sight of, and the Romanized letters were then interpreted
                erroneously as standing for Jesus, Hominum Salvator,
                the Latin ``h'' and Greek long ``e'' being confused.
 I.M.D.G.   (In majorem Dei gloriam), To the greater glory of God.
 Inf. (Infra),   Below.
 Inst.      Instant, the present month.
 I.O.U.     I owe you.
 i.q.       (Idem quod), The same as.
 k.t.l.      (gr kai ta loipa) Et caetera, and the rest.
 L. or Lib. (Liber),      Book.
 Lat.       Latitude.
 l.c.       (Loco citato), In the place cited.
 Lon. or Long.       Longitude.
 L.S.       (Locus sigilli), The place of the seal.
 Mem.       (Memento), Remember, Memorandum.
 MS.        Manuscript. MSS. Manuscripts.
 N.B.       (Nota bene), Mark well; take notice.
 N.B.       North Britain (i.e. Scotland).
 N.D.       No date.
 nem. con.       (Nemine contradicente), No one contradicting.
 No.        (Numero), Number.
 N.S.       New Style.
 N.T.       New Testament.
 ob.        (Obiit), Died.
 Obs.       Obsolete.
 O.H.M.S.   On His Majesty's Service.
 O.S.       Old Style.
 O.S.B.     Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines).
 O.T.       Old Testament.
 P.         Page. Pp. Pages.
 @        (Per), For; e.g. @ lb., For one pound.
 Pinx.      (Pinxit), He painted it.
 P.M.       (Post Meridiem), Afternoon.
 P.O.       Post Office, Postal Order.
 P.O.O.     Post Office Order.
 P.P.C.     (Pour prendre conge), To take leave.
 P.R.       Prize-ring.
 prox.      (Proximo [mense]), Next month.
 P.S.       Postscript.
 Pt.        Part.
 p.t. or pro tem.   (Pro tempore), For the time.
 P.T.O.     Please turn over.
 Q., Qu., or Qy.    Query; Question.
 q.d.       (Quasi dicat), As if he should say: as much as to say.
 Q.E.D.     (Quod erot demonstrandum), Which was to be demonstrated.
 Q.E.F.     (Quod erat faciendum), Which was to be done.
 q.s. or quant. suff.      (Quantum sufficit), As much as is
                sufficient.
 q.v.       (Quod vide), Which see.
 R. or @.      (Recipe), Take.
 sqrt.  (=r. for radix), The sign of the square root.
 R.I.P.     (Requiescat in pace!), May he rest in peace!
 R.S.V.P.   (i Respondes s'il vous plait), please reply.
 sc.        (Scilicet), Namely; that is to say.
 Sc. or Sculp.  (Sculpsit), He engraved it.
 S.D.U.K.   Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
 seq. or sq., seqq. or sqq.   (Sequens, sequenitia), The following.
 S.J.       Society of Jesus.
 sp.        (Sine prole), Without offspring.
 S.P.C.K.   Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge
 S.P.G.     Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
 S.T.D.    }
 S.T.B.    }Doctor, Bachelor, Licentiate of Theology.
 S.T.L.    }
 Sup.       (Supra), Above.
 s.v.       (Sub voce), Under the word (or heading).
 T.C.D.     Trinity College, Dublin.
 ult.       (Ultimo [mense]), Last month.
 U.S.       United States.
 U.S.A.     United States of America.
 v.         (versus), Against.
 v. or vid:      (Vide), See.
 viz.       (Videlicet), Namely.
 Xmas.      Christmas. This X is a Greek letter, corresponding to Ch.
 

See also Graevius's Thesaurus Antiquitatum (1694, sqq.); 
Nicolai's Tractatus de Sigils Veterum; Mommsen's Corpus 
Inscriptionum Latinarum (1863, sqq.); Natalis de Wailly's 
Paleographie (Paris, 1838); Alph.  Chassant's Paleographie 
(1854), and Dictionnaire des Abreviations (3rd ed. 
1866); Campelli, Duzionario di Abbreviature (1899). 

1 Describing the function of the triumviri monetales. 

2 An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes 
for his surname the name of his see; thus the prelates of 
Canterbury, York, Oxford, London, &c., subscribe themselves 
with their initials (Christian names only), followed by 
Cantuar., Ebor., Oxon., Londin. (sometimes London.), &c. 

3 Characters, not properly abbreviations, are used in the same 
way; e.g. `` deg. '' for ``degrees, minutes, seconds'' (circular 
measure); @, @, @ for ``ounces, drachms, scruples.'' @ is 
probably to be traced to the written form of the z in ``oz.'' 

4 These forms (as well as $, the symbol for the 
American dollar) are placed before the amounts. 

5It is given to Austria to rule the whole earth. 
The device of Austria, first adopted by Frederick III. 

6``Per cent.'' is often signified by %, a form traceable to "100." 

ABBREVIATORS, a body of writers in the papal chancery, 
whose business was to sketch out and prepare in due form the 
pope's bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees before these are 
written out in extenso by the scriptores. They are first 
mentioned in Extravagantes of John XXII. and of Benedict 
XII. Their number was fixed at seventy-two by Sixtus IV. 
From the time of Benedict XII. (1334-1342) they were classed 
as de Parco majori or Praesidentiae majoris, and de 
Parco minnori. The name was derived from a space in the 
chancery, surrounded by a grating, in which the officials sat, 
which is called higher or lower (major or minor) according to 
the proximity of the seats to that of the vice-chancellor.  
After the protonotaries left the sketching of the minutes 
to the abbreviators, those de Parco majori, who ranked as 
prelates, were the most important officers of the apostolic 
chancery.  By Martin V. their signature was made essential to 
the validity of the acts of the chancery; and they obtained in 
course of time many important privileges.  They were suppressed 
in 1908 by Pius X. and their duties were transferred to the 
protonotarii apostolici participantes. (See CURIA ROMANA.) 

ABDALLATIF, or ABD-UL-LATIF (1162-1231), a celebrated 
physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers 
of the East, was born at Bagdad in 1162.  An interesting 
memoir of Abdallatif, written by himself, has been preserved 
with additions by Ibn-Abu-Osaiba (Ibn abi Usaibia), a 
contemporary.  From that work we learn that the higher education 
of the youth of Bagdad consisted principally in a minute and 
careful study of the rules and principles of grammar, and in 
their committing to memory the whole of the Koran, a treatise 
or two on philology and jurisprudence, and the choicest Arabian 
poetry.  After attaining to great proficiency in that kind of 
learning, Abdallatif applied himself to natural philosophy and 
medicine.  To enjoythe society of the learned, he went first 
to Mosul (1189), and afterwards to Damascus.  With letters of 
recommendation from Saladin's vizier, he visited Egypt, where 
the wish he had long cherished to converse with Maimonides, 
``the Eagle of the Doctors,'' was gratified.  He afterwards 
formed one of the circle of learned men whom Saladin gathered 
around him at Jerusalem.  He taught medicine and philosophy at 
Cairo and at Damascus for a number of years, and afterwards, 
for a shorter period, at Aleppo.  His love of travel led him 
in his old age to visit different parts of Armenia and Asia 
Minor, and he was setting out on a pilgrimage to Mecca when 
he died at Bagdad in 1231.  Abdallatif was undoubtedly a 
man of great knowledge and of an inquisitive and penetrating 
mind.  Of the numerous works--mostly on medicine---which 
Osaiba ascribes to bim, one only, his graphic and detailed 
Account of Egypt (in two parts), appears to be known in 
Europe.  The manuscript, discovered by Edward Pococke the 
Orientalist, and preserved in the Bodleian Library, contains 
a vivid description of a famine caused, during the author's 
residence in Egypt, by the Nile failing to overflow its banks.  
It was translated into Latin by Professor White of Oxford in 
1800, and into French, with valuable notes, by De Sacy in 1810. 

ABD-AR-RAHMAN, the name borne by five princes of the Omayyad dynasty, 
amirs and caliphs of Cordova, two of them being rulers of great capacity. 

ABD-AR-RAHMAN I. (756-788) was the founder of the branch of 
the family which ruled for nearly three centuries in Mahommedan 
Spain.  When the Omayyads were overthrown in the East by the 
Abbasids he was a young man of about twenty years of age. 
together with his brother Yahya, he took refuge with Bedouin 
tribes in the desert.  The Abbasids hunted their enemies 
down without mercy.  Their soldiers overtook the brothers; 
Yahya was slain, and Abd-ar-rahman saved himself by fleeing 
first to Syria and thence to northern Africa, the common 
refuge of all who endeavoured to get beyond the reach of the 
Abbasids.  In the general confusion of the caliphate produced 
by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands 
of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad 
caliphs, but now aiming at independence.  After a time 
Abd-ar-rahman found that his life was threatened, and he 
fled farther west, taking refuge among the Berber tribes of 
Mauritania.  In the midst of all his perils, which read like 
stories from the Arabian Nights, Abd-ar-rahman had been 
encouraged by reliance on a prophecy of his great-uncle Maslama 
that he would restore the fortune of the family.  He was 
followed in all his wanderings by a few faithful clients of the 
Omayyads.  In 755 he was in hiding near Ceuta, and thence 
he sent an agent over to Spain to ask for the support of 
other clients of the family, descendants of the conquerors of 
Spain, who were numerous in the province of Elvira, the modern 
Granada.  The country was in a state of confusion under the 
weak rule of the amir Yusef, a mere puppet in the hands of a 
faction, and was torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs 
and by race conflicts between the Arabs and Berbers.  It 
offered Abd-ar-rahman the opportunity he had falled to find in 
Africa.  On the invitation of his partisans he landed at 
Almunecar, to the east of Malaga, in September 755. For a 
time he was compelled to submit to be guided by his supporters, 
who were aware of the risks of their venture.  Yusef opened 
negotiations, and offered to give Abdar-rahman one of his 
daughters in marriage and a grant of land.  This was far less 
than the prince meant to obtain, but he would probably have 
been forced to accept the offer for want of a better if the 
insolence of one of Yusef's messengers, a Spanish renegade, 
had not outraged a chief partisan of the Omayyad cause.  He 
taunted this gentleman, Obeidullah by name, with being unable 
to write good Arabic.  Under this provocation Obeidullah drew 
the sword.  In the course of 756 a campaign was fought in 
the valley of the Guadalquivir, which ended, on the 16th of 
May, in the defeat of Yusef outside Cordova.  Abdar-rahman's 
army was so ill provided that he mounted almost the only good 
war-horse in it; he had no banner, and one was improvised by 
unwinding a green turban and binding it round the head of a 
spear.  The turban and the spear became the banner of the Spanish 
Omayyads.  The long reign of Abd-arrahman I. was spent in a 
struggle to reduce his anarchical Arab and Berber subjects to 
order.  They had never meant to give themselves a master, and 
they chafed under his hand, which grew continually heavier.  
The details of these conflicts belong to the general history of 
Spain.  It is, however, part of the personal history of 
Abd-ar-rahman that when in 763 he was compelled to fight at the 
very gate of his capital with rebels acting on behalf of the 
Abbasids, and had won a signal victory, he cut off the heads 
of the leaders, filled them with salt and camphor and sent 
them as a defiance to the eastern caliph.  His last years were 
spent amid a succession of palace conspiracies, repressed with 
cruelty.  Abd-ar-rahman grew embittered and ferocious.  He was 
a fine example of an oriental founder of a dynasty, and did his 
work so well that the Omayyads lasted in Spain for two centuries 
and a half.

ABD-AR-RAHMAN II. (822-852) was one of the weaker of 
the Spanish Omayyads.  He was a prince with a taste for 
music and literature, whose reign was a time of confusion.  
It is chiefly memorable for having included the story of 
the ``Martyrs of Cordova,'' one of the most remarkable 
passages in the religious history of the middle ages. 

ABD-AR-RAHMAN III. (912-961) was the greatest and the most 
successful of the princes of his dynasty in Spain (for the 
general history of his reign see SPAIN, History). He 
ascended the throne when he was barely twenty-two and reigned 
for half a century.  His life was so completely identified 
with the government of the state that he offers less material 
for biography than his ancestor Abd-ar-rahman I. Yet it 
supplies some passages which show the real character of an 
oriental dynasty even at its best.  Abd-ar-rahman III. was 
the grandson of his predecessor, Abdallah, one of the weakest 
and worst of the Spanish Omayyads.  His father, Mahommed, 
was murdered by a brother Motarrif by order of Abdallah The 
old sultan was so far influenced by humanity and remorse 
that he treated his grandson kindly.   Abd-ar-rahman III. 
came to the throne when the country was exhausted by more 
than a generation of tribal conflict among the Arabs, and 
of strife between them and the Mahommedans of native Spanish 
descent.  Spaniards who were openly or secretly Christians 
had acted with the renegades.  These elements, which formed 
the bulk of the population, were not averse from supporting 
a strong ruler who would protect them against the Arab 
aristocracy.  These restless nobles were the most serious 
of Abd-ar-rahman's enemies.  Next to them came the Fatimites 
of Egypt and northern Africa, who claimed the caliphate, 
and who aimed at extending their rule over the Mahommedan 
world, at least in the west.  Abd-ar-rahman subdued the nobles 
by means of a mercenary army, which included Christians.  
He repelled the Fatimites, partly by supporting their 
enemies in Africa, and partly by claiming the caliphate for 
himself.  His ancestors in Spain had been content the the 
title of sultan.  The caliphate was thought only to belong 
to the prince who ruled over the sacred cities of Mecca and 
Medina.  But the force of this tradition had been so far 
weakened that Abd-ar-rahman could proclaim himself caliph on 
the 16th of January 929, and the assumption of the title gave 
him increased prestige with his subjects, both in Spain and 
Africa.  His worst enemies were always his fellow Mahommedans. 
After he was defeated by the Christians at Alhandega 
in 939 through the treason of the Arab nobles in his 
army (see SPAIN, History) he never again took the 
field.  He is accused of having sunk in his later years 
into the self-indulgent habits of the harem.  When the 
undoubted prosperity of his dominions is quoted as an 
example of successful Mahommedan rule, it is well to remember 
that he administered well not by means of but in spite of 
Mahommedans.  The high praise given to his administration may 
even excite some doubts as to its real excellence.  We are 
told that a third of his revenue sufficed for the ordinary 
expenses of government, a third was hoarded and a third spent on 
buildings.  A very large proportion of the surplus must 
have been wasted on the palace-town of Zahra, built three 
miles to the north of Cordova, and named after a favourite 
concubine.  Ten thousand workmen are said to have been employed 
for twenty-five years on this wonder, of which no trace now 
remains.  The great monument of early Arabic architecture in 
Spain, the mosque of Cordoya, was built by his predecessors, 
not by him.  It is said that his harem included six thousand 
women.  Abd-ar-rahman was tolerant, but it is highly probable 
that he was very indifferent in religion, and it is certain 
that he was a thorough despot.  One of the most authentic 
sayings attributed to him is his criticism of Otto I. of 
Germany, recorded by Otto's ambassador, Johann, abbot of 
Gorze, who has left in his Vita an incomplete account 
of his embassy (in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Scriptores, iv. 
355-377).  He blamed the king of Germany for trusting his nobles, 
which he said could only increase their pride and leaning to 
rebellion.  His confession that he had known only twenty happy 
days in his long reign is perhaps a moral tale, to be classed 
with the ``omnia fui, et nil expedit'' of Septimius Severus. 

In the agony of the Omayyad dynasty in Spain, two princes 
of the house were proclaimed caliphs for a very short time, 
Abd-ar-rahman IV. Mortada (1017), and Abd-ar-rahman V. Mostadir 
(1023-1024).  Both were the mere puppets of factions, who 
deserted them at once.  Abd-ar-rahman IV. was murdered 
in the year in which he was proclaimed, at Guadiz, when 
fleeing from a battle in which he had been deserted by his 
supporters.  Abd-ar-rahman V. was proclaimed caliph in 
December 1023 at Cordova, and murdered in January 1024 by a 
mob of unemployed workmen, headed by one of his own cousins. 

The history of the Omayyads in Spain is the subject of the Histoire 
des Musulmans d'Espagne, by R. Dozy (Leiden, 1861). (D. H.) 

ABD-EL-AZIZ IV. (1880- ), sultan of Morocco, son of Sultan 
Mulai el Hasan III. by a Circassian wife.  He was fourteen 
years of age on his father's death in 1894.  By the wise action 
of Si Ahmad bin Musa, the chamberlain of El Hasan, Abd-el 
Aziz's accession to the sultanate was ensured with but little 
fighting.  Si Ahmad became regent and for six years showed 
himself a capable ruler.  On his death in 1900 the regency 
ended, and Abd-el-Aziz took the reins of government into his own 
hands, with an Arab from the south, El Menebhi, for his chief 
adviser.  Urged by his Circassian mother, the sultan sought 
advice and counsel from Europe and endeavoured to act up to 
it.  But disinterested advice was difficult to obtain, and 
in spite of the unquestionable desire of the young ruler to 
do the best for the country, wild extravagance both in action 
and expenditure resulted, leaving the sultan with depleted 
exchequer and the confidence of his people impaired.  His 
intimacy with foreigners and his imitation of their ways were 
sufficient to rouse fanaticism and create dissatisfaction.  
His attempt to reorganize the finances by the systematic levy 
of taxes was hailed with delight, but the government was not 
strong enough to carry the measures through, and the money 
which should have been used to pay the taxes was employed 
to purchase firearms.  Thus the benign intentions of Mulai 
Abdel-Aziz were interpreted as weakness, and Europeans were 
accused of having spoiled the sultan and of being desirous of 
spoiling the country.  When British engineers were employed 
to survey the route for a railway between Mequinez and 
Fez, this was reported as indicating an absolute sale of the 
country.  The fanaticism of the people was aroused, and a 
revolt broke out near the Algerian frontier.  Such was the 
condition of things when the news of the Anglo-French Agreement 
of 1904 came as a blow to Abd-el-Aziz, who had relied on 
England for support and protection  against the inroads of 
France.  On the advice of Germany he proposed the assembly of 
an international conference at Algeciras in 1906 to consult 
upon methods of reform, the sultan's desire being to ensure 
a condition of affairs which would leave foreigners with no 
excuse for interference in the control of the country, and 
would promote its welfare, which Abd-el-Aziz had earnestly 
desired from his accession to power.  The sultan gave his 
adherence to the Act of the Algeciras Conference, but the 
state of anarachy into which Morocco fell during the latter 
half of 1906 and the beginning of 1907 showed that the young 
ruler lacked strength sufficient to make his will respected 
by his turbulent subjects.  In May 1907 the southern tribes 
invited Mulai Hafid, an elder brother of Abd-el-Aziz, and 
viceroy at Marrakesh, to become sultan, and in the following 
August Hafid was proclaimed sovereign there with all the usual 
formalities.  In the meantime the murder of Europeans 
at Casablanca had led to the occupation of that port by 
France.  In September Abd-el-Aziz arrived at Rabat from Fez 
and endeavoured to secure the support of the European powers 
against his brother.  From France he accepted the grand cordon 
of the Legion of Honour, and was later enabled to negotiate a 
loan.  His leaning to Christians aroused further opposition 
to his rule, and in January 1908 he was declared deposed by 
the ulema of Fez, who offered the throne to Hafid.  After 
months of inactivity Abd-el-Aziz made an effort to restore 
his authority, and quitting Rabat in July he marched on 
Marrakesh.  His force, largely owing to treachery, was 
completely overthrown (August 19th) when near that city, 
and Abd-el-Aziz fled to Settat within the French lines 
round Casablanca.  In November he came to terms with his 
brother, and thereafter took up his residence in Tangier 
as a pensioner of the new sultan.  He declared himself more 
than reconciled to the loss of the throne, and as looking 
forward to a quiet peaceful life. (See MOROCCO, History.) 

ABD-EL-KADER (c. 1807-1883), amir of Mascara, the great 
opponent of the conquest of Algeria by France, was born near 
Mascara in 1807 or 1808.  His family were sherifs or descendants 
of Mahomet, and his father, Mahi-ed-Din, was celebrated 
throughout North Africa for his piety and charity.  Abd-el 
Kader received the best education attainable by a Mussulman 
of princely rank, especially in theology and philosophy, in 
horsemanship and in other manly exercises.  While still a 
youth he was taken by his father on the pilgrimage to Mecca 
and Medina and to the tomb of Sidi Abd-el-Kader El Jalili at 
Bagdad--events which stimulated his natural tendency to religious 
enthusiasm.  While in Egypt in 1827, Abd-el-Kader is stated 
to have been impressed, by the reforms then being carried out 
by Mehemet Ali with the value of European civilization, and 
the knowledge he then gained affected his career.  Mahi-ed-Din 
and his son returned to Mascara shortly before the French 
occupation of Algiers (July 1830) destroyed the government 
of the Dey. Coming forward as the champion of Islam against 
the infidels, Abd-el-Kader was proclaimed amir at Mascara in 
1832.  He prosecuted the war against France vigorously and 
in a short time had rallied to his standard all the tribes 
of western Algeria.  The story of his fifteen years' struggle 
against the French is given under ALGERIA. To the beginning 
of 1842 the contest went in favour of the amir; thereafter 
he found in Marshal Bugeaud an opponent who proved, in the 
end, his master.  Throughout this period Abd-el-Kader showed 
himself a born leader of men, a great soldier, a capable 
administrator, a persuasive orator, a chivalrous opponent.  
His fervent faith in the doctrines of Islam was unquestioned, 
and his ultimate failure was due in considerable measure 
to the refusal of the Kabyles, Berber mountain tribes whose 
Mahommedanism is somewhat loosely held, to make common cause 
with the Arabs against the French.  On the 21st of December 
1847, the amir gave himself up to General Lamoriciere at Sidi 
Brahim.  On the 23rd, his submission was formally made to the 
duc d'Aumale, then governor of Algeria.  In violation of the 
promise that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria or St Jean 
d'Acre, on the faith of which he surrendered, Abd-el-Kader and 
his family were detained in France, first at Toulon, then at 
Pau, being in November 1848 transferred to the chateau of 
Amboise.  There Abd-el-Kader remained until October 1852, when 
he was released by Napoleon III. on taking an oath never again 
to disturb Algeria.  The amir then took up his residence in 
Brusa, removing in 1855 to Damascus.  In July 1860, when the 
Moslems of that city, taking advantage of disturbances among 
the Druses of Lebanon, attacked the Christian quarter and 
killed over 3000 persons, Abd-el-Kader helped to repress the 
outbreak and saved large numbers of Christians.  For this 
action the French government, which granted the amir a pension 
of L. 4000, bestowed on him the grand cross of the Legion of 
Honour.  In 1865, he visited Paris and London, and was again in 
Paris at the exposition of 1867.  In 1871, when the Algerians 
again rose in revolt, Abd-el-Kader wrote to them counselling 
submission to France.  After his surrender in 1847 he devoted 
himself anew to theology and philosophy, and composed a 
philosophical treatise, of which a French translation was 
published in 1858 under the title of Rappel a l'intelligent.  
Avis a l'indifferent. He also wrote a book on the Arab 
horse.  He died at Damascus on the 26th of May 1883. 

See Commdt.  J. Pichon, Abd el Kader, 1807--1883 
(Paris [1899]): Alex.  Bellemare, Abd-el-Kader: sa 
vie politique et militaire (Paris, 1863); Col. C. H. 
Churchill, The Life of Abdel Kader (London, 1867).  

ABDERA, an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain, 
between Malaca and New Carthage, in the district inhabited by the 
Bastuli.  It was founded by the Carthaginians as a trading 
station, and after a period of decline became under the Romans 
one of the more important towns in the province of Hispania 
Baetica.  It was situated on a hill above the modern Adra 
(q.v.).  Of its coins the most ancient bear the Phoenician 
inscription abdrt with the head of Heracles (Melkarth) and 
a tunny-fish; those of Tiberius (who seems to have made the 
place a colony) show the chief temple of the town with two 
tunny-fish erect in the form of columns.  For inscriptions 
relating to the Roman municipality see C.I.L. ii. 267. 

ABDERA, a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the 
Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos.  Its mythical foundation 
was attributed to Heracles, its historical to a colony from 
Clazomenae in the 7th century B.C. But its prosperity 
dates from 544 B.C., when the majority of the people of 
Teos migrated to Abdera after the Ionian revolt to escape 
the Persian yoke (Herod. i. 168); the chief coin type, a 
gryphon, is identical with that of Teos; the coinage is 
noted for the beauty and variety of its reverse types.  The 
town seems to have declined in importance after the middle 
of the 4th century.  The air of Abdera was proverbial as 
causing stupidity; but among its citizens was the philosopher 
Democritus.  The ruins of the town may still be seen on 
Cape Balastra; they cover seven small hills, and extend 
from an eastern to a western harbour; on the S.W. hills 
are the remains of the medieval settlement of Polystylon. 

Mittheil. d. deutsch.  Inst.  Athens, xii. (1887), 
p. 161 (Regel); Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, 
xxxix. 211; K. F. Hermann, Ges. Abh. 90-111, 370 in. 

ABDICATION (Lat. abdicatio, disowning, renouncing, 
from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as 
not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office 
renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time 
for which it is held.  In Roman law, the term is especially 
applied to the disowning of a member of a family, as the 
disinheriting of a son, but the word is seldom used except 
in the sense of surrendering the supreme power in a state.  
Despotic sovereigns are at liberty to divest themselves of 
their powers at any time, but it is otherwise with a limited 
monarchy.  The throne of Great Britain cannot be lawfully 
abdicated unless with the consent of the two Houses of 
Parliament.  When James II., after throwing the great 
seal into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not 
formally resign the crown, and the question was discussed 
in parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had 
abdicated.  The latter designation was agreed on, for in a 
full assembly of the Lords and Commons, met in convention, 
it was resolved, in spite of James's protest, ``that King 
James II. having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of 
the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king 
and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked 
persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having 
withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the 
government, and that the throne is thereby vacant.'' The 
Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and 
deposition.  Among the most memorable abdications of 
antiquity may be mentioned that of Sulla the dictator, 79 
B.C., and that of the Emperor Diocletian, A.D. 305. The 
following is a list of the more important abdications of later 

 
                                                      A.D.
 Benedict IX., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048
 Stephen II. of Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
 Albert (the Bear) of Brandenburg . . . . . . . . . . 1169
 Ladislaus III. of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
 Celestine V., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dec. 13, 1294
 John Baliol of Scotland  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296
 John Cantacuzene, emperor of the East  . . . . . . . 1355
 Richard II. of England . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 29, 1399
 John XXIII., pope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
 Eric VII; of Denmark and XIII. of Sweden . . . . . . 1439
 Murad II., Ottoman Sultan  . . . . . . . . .1444 and 1445
 Charles V., emperor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1556
 Christina of Sweden  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1654
 John Casimir of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618
 James II. of England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1688
 Frederick Augustus of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . 1704
 Philip V. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724
 Victor Amadeus II. of Sardinia . . . . . . . . . . . 1730
 Ahmed III., Sultan of Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730
 Charles of Naples (on accession to throne of Spain). 1759
 Stanislaus II. of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1795
 Charles Emanuel IV. of Sardinia  . . . . . . June 4, 1802
 Charles IV. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 19, 1808
 Joseph Bonaparte of Naples . . . . . . . . . June 6, 1808
 Gustavus IV. of Sweden . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 29, 1809
 Louis Bonaparte of Holland . . . . . . . . . July 2, 1810
 Napoleon I., French Emperor. . . . . . . . .April 4, 1814, and June 22, 1815
 Victor Emanuel of Sardinia . . . . . . . . .Mar. 13, 1821
 Charles X. of France . . . . . . . . . . . . Aug. 2, 1830
 Pedro of Brazil 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .April 7, 1831
 Miguel of Portgual . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 1834
 William I. of Holland  . . . . . . . . . . . Oct. 7, 1840
 Louis Philippe, king of the French . . . . .Feb. 24, 1848
 Louis Charles of Bavaria . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 21, 1848
 Ferdinand of Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . Dec. 2, 1848
 Charles Albert of Sardinia . . . . . . . . .Mar. 23, 1849
 Leopold II. of Tuscany . . . . . . . . . . .July 21, 1859
 Isabella II. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . June 25, 1870
 Amadeus I. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . Feb. 11, 1873
 Alexander of Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 7, 1886
 Milan of Servia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 6, 1889
 

1 Pedro had succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 
1826, but abdicated it at once in favour of his daughter. 

ABDOMEN (a Latin word, either from abdere, to hide, 
or from a form adipomen, from adeps, fat), the belly, 
the region of the body containing most of the digestive 
organs. (See for anatomical details the articles ALIMENTARY 
CANAL, and ANATOMY, Superficial and Artistic.) 

ABDOMINAL SURGERY.---The diseases affecting this region 
are dealt with generally in the article DIGESTIVE ORGANS, 
and under their own names (e.g. APPENDICITIS). The term 
``abdominal surgery'' covers generally the operations which 
involve opening the abdominal cavity, and in modern times this 
field of work has been greatly extended.  In this Encyclopaedia 
the surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with, for the 
most part, in connexion with the anatomical description of 
that organ (see STOMACH, KIDNEY, LIVER, &c.); but here the 
general principles of abdominal surgery may be discussed. 

Exploratory Laparotomy.---In many cases of serious intra-abdominal 
disease it is impossible for the surgeon to say exactly 
what is wrong without making an incision and introducing his 
finger, or, if need be, his hand among the intestines.  With 
due care this is not a perilous or serious procedure, and the 
great advantage appertaining to it is daily being more fully 
recognized.  It was Dr Oliver Wendell Holmes, the American 
physiologist and poet, who remarked that one cannot say of 
what wood a table is made without lifting up the cloth; so 
also it is often impossible to say what is wrong inside the 
abdomen without making an opening into it.  When an opening 
is made in such circumstances---provided only it is done soon 
enough--the successful treatment of the case often becomes a 
simple matter.  An exploratory operation, therefore, should 
be promptly resorted to as a means of diagnosis, and not left 
as a last resource till the outlook is well-nigh hopeless. 

It is probable that if the question were put to any experienced 
hospital surgeon if he had often had cause to regret having 
advised recourse to an exploratory operation on the abdomen, 
his answer would be in the negative, but that, on the other 
hand, he had not infrequently had cause to regret that he 
had not resorted to it, post-mortem examination having 
shown that if only he had insisted on an exploratioui being 
made, some band, some adhesion, some tumour, some abscess 
might have been satisfactorily dealt with, which, left 
unsuspected in the dark cavity, was accountable for the 
death.  A physician by himself is helpless in these cases. 

Much of the rapid advance which has of late been made in 
the results of abdominal surgery is due to the improved 
relationship which exists between the public and the surgical 
profession.  In former days it was not infrequently said, ``If 
a surgeon is called in he is sure to operate.'' Not only have 
the public said this, but even physicians have been known to 
suggest it, and have indeed used the equivocal expression, 
the ``apotheosis of surgery,'' in connexion with the operative 
treatment of a serious abdominal lesion.  But fortunately 
the public have found out that the surgeon, being an honest 
man, does not advise operation unless he believes that it is 
necessary or, at any rate, highly advisable.  And this happy 
discovery has led to much more confidence being placed in his 
decision.  It has truly been said that a surgeon is a physician 
who can operate, and the public have begun to realize the fact 
that it is useless to try to relieve an acute abdominal lesion 
by diet or drugs.  Not many years ago cases of acute, obscure 
or chronic affections of the abdomen which were admitted into 
hospital were sent as a matter of course into the medical 
wards, and after the effect of drugs had been tried with 
expectancy and failure, the services of a surgeon were called 
in.  In acute cases this delay spoilt all surgical chances, and 
the idea was more widely spread that surgery, after all, was 
a poor handmaid to medicine.  But now things are different.  
Acute or obscure abdominal cases are promptly relegated to 
the surgical wards; the surgeon is at once sent for, and if 
operation is thought desirable it is performed without any 
delay.  The public have found that the surgeon is not a reckless 
operator, but a man who can take a broad view of a case in all 
its bearings.  And so it has come about that the results of 
operations upon the interior of the abdomen have been improving 
day by day.  And doubtless they will continue to improve. 

A great impetus was given to the surgery of wounded, mortified 
or diseased pieces of intestine by the introduction from 
Chicago of an ingenious contrivance named, after the inventor, 
Murphy's button. This consists of a short nickel-plated 
tube in two pieces, which are rapidly secured in the divided 
ends of the bowel, and in such a manner that when the 
pieces are subsequently ``married'' the adjusted ends of 
the bowel are securely fixed together and the canal rendered 
practicable.  In the course of time the button loosens itself 
into the interior of the bowel and comes away with the alvine 
evacuation.  In many other cases the use of the button has 
proved convenient and successful, as in the establishment of 
a permanent communication between the stomach and the small 
intestine when the ordinary gateway between these parts of 
the alimentary canal is obstructed by an irremovable malignant 
growth; between two parts of the small intestine so that 
some obstruction may be passed; betw:en smal' and large 
intestine.  The operative procedure goes by the name of 
short-circuiting; it enables the contents of the bowel to get 
beyond an obstruction.  In this way also a permanent working 
communication can be set up between the gallbladder, or a 
dilated bile-duct, and the neighbouring small intestine---the 
last-named operation bears the precise but very clumsy name 
of choledocoduodenostomy. By the use of Murphy's ingenious 
apparatus the communication of two parts can be secured in 
the shortest possible space of time, and this, in many of 
the cases in which it is resorted to, is of the greatest 
importance.  But there is this against the method---that 
sometimes ulceration occurs around the rim of the metal button, 
whilst at others the loosened metal causes annoyance in its 
passage along the alimentary canal.  Some surgeons therefore 
prefer to use a bobbin of decalcified bone or similar soft 
material, while others rely upon direct suturing of the 
parts.  The last-named method is gradually increasing in 
popularity, and of course, when time and circumstances permit, 
it is the ideal method of treatment.  The cause of death 
in the case of intestinal obstruction is usually due to the 
blood being poisoned by the absorption of the products of 
decomposition of the fluid contents of the bowel above the 
obstruction.  It is now the custom, therefore, for the surgeon to 
complete his operation for the relief of obstruction by drawing 
out a loop of the distended bowel, incising and evacuating 
it, and then carefully suturing and returning it.  The surgeon 
who first recognized the lethal effect of the absorption of 
this stagnant fluid---or, at any rate, who first suggested the 
proper method of treating it---was Lawson Tait of Birmingham, 
who on the occurrence of grave symptoms after operating on 
the abdomen gave small, repeated doses of Epsom salts to wash 
away the harmful liquids of the bowel and to enable it at the 
same time to empty itself of the gas, which, by distending the 
intestines, was interfering with respiration and circulation. 

Amongst still more recent improvements in abdominal surgery 
may be mentioned the placing of the patient in the sitting 
position as soon as practicable after the operation, and 
the slow administration of a hot saline solution into the 
lower bowel, or, in the more desperate cases, of injecting 
pints of this ``normal saline'' fluid into the loose 
tissue of the armpit.  Hot water thus administered or 
injected is quickly taken into the blood, increasing its 
volume, diluting its impurities and quenching the great 
thirst which is so marked a symptom in this condition. 

Gunshot wounds of the Abdomen.---If a revolver bullet passes 
through the abdomen, the coils of intestine are likely to be 
traversed by it in several places.  If the bullet be small and, 
by chance, surgically clean, it is possible that the openings 
may tightly close up behind it so that no leakage takes place 
into the general peritoneal cavity.  If increasing collapse 
suggests that serious bleeding is occurring within the abdomen, 
the cavity is opened forthwith and a thorough exploration 
made.  When it is uncettain lf the bowel has been traversed 
or not, it is well to wait before opening the abdomen, due 
preparation being made for performing that operation on the 
first appearance of symptoms indicative of perforation having 
occurred.  Small perforating wounds of the bowel are treated 
by such suturing as the circumstances may suggest, the interior 
of the abdominal cavity being rendered as free from septic 
micro-organisms as possible.  It is by the malign influence of 
such germs that a fatal issue is determined in the case of an 
abdominal wound, whether inflicted by firearms or by a pointed 
weapon.  If aseptic procedure can be promptly resorted 
to and thoroughly carried out, abdominal wounds do well, 
but these essentials cannot be obtained upon the field of 
battle.  When after an action wounded men come pouring into 
the field-hospital, the many cannot be kept waiting whilst 
preparations are being made for the thorough carrying out 
of a prolonged aseptic abdominal operation upon a solitary 
case.  Experience in the South African war of 1899-1902 showed 
that Mauser bullets could pierce coils of intestine and leave 
the soldiers in such a condition that, if treated by mere 
``expectancy,'' more than 50% recovered, whereas if operations 
were resorted to, fatal septic peritonitis was likely to ensue.  
In the close proximity of the fight, where time, assistants, 
pure water, towels, lotions and other necessaries for carrying 
out a thoroughly aseptic operation cannot be forthcoming, 
gunshot wounds of the abdomen had best not be interfered with. 

Stabs of the abdomen are serious if they have penetrated the 
abdominal wall, as, at the time of injury, septic germs may 
have been introduced, or the bowel may have been wounded.  In 
either case a fatal inflammation of the peritoneum may be set 
up.  It is inadvisable to probe a wound in order to find out 
if the belly-cavity has been penetrated, as the probe itself 
might carry inwards septic germs.  In case of doubt it is 
better to enlarge the wound in order to determine its depth, 
and to disinfect and close it if it be non-penetrating.  If, 
however, the bellycavity has been opened, the neighbouring 
pieces of bowel should be examined, cleansed and, if need be, 
sutured.  Should there have been an escape of the contents of 
the bowel the ``toilet of the peritoneum'' would be duly made, 
and a drainage-tube would be left in.  If the stab had injured 
a large blood-vessel either of the abdominal cavity, or of the 
hiver or of some other organ, the bleeding would be arrested 
by ligature or suture, and the extravasated blood sponged 
out.  Before the days of antiseptic surgery, and of exploratory 
abdominal operations, these cases were generally allowed 
to drift to almost certain death, unrecognized and almost 
untreated: at the present time a large number of them are saved. 

Intussusception.---This is a terribly fatal disease of 
infants and children, in which a piece of bowel slips into, 
and is gripped by, the piece next below it.  Formerly it was 
generally the custom to endeavour to reduce the invagination 
by passing air or water up the rectum under pressure--a 
speculative method of treatment which sometimes ended in a 
fatal rupture of the distended bowel, and often---one might 
almost say generally--failed to do what was expected of 
it.  The teaching of modern surgery is that a small incision 
into the abdomen and a prompt withdrawal of the invaginated 
piece of bowel can be trusted to do all that, and more than, 
infection can effect, without blindly risking a rupture of the 
bowel.  It is certain that when the surgeon is unable to 
unravel the bowel with his fingers gently applied to the parts 
themselves, no speculative distension of the bowel could 
have been effective.  But the outlook in these distressing 
cases, even when the operation is promptly resorted to, is 
extremely grave, because of the intensity of the shock which 
the intussusception and resulting strangulation entail.  
Still, every operation gives them by far the best chance. 

Cancer of the Intestine.---With the introduction of aseptic 
methods of operating, it has been found that the surgeon can 
reach the bowel through the peritoneum easily and safely.  
With the peritoneum opened, moreover, he can explore the 
diseased bowel and deal with it as circumstances suggest.  
If the cancerous mass is fairly movable the affected piece 
of bowel is excised and the cut ends are spliced together, 
and the continuity of the alimentary canal is permanently 
re-established.  Thus in the case of cancer of the large 
intestine which is not too far advanced, the surgeon expects 
to be able not only to relieve the obstruction of the bowel, 
but actually to cure the patient of his disease.  When the 
lowest part of the bowel was found to be occupied by a cancerous 
obstruction, the surgeon used formerly to secure an easy escape 
for the contents of the bowel by making an opening into the 
colon in the left loin.  But in recent years this operation of 
lumbar colotomy has been almost entirely replaced by opening 
the colon in the left groin.  This operation of iniguinal 
colotomy is usually divided into two stages: a loop of the 
large intestine is first drawn out through the abdominal 
wound and secured by stitches, and a few days afterwards, 
when it is firmly glued in place by adhesive inflammation, 
it is cut across, so that subsequently the motions can no 
longer find their way into the bowel below the artificial 
anus.  If at the first stage of the operation symptoms of 
obstruction are urgent, one of the ingenious glass tubes 
with a rubber conduit, which Mr F. T. Paul has invented, 
may be forthwith introduced into the distended bowel, so 
that the contents may be allowed to escape without fear of 
soiling the peritoneum or even the surface-wound. (E. O.*) 

ABDUCTION (Lat. abductio, abducere, to lead away), a 
law term denoting the forcible or fraudulent removal of a 
person, limited by custom to the case where a woman is the 
victim.  In the case of men or children, it has been usual 
to substitute the term kidnapping (q.v.).  The old English 
laws against abduction, generally contemplating its object 
as the possession of an heiress and her fortune, have been 
repealed by the Offences against the Person Act 1861, which 
makes it felony for any one from motives of lucre to take 
away or detain against her will with intent to marry or 
carnally know her, &c., any woman of any age who has any 
interest in any real or personal estate, or is an heiress 
presumptive, or co-heiress, or presumptive next of kin to 
any one having such an interest; or for any one to cause 
such a woman to be married or carnally known by any other 
person; or for any one with such intent to allure, take 
away, or detain any such woman under the age of twenty-one, 
out of the possession and against the will of her parents or 
guardians.  By s. 54, forcible taking away or detention 
against her will of any woman of any age with like intent is 
felony.  The same act makes abduction without eyen any such 
intent a misdemeanour, where an unmarried girl under the 
age of sixteen is unlawfully taken out of the possession and 
against the will of her parents or guardians.  In such a case 
the girl's consent is immaterial, nor is it a defence that the 
person charged reasonably believed that the girl was sixteen or 
over.  The Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 made still more 
stringent provisions with reference to abduction by making 
the procuration or attempted procuration of any virtuous 
female under the age of twenty-one years a misdemeanour, as 
well as the abduction of any girl under eighteen years of 
age with the intent that she shall be carnally known, or the 
detaining of any female against her will on any premises, 
with intent to have, or that another person may have, carnal 
knowledge of her.  In Scotland, where there is no statutory 
adjustment, abduction is similarly dealt with by practice. 

ABD-UL-AZIZ (1830-1876), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan 
Mahmud II., was born on the 9th of February 1830, and 
succeeded his brother Abd-ul-Mejid in 1861.  His personal 
interference in government affairs was not very marked, and 
extended to little more than taking astute advantage of the 
constant issue of State loans during his reign to acquire 
wealth, which was squandered in building useless palaces 
and in other futile ways: he is even said to have profited, 
by means of ``bear'' sales, from the default on the Turkish 
debt in 1875 and the consequent fall in prices.  Another 
source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive 
of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 
1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made 
hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order 
of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 
1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.  It 
is, however, only fair to add that the sultan was doubtless 
influenced by the desire to bring about a similar change 
in the succession to the Ottoman throne and to ensure the 
succession after him of his eldest son, Yussuf Izz-ed-din.  
Abd-ul-Aziz visited Europe in 1867, being the first Ottoman 
sultan to do so, and was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen 
Victoria.  In 1869 he received the visits of the emperor of 
Austria, the Empress Eugenie and other foreign princes, on their 
way to the opening of the Suez Canal, and King Edward VII., 
while prince of Wales, twice visited Gonstantinople during his 
reign.  The mis-government and financial straits of the 
country brought on the outbreak of Mussulman discontent and 
fanaticism which eventually culminated in the murder of two 
consuls at Salonica and in the ``Bulgarian atrocities,'' and 
cost Abd-ul-Aziz his throne.  His deposition on the 30th of 
May 1876 was hailed with joy throughout Turkey; a fortnight 
later he was found dead in the palace where he was confined, 
and trustworthy medical evidence attributed his death to 
suicide.  Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din, 
born 1857; Princess Salina, wife of Kurd Ismall Pasha; 
Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid, 
born 1869; Prince Self-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine, 
wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899. 

ABD-UL-HAMID I.,(1725-1789), sultan of Turkey, son of Ahmed 
III., succeeded his brother Mustafa III. in 1773.  Long 
confinement in the palace aloof from state affairs had left 
him pious, God-fearing and pacific in disposition.  At his 
accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that 
the usual donative could not be given to the janissaries.  War 
was, however, forced on him, and less than a year after his 
accession the complete defeat of the Turks at Kozluja led 
to the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji ( 21st July 1774), the most 
disastrous, especially in its after effects, that Turkey 
has ever been obliged to conclude. (See TURKEY.) Slight 
successes in Syria and the Morea against rebellious outbreaks 
there could not compensate for the loss of the Crimea, which 
Russia soon showed that she meant to absorb entirely.  In 
1787 war was again declared against Russia, joined in the 
following year by Austria, Joseph II. being entirely won over to 
Catherine, whom he accompanied in her triumohal progress in the 
Crimea.  Turkey held her own against the Austrians, but in 
1788 Ochakov fell to the Russians.  Four months later, on 
the 7th of April 1789, the sultan died, aged sixty-four. 

ABD-UL-HAMID II. (1842- ), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan 
Abd-ul-Mejid, was born on the 21st of September 1842, and 
succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad 
V., on the 31st of August 1876.  He accompanied his uncle 
Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his visit to England and France in 
1867.  At his accession spectators were struck by the fearless 
manner in which he rode, practically unattended, on his way 
to be girt with the sword of Eyub.  He was supposed to be of 
liberal principles, and the more conservative of his subjects 
were for some years after his accession inclined to regard him 
with suspicion as a too ardent reformer.  But the circumstances 
of the country at his accession were ill adapted for liberal 
developments.  Default in the public funds and an empty 
treasury, the insurrection in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, the 
war with Servia and Montenegro, the feeling aroused throughout 
Europe by the methods adopted in stamping out the Bulgarian 
rebellion, all combined to prove to the new sultan that he 
could expect little aid from the Powers.  But, still clinging 
to the groundless belief, for which British statesmen had, of 
late at least, afforded Turkey no justification, that Great 
Britain at all events would support him, he obstinately refused 
to give ear to the pressing requests of the Powers that the 
necessary reforms should be instituted.  The international 
Conference which met at Constantinople towards the end of 
1876 was, indeed, startled by the salvo of guns heralding 
the promulgation of a constitution, but the demands of the 
Conference were rejected, in spite of the solemn warnings 
addressed to the sultan by the Powers; Midhat Pasha, the 
author of the constitution, was exiled; and soon afterwards 
his work was suspended, though figuring to this day on the 
Statute-Book.  Early in 1877 the disastrous war with Russia 
followed.  The hard terms, embodied in the treaty of San 
Stefano, to which Abd-ul-Hamid was forced to consent, were 
to some extent amended at Berlin, thanks in the main to 
British diplomacy (see EUROPE, History); but by this 
time the sultan had lost all confidence in England, and 
thought that he discerned in Germany, whose supremacy was 
evidenced in his eyes by her capital being selected as the 
meeting-place of the Congress, the future friend of Turkey.  
He hastened to employ Germans for the reorganization of his 
finances and his army, and set to work in the determination to 
maintain his empire in spite of the difficulties surrounding 
him, to resist the encroachments of foreigners, and to take 
gradually the reins of absolute power into his own hands, 
being animated by a profound distrust, not unmerited, of his 
ministers.  Financial embarrassments forced him to consent to 
a foreign control over the Debt, and the decree of December 
1881, whereby many of the revenues of the empire were handed 
over to the Public Debt Administration for the benefit of the 
bondholders, was a sacrifice of principle to which he could 
only have consented with the greatest reluctance.  Trouble in 
Egypt, where a discredited khedive had to be deposed, trouble 
on the Greek frontier and in Montenegro, where the Powers were 
determined that the decisions of the Berlin Congress should 
be carried into effect, were more or less satisfactorily got 
over.  In his attitude towards Arabi, the would-be saviour of 
Egypt, Abd-ul-Hamid showed less than his usual astuteness, and 
the resulting consolidation of England's hold over the country 
contributed still further to his estrangement from Turkey's old 
ally.  The union in 1885 of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia, the 
severance of which had been the great triumph of the Berlin 
Congress, was another blow.  Few people south of the Balkans 
dreamed that Bulgaria could be anything but a Russian province, 
and apprehension was entertained of the results of the union 
until it was seen that Russia really and entirely disapproved of 
it.  Then the best was made of it, and for some years the sultan 
preserved towards Bulgaria an attitude skilfully calculated 
so as to avoid running counter either to Russian or to German 
wishes.  Germany's friendship was not entirely disinterested, 
and had to be fostered with a railway or loan concession from 
time to time, until in 1899 the great object aimed at, the 
Bagdad railway, was conceded.  Meanwhile, aided by docile 
instruments, the sultan had succeeded in reducing his ministers 
to the position of secretaries, and in concentrating the 
mhole administration of the country into his own hands at 
Yildiz.  But internal dissension was not thereby lessened.  
Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied, 
and from about 1890 the Armenians began a violent agitation 
with a view to obtaining the reforms promised them at 
Berlin.  Minor troubles had occurred in 1892 and 1893 at 
Marsovan and Tokat.  In 1894 a more serious rebellion in 
the mountainous region of Sassun was ruthlessly stamped 
out; the Powers insistently demanded reforms, the eventual 
grant of which in the autumn of 1895 was the signal for a 
series of massacres, brought on in part by the injudicious 
and threatening acts of the victims, and extending over many 
months and throughout Asia Minor, as well as in the capital 
itself.  The reforms became more or less a dead letter.  
Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges, 
but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early 
in 1897 a Greek expedition salled to unite the island to 
Greece.  War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful 
and gained a small rectification of frontier; then .a few 
months later Crete was taken over ``en depot'' by the Four 
Powers---Germany and Austria not participating,---and Prince 
George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.  In the next year 
the sultan received the visit of the German emperor and empress. 

Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European 
Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only 
to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam 
against aggressive Christendom.  The Panislamic propaganda 
was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman 
Empire-often an obstacle to government--were curtailed; the 
new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries 
were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the 
caliph's supremacy.  This appeal to Moslem sentiment was, 
however, powerless against the disaffection due to perennial 
misgovernment.  In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was 
endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained 
in the army and among the Mussulman population by a system 
of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while, 
obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew 
himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz. 

The national humiliation of the situation in Macedonia 
(q.v.), together with the resentment in the army against 
the palace spies and informers, at last brought matters to a 
crisis.  The remarkable revolution associated with the names 
of Niazi Bey and Enver Bey, the young Turk leaders, and 
the Committee of Union and Progress is described elsewhere 
(see TURKEY: History); here it must suffice to say that 
Abd-ul-Hamid, on learning of the threat of the Salonica troops 
to march on Constantinople (July 23), at once capitulated.  
On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the 
suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades 
abolished espionage and the censorship, and ordered the 
release of political prisoners.  On the 10th of December 
the sultan opened the Turkish parliament with a speech 
from the throne in which he said that the first parliament 
had been ``temporarily dissolved until the education of 
the people had been brought to a sufficiently high level 
by the extension of instruction throughout the empire.'' 

The correct attitude of the sultan did not save him from 
the suspicion of intriguing with the powerful reactionary 
elements in the state, a suspicion confirmed by his attitude 
towards the counter-revolution of the 13th of April, when 
an insurrection of the soldiers and the Moslem populace of 
the capital overthrew the committee and the ministry.  The 
comittee, restored by the Salonica troops, now decided on 
Abdul-Hamid's deposition, and on the 27th of April his brother 
Reshid Effendi was proclaimed sultan as Mahommed V. The 
ex-sultan was conveyed into dignified captivity at Salonica. 

ABD-UL-MEJID (1823-.1861), sultan of Turkey, was born on 
the 23rd of April 1823, and succeeded his father Mahmud II. 
on the 2nd of July 1839.  Mahmud appears to have been unable 
to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating 
his children, so that his son received no better education 
than that given, according to use and wont, to Turkish 
princes in the harem.  When Abd-ul-Mejid succeeded to the 
throne, the affairs of Turkey were in an extremely critical 
state.  At the very time his father died, the news was on 
its way to Constantinople that the Turkish army had been 
signally defeated at Nezib by that of the rebel Egyptian 
viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and the Turkish fleet was at the same 
time on its way to Alexandria, where it was handed over by its 
commander, Ahmed Pasha, to the same enemy, on the pretext 
that the young sultan's advisers were sold to Russia.  But 
through the intervention of the European Powers Mehemet Ali 
was obliged to come to terms, and the Ottoman empire was saved. 
(See MEHEMET ALI.) In compliance with his father's express 
instructions, Abd-ul-Mejid set at once about carrying out 
the reforms to which Mahmud had devoted himself.  In November 
1839 was proclaimed an edict, known as the Hatt-i-sherif of 
Dulhane, consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which 
was supplemented at the close of the Crimean war by a similar 
statute issued in February 1856.  By these enactments it was 
provided that all classes of the sultan's subjects should 
have security for their lives and property; that taxes should 
be fairly imposed and justice impartially administered; and 
that all should have full religious liberty and equal civil 
rights.  The scheme met with keen opposition from the Mussulman 
governing classes and the ulema, or privileged religious 
teachers, and was but partially put in force, especially in 
the remoter parts of the empire; and more than one conspiracy 
was formed against the sultan's life on account of it.  Of 
the other measures of reform promoted by Abd-ul-Mejid the more 
important were---the reorganization of the army (1843-1844), 
the institution of a council of public instruction (1846), 
the abolition of an odious and unfairly imposed capitation 
tax, the repression of slave trading, and various provisions 
for the better administration of the public service and for 
the advancement of commerce.  For the public history of his 
times--the disturbances and insurrections in different parts of 
his dominions throughout his reign, and the great war successfully 
carried on against Russia by Turkey, and by England, France and 
Sardinia, in the interest of Turkey(1853-1856)-- see TURKEY, 
and CRIMEAN WAR. When Kossuth and others sought refuge in 
Turkey, after the failure of the Hungarian rising in 1849, 
the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to surrender 
them, but boldly and determinedly refused.  It is to his 
credit, too, that he would not allow the conspirators against 
his own life to be put to death.  He bore the character of 
being a kind and honourable man, if somewhat weak and easily 
led.  Against this, however, must be set down his excessive 
extravagance, especially towards the end of his life.  He 
died on the 25th of June 1861, and was succeeded by his 
brother, Abd-ul-Aziz, as the oldest survivor of the family of 
Osman.  He left several sons, of whom two, Murad V. and 
Abd-ul-Hamid II., eventually succeeded to the throne.  In his 
reign was begun the reckless system of foreign loans, carried 
to excess in the ensuing reign, and culminating in default, 
which led to the alienation of European sympathy from Turkey 
and, indirectly, to the dethronement and death of Abd-ul-Aziz. 

ABDUR RAHMAN KHAN, amir of Afghanistan (c. 1844-1901), 
was the son of Afzul Khan, who was the eldest son of Dost 
Mahomed Khan, the famous amir, by whose success in war the 
Barakzai family established their dynasty in the rulership of 
Afghanistan.  Before his death at Herat, 9th June 1863, Dost 
Mahomed had nominated as his successor Shere Ali, his third 
son, passing over the two elder brothers, Afzul Khan and Azim 
Khan; and at first the new amir was quietly recognized.  But 
after a few months Afzul Khan raised an insurrection in the 
northern province, between the Hindu Kush mountains and the 
Oxus, where he had been governing when his father died; and 
then began a fierce contest for power among the sons of Dost 
Mahomed, which lasted for nearly five years.  In this war, 
which resembles in character, and in its striking vicissitudes, 
the English War of the Roses at the end of the 15th century, 
Abdur Rahman soon became distinguished for ability and daring 
energy.  Although his father, Afzul Khan, who had none of 
these qualities, came to terms with the Amir Shere Ali, the 
son's behaviour in the northern province soon excited the 
amir's suspicion, and Abdur Rahman: when he was summoned to 
Kabul, fled across the Oxus into Bokhara.  Shere Ali threw 
Afzul Khan into prison, and a serious revolt followed in 
south &fghanistan; but the amir had scarcely suppressed it by 
winning a desperate battle, when Abdur Rahman's reapearance 
in the north was a signal for a mutiny of the troops 
stationed in those parts and a gathering of armed bands to his 
standard.  After some delay and desultory fighting, he and 
his uncle, Azim Khan, occupied Kabul (March 1866).  The amir 
Shere All marched up against them from Kandahar; but in the 
battle that ensued at Sheikhabad on 10th May he was deserted 
by a large body of his troops, and after his signal defeat 
Abdur Rahman released his father, Afzul Elian, from prison 
in Ghazni, and installed him upon the throne as amir of 
Afghanistan.  Notwithstanding the new amir's incapacity, and 
some jealousy between the real leaders, Abdur Rahman and his 
uncle, they again routed Shere All's forces, and occupied 
Kandahar in 1867; and when at the end of that year Afzul Khan 
died, Azim Khan succeeded to the rulership, with Abdur Rahman 
as his governor in the northern province.  But towards the end 
of 1868 Shere Ali's return, and a general rising in his favour, 
resulting in their defeat at Tinah Khan on the 3rd of January 
1869, forced them both to seek refuge in Persia, whence Abdur 
Rahman proceeded afterwards to place himself under Russian 
protection at Samarkand.  Azim died in Persia in October 1869. 

This brief account of the conspicuous part taken by Abdur 
Rahman in an eventful war, at the beginning of which he was 
not more than twenty years old, has been given to show the 
rough school that brought out his qualities of resource and 
fortitude, and the political capacity needed for rulership in 
Afghanistan.  He lived in exile for eleven years, until on the 
death, in 1879, of Shere Ali, who had retired from Kabul when the 
British armies entered Afghanistan, the Russian governorgeneral 
at Tashkent sent for Abdur Rahman, and pressed him to try his 
fortunes once more across the Oxus.  In March 1880 a report 
reached India that he was in northern Afghanistan; and the 
governor-general, Lord Lytton, opened communications with him 
to the effect that the British government were prepared to 
withdraw their troops, and to recognize Abdur Rahman as amir of 
Afghanistan, with the exception of Kandahar and some districts 
adjacent.  After some negotiations, an interview took place 
between him and Mr (afterwards Sir) Lepel Griffin, the 
diplomatic representative at Kabub of the Indian government, 
who described Abdur Rahman as a man of middle height, with 
an exceedingly intelligent face and frank and courteous 
manners, shrewd and able in conversation on the business in 
hand.  At the durbar on the 22nd of July 1880, Abbdur Rahman 
was officially recognized as amir, granted assistance in 
arms and money, and promised, in case of unprovoked foreign 
aggression, such further aid as might be necessary to repel 
it, provided that he followed British advice in regard to 
his external relations.  The evacuation of Afghanistan was 
settled on the terms proposed, and in 1881 the British troops 
also made over Kandahar to the new amir; but Ayub Khan, 
one of Shere Ali's sons, marched upon that city from Herat, 
defeated Abdur Rahman's troops, and occupied the place in 
July.  This serious reverse roused the amir, who had not 
at first displayed much activity.  He led a force from 
Kabul, met Ayub's army close to Kandahar, and the complete 
victory which he there won forced Ayub Khan to fly into 
Persia.  From that time Abdur Rahman was fairly seated on the 
throne at Kabul, and in the course of the next few years he 
consolidated his dominion over all Afghanistan, suppressing 
insurrections by a sharp and relentless use of his despotic 
authority.  Against the severity of his measures the powerful 
Ghilzai tribe revolted, and were crushed by the end of 1887.  
In that year Ayub Khan made a,fruitless inroad from Persia; 
and in 1888 the amir's cousin, Ishak Khan, rebelled against 
him in the north; but these two enterprises came to nothing. 

In 1885, at the moment when (see AFGHANISTAN) the amir 
was in conference with the British viceroy, Lord Dufferin, 
in India, the news came of a collision between Russian 
and Afghan troops at Panjdeh, over a disputed point in the 
demarcation of the north-western frontier of Afghanistan.  
Abdur Rahman's attitude at this critical juncture is a good 
example of his political sagacity.  To one who had been a man 
of war from his youth up, who had won and lost many fights, 
the rout of a detachment and the forcible seizure of some 
debateable frontier lands was an untoward incident; but it 
was no sufficent reason for calling upon the British, although 
they had guaranteed his territory's integrity, to vindicate 
his rights by hostilities which would certainly bring upon 
him a Russian invasion from the north, and would compel his 
British allies to throw an army into Afghanistan from the 
south-east.  His interest lay in keeping powerful neighbours, 
whether friends or foes, outside his kingdom.  He knew this 
to be the only policy that would be supported by the Afghan 
nation; and although for some time a rupture with Russia seemed 
imminent, while the Indian government made ready for that 
contingency, the amir's reserved and circumspect tone in the 
consultations with him helped to turn the balance between 
peace and war, and substantially conduced towards a pacific 
solution.  Abdur Rahman left on those who met him in India 
the impression of a clear-headed man.of action, with great 
self-reliance and hardihood, not without indications of the 
implacable severity that too often marked his administration.  
His investment with the insignia of the highest grade of the 
Order of the Star of India appeared to give him much pleasure. 

From the end of 1888 the amir passed eighteen months in 
his northern provinces bordering upon the Oxus, where 
he was engaged in pacifying the country that had been 
disturbed by revolts, and in punishing with a heavy hand 
all who were known or suspected to have taken any part in 
rebellion.  Shortly afterwards (1892) he succeeded in 
finally beating down the resistance of the Hazara tribe, who 
vainly attempted to defend their immemorial independence, 
within their highlands, of the central authority at Kabul. 

In 1893 Sir Henry Durand was deputed to Kabul by the government 
of India for the purpose of settling an exchange of territory 
required bu the demarcation of the boundary between north-eastern 
Afghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss 
with the amir other pending questions.  The amir showed his 
usual ability in diplomatic argument, his tenacity where his 
own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying 
insight into the real situation.  The territorial exchanges 
were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and 
Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and 
an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult 
subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards 
India.  In 1895 the amir found himself unable, by reason of 
ill-health, to accept an invitation from Queen Victoria to visit 
England; hut his second son Nasrullah Khan went in his stead. 

Abdur Rahman died on the 1st of October 1901, being succeeded 
by his son Habibullah.  He had defeated all enterprises by 
rivals against his throne; he had broken down the power of 
local chiefs, and tamed the refractory tribes; so that his 
orders were irresistible throughout the whole dominion.  
His government was a military despotism resting upon a 
well-appointed army; it was administered through officials 
absolutely subservient to an inflexible will and controlled 
by a widespread system of espionage; while the exercise 
of his personal authority was too often stained by acts of 
unnecessary cruelty.  He held open courts for the receipt 
of petitioners and the dispensation of justice; and in the 
disposal of business he was indefatigable.  He succeeded in 
imposing an organized government upon the fiercest and most 
unruly population in Asia; he availed himself of European 
inventions for strengthening his armament, while he sternly 
set his face against all innovations which, like railways 
and telegraphs, might give Europeans a foothold within his 
country.  His adventurous life, his forcible character, 
the position of his state as a barrier between the Indian 
and the Russian empires, and the skill with which he held 
the balance in dealing with them, combined to make him a 
prominent figure in contemporary Asiatic politics and will 
mark his reign as an epoch in the history of Afghanistan. 

The amir received an annual subsidy from the British 
government of 18-1/2 lakhs of rupees.  He was allowed to 
import munitions of War. In 1896 he adopted the title of 
Tia-ul-hlillat-ud Din (Light of the nation and religion); 
and his zeal for the cause of Islam induced him to publish 
treatises on Jehad.  His eldest son Habibullah Khan, with 
his brother Nasrullah Khan, was born at Samarkand.  His 
youngest son, Mahomed Omar Jan, was born in 1889 of an Afghan 
mother, connected by descent with the Barakzai family. 

See also S. Wheeler, F.R.G.S., The Amir Abdur Rahman (London, 
1895); The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, G.C.B., 
G.C.S.L, edited by Mir Munshi, Sultan Mahommed Khan (2 vols., 
London, 1900); At the Court of the Amir, by J. A. Grey (1895). 
                                            (A. C. L.)
ABECEDARIANS, a nickname given to certain extreme 
Anabaptists (q.v.), who regarded the teaching of the Holy 
Spirit as all that was necessary, and so despised all human 
learning and even the power of reading the written word. 

A BECKETT, GILBERT ARBOTT (1811-1856), English writer, was 
born in north London on the 9th of January 1811.  He belonged 
to a family claiming descent from the father of St Thomas 
Becket.  His elder brother, Sir William a Beckett (1806-1869), 
became chief justice of Victoria (Australia).  Gilbert Abbott 
a Beckett was educated at Westminster school, and was called 
to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1841.  He edited Figaro in 
London, and was one of the original staff of Punch and 
a contributor all his life.  He was an active journalist on 
The Times and The Morning Herald, contributed a series 
of light articles to The Illustrated London News, conducted 
in 1846 The Almanack of the Month and found time to produce 
some fifty or sixty plays, among them dramatized versions of 
Dickens's shorter stories in collaboration with Mark Lemon.  
As poor-law commissioner he presented a valuable report to the 
home secretary regarding scandals in connexion with the Andover 
Union, and in 1849 he became a metropolitan pouce magistrate.  
He died at Boulogne on the 30th of August 1856 of typhus fever. 

His eldest son GILBERT ARTHUR A BECKETT (1837-1891) was born 
at Hammersmith on the 7th of April 1837.  He went up to Christ 
Church, Oxford, as a Westminster scholar in 1855, graduating in 
1860.  He was entered at Lincoln's Inn, but gave his attention 
chiefly to the drama, producing Diamonds and Hearts at 
the Haymarket in 1867, which was followed by other light 
comedies.  His pieces include numerous burlesques and 
pantomimes, the libretti of Savonarola (Hamburg, 1884) and 
of The Canterbury Pilgrims (Drury Lane, 1884) for the music 
of Dr (afterwards Sir) C. V. Stanford. The Happy Land (Court 
Theatre, 1873), a political burlesque of W. S. Gilbert's Wicked 
World, was written in collaboration with F. L. Tomline.  
For the last ten years of his life he was on the regular staff 
of Punch. His health was seriously affected in 1889 by the 
death of his only son, and he died on the 15th of October 1891. 

A younger son, ARTHUR WILLIAM A BECKETT (1844--1909), a 
well-known journalist and man of letters, was also on the 
staff of Punch from 1874 to 1902, and gave an account of his 
father and his own reminiscences in The A Becketts of Punch 
(1903).  He died in London on the 14th of January 1909. 

See also M. H. Spielmann, The History of Punch (1895). 

ABEDNEGO, the name given in Babylon to Azariah, one of 
the companions of Daniel (Dan. i. 7, &c.).  It is probably a 
corruption, perhaps deliberate, of Abednebo, ``servant of 
Nebo,'' though G. Hoffmann thinks that the original form was 
Abednergo, for Abednergal, ``servant of the god Nergal.'' C. 
H. Toy compares Barnebo, ``son of Nebo''; of which he regards 
Barnabas as a slightly disguised form (Jewish Encyclopaedia). 

ABEKEN, HEINRICH (1809-1872), German theologian and 
Prussian official, was born at Berlin on the 8th of August 
1809.  He studied theology at Berlin and in 1834 became 
chaplain to the Prussian embassy in Rome.  In 1841 he visited 
England, being commissioned by King Frederick William IV. 
to make arrangements for the establishment of the Protestant 
bishopric of Jerusalem.  In 1848 he received an appointment 
in the Prussian ministry for foreign affairs, and in 1853 
was promoted to be privy councillor of legation (Geheimer 
Legationsrath).  He was much employed by Bismarck in the 
writing of official despatches, and stood high in the favour 
of King William, whom he often accompanied on his journeys 
as representative of the foreign office.  He was present with 
the king during the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71.  In 1851 he 
published anonymously Babylon unnd Jerusalem, a slashing 
criticism of the views of the Countess von Hahn-Hahn (q.v.). 

See Heinrich Abeken, ein schlichtes Leben in bewegter Zeit 
(Berlin, 1898), by his widow.  This is valuable by reason 
of the letters written from the Prussian headquarters. 

ABEL (Hebrew for breath), the second son of Adam, slain 
by Cain, his elder brother (Gen. iv. 1-16).  The narrative 
in Genesis which tells us that ``the Lord had respect unto 
Abel and to his offering, but unto Cain and to his offering 
he had not respect,'' is supplemented by the statement of the 
New Testament, that ``by faith Abel offered unto God a more 
excellent sacrifice than Cain'' (Heb. xi. 4), and that Cain 
slew Abel ``because his own works were evil and his brother's 
righteous'' (1 John iii. 12). See further under CAIN.  The 
name has been identified with the Assyrian ablu, ``son,'' but 
this is far from certain.  It more probably means ``herdsman'' 
(cf. the name Jabal), and a distinction is drawn between the 
pastoral Abel and the agriculturist Cain.  If Cain is the eponym 
of the Kenites it is quite possible that Abel was originally 
a South Judaean demigod or hero; on this, see Winckler, 
Gesch.  Israels, ii. p. 189; E. Meyer, Israelitein, p. 
395. A sect of Abelitae, who seem to have lived in North 
Africa, is mentioned by Augustine (De Haeresibus, lxxxvi.). 

ABEL, SIR FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, BART. (1827-1902), English 
chemist, was born in London on the 17th of July 1827.  After 
studying chemistry for six years under A. W. von Hofmann at the 
Royal College of Chemistry (established in London in 1845), he 
became professor of chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in 
1851, and three years later was appointed chemist to the War 
Department and chemical referee to the government.  During 
his tenure of this office, which lasted until 1888, he carried 
out a large amount of work in connexion with the chemistry of 
explosives.  One of the most important of his investigations 
had to do with the manufacture of guncotton, and he developed 
a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated 
cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with 
practically no danger and at the same time yielded the 
product in a form that increased its usefulness.  This work 
to an important extent prepared the way for the ``smokeless 
powders'' which came into general use towards the end of the 
19th century; cordite, the particular form adopted by the 
British government in 1891, was invented jointly by him and 
Professor James Dewar.  Our knowledge of the explosion of 
ordinary black powder was also greatly added to by him, and 
in conjunction with Sir Andrew Noble he carried out one of 
the most complete inquiries on record into its behaviour when 
fired.  The invention of the apparatus, legalized in 1879, for 
the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another 
piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official 
position.  His first instrument, the open-test apparatus, was 
prescribed by the act of 1868, but, being found to possess 
certain defects, it was superseded in 1879 by the Abel close-test 
instrument (see PETROLEUM).  In electricity Abel studied 
the construction of electrical fuses and other applications 
of electricity to warlike purposes, and his work on problems 
of steel manufacture won him in 1897 the Bessemer medal of the 
Iron and Steel Institute, of which from 1891 to 1893 he was 
president.  He was president of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers (then the Society of Telegraph Engineers) in 
1877.  He became a member of the Royal Society in 1860, 
and received a royal medal in 1887.  He took an important 
part in the work of the Inventions Exhibition (London) in 
1885, and in 1887 became organizing secretary and first 
director of the Imperial Institute, a position he held till 
his death, which occurred in London on the 6th of September 
1902.  He was knighted in 1891, and created a baronet in 1893. 

Among his books were--Handbook of Chemistry (with C. L. 
Bloxam), Modern History of Gunpowder (1866), Gun-cotton 
(1866), On Explosive Agents (1872), Researches in 
Explosives (1875), and Electricity applied to Explosive 
Purposes (1884).  He also wrote several important articles 
in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

ABEL, KARL FRIEDRICH (1725-1787), German musician, was 
born in Kothen in 1725, and died on the 20th of June 1787 in 
London.  He was a great player on the viola da gamba, 
and composed much music of importance in its day for that 
instrument.  He studied under Johann Sebastian Bach at 
the Leipzig Thomasschule; played for ten years (1748-1758) 
under A. Hasse in the band formed at Dresden by the elector 
of Saxony; and then, going to England, became (in 1759) 
chamber-musician to Queen Charlotte.  He gave a concert 
of his own compositions in London, performing on various 
instruments, one of which, the pentachord, was newly 
invented.  In 1762 Johann Christian Bach, the eleventh son 
of Sebastian, came to London, and the friendship between 
him and Abel led, in 1764 or 1765, to the establishment of 
the famous concerts subsequently known as the Bach and Abel 
concerts.  For ten years these were organized by Mrs Comelys, 
whose enterprises were then the height of fashion.  In 1775 
the concerts became independent of her, and were continued 
by Abel unsuccessfully for a year after Bach's death in 
1782.  At them the works of Haydn were first produced in 
England.  After the failure of his concert undertakings 
Abel still remained in great request as a player on various 
instruments new and old, but he took to drink and thereby 
hastened his death.  He was a man of striking presence, of whom 
several fine portraits, including two by Gainsborough, exist. 

ABEL, NIELS HENRIK (1802-1829), Norwegian mathematician, 
was born at Findoe on the 25th of August 1802.  In 1815 he 
entered the cathedral school at Christiania, and three years 
later he gave proof of his mathematical genius by his brilliant 
solutions of the original problems proposed by B. Holmboe.  
About this time, his father, a poor Protestant minister, 
died, and the family was left in straitened circumstances; 
but a small pension from the state allowed Abel to enter 
Christiania University in 1821.  His first notable work was a 
proof of the impossibility of solving the quintic equation by 
radicals.  This investigation was first published in 1824 
and in abstruse and difficult form, and afterwards (1826) 
more elaborately in the first volume of Crelle's Journal.  
Further state aid enabled him to visit Germany and France in 
1825, and having visited the astronomer Heinrich Schumacher 
(178-1850) at Hamburg, he spent six months in Berlin, where 
he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle, who was then 
about to publish his mathematical journal.  This project 
was warmly encouraged by Abel, who contributed much to the 
success of the venture.  From Berlin he passed to Freiberg, 
and here he made his brilliant researches in the theory of 
functions, elliptic, hyperelliotic and a new class known as 
Abelians being particularly studied.  In 1826 he moved to 
Paris, and during a ten months' stay he met the leading 
mathematicians of France; but he was little appreciated, for 
his work was scarcely known, and his modesty restrained him 
from proclaiming his researches.  Pecuniary embarrassments, 
from which he had never been free, finally compelled him 
to abandon his tour, and on his return to Norway he taught 
for some time at Christiania.  In 1829 Crelle obtained a 
post for him at Berlin, but the offer did not reach Norway 
until after his death near Arendal on the 6th of April. 

The early death of this talented mathematician, of whom 
Legendre said ``quelle tete celle du jeune Norvegien!'', 
cut short a career of extraordinary brilliance and promise.  
Under Abel's guidance, the prevailing obscurities of analysis 
began to be cleared, new fields were entered upon and the 
study of functions so advanced as to provide mathematicians 
with numerous ramifications along which progress could be 
made.  His works, the greater part of which originally 
appeared in Crelle's Journal, were edited by Holmbor and 
published in 1839 by the Swedish government, and a more 
complete edition by L. Sylow and S. Lie was published in 1881. 

For further details of his mathematical investigations see the 
articles GROUPS, THEORY OF, and FUNCTIONS OF COMPLEX VARIABLES. 

See C. A. Bjerknes, Niels Henrik Abel: Tableau de sa 
vie et son action scientifique (Paris, 1885); Lucas 
de Peslouan, Niels Henrik Abel (Paris, 1906). 

ABEL (better ABELL), THOMAS (d. 1540), an English priest 
who was martyred during the reign of Henry VIII.  The place 
and date of his birth are unknown.  He was educated at Oxford 
and entered the service of Queen Catherine some time before 
1528, when he was sent by her to the emperor Charles V. on a 
mission relating to the proposed divorce.  On his return he 
was presented by Catherine to the living of Bradwell, in Essex, 
and remained to the last a staunch supporter of the unfortunate 
queen.  In 1533, he published his Invicta Veritas (with 
the fictitious pressmark of Luneberge, to avoid suspicion), 
which contained an answer to the numerous tracts supporting 
Henry's ecclesiastical claims.  After an imprisonment of more 
than six years, Abel was sentenced to death for denying the 
royal supremacy in the church, and was executed at Smithfield 
on the 30th of July 1540.  There is still to be seen on the 
wall of his prison in the Tower the symbol of a bell with 
an A upon it and the name Thomas above, winch he carved 
during his confinement.  He was beatified by Pope Leo XIII. 

See J. Gillow's Bibl.  Dictionary of Eng. Catholics, vol. i.; 
Calendar of State Papers of Henry VIII., vols. iv.-vii. passim. 

ABELARD, PETER (1079-1142), scholastic philosopher, was born 
at Pallet (Palais), not far from Nantes, in 1079.  He was the 
eldest son of a noble Breton house.  The name Abaelardus 
(also written Abailardus, Abaielardus, and in many other 
ways) is said to be a corruption of Habelardus, substituted 
by himself for a nickname Bajolardus given to him when a 
student.  As a boy, he showed an extraordinary quickness of 
apprehension, and, choosing a learned life instead of the 
knightly career natural to a youth of his birth, early became 
an adept in the art of dialectic, under which name philosophy, 
meaning at that time chiefly the logic of Aristotle transmitted 
through Latin channels, was the great subject of liberal 
study in the episcopal schools.  Roscellinus, the famous 
canon of Compiegne, is mentioned by himself as his teacher; 
but whether he heard this champion of extreme Nominalism in 
early youth, when he wandered about from school to school 
for instruction and exercise, or some years later, after he 
had already begun to teach for himself, remains uncertain.  
His wanderings finally brought him to Paris, still under 
the age of twenty.  There, in the great cathedral school of 
Notre-Dame, he sat for a while under the teaching of William 
of Champeaux, the disciple of St Anselm and most advanced of 
Realists, but, presently stepping forward, he overcame the 
master in discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued 
in the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till 
then dominant in the early Middle Age. First, in the teeth 
of opposition from the metropolitan teacher, while yet only 
twenty-two, he proceeded to set up a school of hs own at 
Melun, whence, for more direct competition, he removed to 
Corbeil, nearer Paris.  The success of his teaching was 
signal, though for a time he had to quit the field, the 
strain proving too great for his physical strength.  On his 
return, after 1108, he found William lecturing no longer at 
Notre-Dame, but in a monastic retreat outside the city, and 
there battle was again joined between them.  Forcing upon 
the Realist a material change of doctrine, he was once more 
victorious, and thenceforth he stood supreme.  His discomfited 
rival still had power to keep him from lecturing in Paris, hut 
soon failed in this last effort also.  From Melun, where he 
had resumed teaching, Abelard passed to the capital, and set 
up his school on the heights of St Genevieve, looking over 
Notre-Dame.  From his success in dialectic, he next turned to 
theology and attended the lectures of Anselm at Laon.  His triumph 
over the theologian was complete; the pupil was able to give 
lectures, without previous training or special study, which 
were acknowledged superior to those of the master.  Abelard 
was now at the height of hs fame.  He stepped into the chair at 
Notre-Dame, being also nominated canon, about the year 1115. 

Few teachers ever held such sway as Abelard now did for a 
time.  Distinguished in figure and manners, he was seen 
surrounded by crowds--it is said thousands of students, 
drawn from all countries by the fame of hs teaching, in which 
acuteness of thought was relieved by simplicity and grace of 
exposition.  Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and 
feasted with universal admiration, he came, as he says, 
to think himself the only philosopher standing in the 
world.  But a change in his fortunes was at hand.  In his 
devotion to science, he had hitherto lived a very regular 
life, varied only by the excitement of conflict: now, at 
the height of his fame, other passions began to stir within 
him.  There lived at that time, within the precincts of 
Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle, the canon Fulbert, a 
young girl named Heloise, of noble extraction, and born about 
1101.  Fair, but still more remarkable for her knowledge, 
which extended beyond Latin, it is said, to Greek and Hebrew, 
she awoke a feeling of love in the breast of Abelard; and 
with intent to win her, he sought and gained a footing in 
Fulbert's house as a regular inmate.  Becoming also tutor to 
the maiden, he used the unlimited power which he thus obtained 
over her for the purpose of seduction, though not without 
cherishing a real affection which she returned in unparalleled 
devotion.  Their relation interfering with his public work, and 
being, moreover, ostentatiously sung by himself, soon became 
known to all the world except the too-confiding Fulbert; and, 
when at last it could not escape even his vision, they were 
separated only to meet in secret.  Thereupon Heloise found 
herself pregnant, and was carried off by her lover to Brittany, 
where she gave birth to a son.  To appease her furious uncle, 
Abelard now proposed a marriage, under the condition that it 
should be kept secret, in order not to mar his prospects of 
advancement in the church; but of marriage, whether public 
or secret, Heloise would hear nothing.  She appealed to him 
not to sacrifice for her the independence of his life, nor 
did she finally yield to the arrangement without the darkest 
forebodings, only too soon to be reallzed.  The secret of 
the marriage was not kept by Fulbert; and when Heloise, true 
to her singular purpose, boldly denied it, life was made so 
unsupportable to her that she sought refuge in the convent of 
Argenteuil.  Immediately Fulbert, believing that her husband, 
who aided in the flight, designed to be rid of her, coinceived 
a dire revenge.  He and some others broke into Abelard's 
chamber by night, and perpetrated on him the most brutal 
mutilation.  Thus cast down from his pinnacle of greatness 
into an abyss of shame and misery, there was left to the 
brilliant master only the life of a monk.  The priesthood 
and ecclesiastical office were canonically closed to him.  
Heloise, not yet twenty, consummated her work of self-sacrifice 
at the call of his jealous love, and took the veil. 

It was in the abbey of St Denis that Abelard, now aged 
forty, sought to bury himself with his woes out of sight.  
Finding, however, in the cloister neither calm nor solitude, 
and having gradually turned again to study, he yielded after 
a year to urgent entreaties from without and within, and 
went forth to reopen his school at the priory of Maisonceile 
(1120).  His lectures, now framed in a devotional spirit, were 
heard again by crowds of students, and all his old influence 
seemed to have returned; but old enmities were revived 
also, against which he was no longer able as before to make 
head.  No sooner had he put in writing his theological 
lectures (apparently the Introductio and Theolo giam 
that has come down to us), than his adversaries fell foul of 
his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma.  
Charging him with the heresy of Sabellius in a provincial 
synod held at Soissons in 1121, they procured by irregular 
practices a condemnation of his teaching, whereby he was made 
to throw his book into the flames and then was shut up in 
the convent of St Medard at Soissons.  After the other, it 
was the bitterest possible experience that could befall him, 
nor, in the state of mental desolation into which it plunged 
him, could he find any comfort from being soon again set free.  
The life in his own monastery proved no more congenial than 
formerly.  For this Abelard himself was partly responsible.  
He took a sort of malicious pleasure in irritating the monks. 
Quasijocando, he cited Bede to prove that Dionysius the 
Areopagite had been bishop of Corinth, while they relied upon 
the statement of the abbot Hilduin that he had been bishop of 
Athens.  When this historical heresy led to the inevitable 
persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in 
which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius' 
Historia Ecelesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom 
Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius 
the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, 
though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite 
might also have beeit bishop of Corinth.  Life in the 
monastery was intolerable for such a troublesome spirit, and 
Abelard, who had once attempted to escape the persecution 
he had called forth by flight to a monastery at Provins, 
was finally allowed to withdraw.  In a desert place near 
Nogent-sur-Seine, he built himself a cabin of stubble and 
reeds, and turned hermit.  But there fortune came back to him 
with a new surprise.  His retreat becoming known, students 
flocked from Paris, and covered the wilderness around him 
with their tents and huts.  When he began to teach again he 
found consolation, and in gratitude he consecrated the new 
oratory they built for him by the name of the Paraclete. 

Upon the return of new dangers, or at least of fears, Abelard 
left the Paraclete to make trial of another refuge, accepting 
an invitation to preside over the abbey of St Gildas-de-Rhuys, 
on the far-off shore of Lower Brittany.  It proved a wretched 
exchange.  The region was inhospitable, the domain a prey to 
lawless exaction, the house itself savage and disorderly.  
Yet for nearly ten years he continued to struggle with fate 
before he fled from his charge, yielding in the end only under 
peru of violent death.  The misery of those years was not, 
however, unrelieved; for he had been able, on the breaking 
up of Heloise's convent at Argenteuil, to establish her as 
head of a new religious house at the deserted Paraclete, and 
in the capacity of spiritual director he often was called to 
revisit the spot thus made doubly dear to him.  All this time 
Heloise had lived amid universal esteem for her knowledge and 
character, uttering no word under the doom that had fallen upon 
her youth; hut now, at last, the occasion came for expressing 
all the pent-up emotions of her soul.  Living on for some time 
apart (we do not know exactly where), after his flight from St 
Gildas, Abelard wrote, among other things, his famous Historia 
Calamitatum, and thus moved her to peu her first Letter, 
which remains an unsurpassed utterance of human passion and 
womanly devotion; the first being followed by the two other 
Letters, in which she finally accepted the part of resignation 
which, now as a brother to a sister, Abelard commended to 
her.  He not long after was seen once more upon the field 
of his early triumphs lecturing on Mount St Genevieve in 
1136 (when he was heard by John of Salisbury), but it was 
only for a brief space: no new triumph, but a last great 
trial, awaited him in the few years to come of his chequered 
life.  As far back as the Paraclete days, he had counted 
as chief among his foes Bernard of Clairvaux, in whom was 
incarnated the principle of fervent and unhesitating faith, 
from which rational inquiry like his was sheer revolt, and 
now this uncompromising spirit was moving, at the instance of 
others, to crush the growing evil in the person of the boldest 
offender.  After preliminary negotiations, in which Bernard 
was roused by Abelard's steadfastness to put forth all his 
strength, a council met at Sens (1141), before which Abelard, 
formally arraigned upon a number of heretical charges, was 
prepared to plead his cause.  When, however, Bernard, not without 
foregone terror in the prospect of meeting the redoubtable 
dialectician, had opened the case, suddenlly Abelard appealed to 
Rome.  The stroke availed him nothing; for Bernard, who had 
power, notwithstanding, to get a condemnation passed at the 
council, did not rest a moment till a second condemnation was 
procured at Rome in the following year.  Meanwhile, on his way 
thither to urge his plea in person, Abelard had broken down 
at the abbey of Cluny, and there, an utterly fallen man, with 
spirit of the humblest, and only not bereft of his intellectual 
force, he lingered but a few months before the approach of 
death.  Removed by friendly hands, for the relief of his 
sufferings, to the priory of St Marcel, near Chalon-sur-Saone, 
he died on the 21st of April 1142.  First buried at St Marcel, 
his remains soon after were carried off in secrecy to the 
Paraclete, and given over to the loving care of Heloise, who 
in time came herself to rest beside them (1164).  The bones 
of the pair were shifted more than once afterwards, but they 
were marvellously preserved even through the vicissitudes 
of the French Revolution, and now they lie united in the 
well-known tomb in the cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise at Paris. 

Great as was the influence exerted by Abelard on the minds of 
his contemporaries and the course of medieval thought, he has 
been little known in modern times but for his connexion with 
Heloise.  Indeed, it was not till the 19th century, when Cousin 
in 1836 issued the collection entitled Ouvrages inedits 
d'Abelard, that his philosophical performance could be judged 
at first hand; of his strictly philosophical works only one, 
the ethical treatise Scito te ipsum, having been published 
earlier, namely, in 1721.  Cousin's collection, besides giving 
extracts from the theological work Sic et Non (an assemblage 
of opposite opinions on doctrinal points, culled from the 
Fathers as a basis for discussion, the main interest in which 
lles in the fact that there is no attempt to reconcile the 
different opinions), includes the Dialectica, commentaries 
on logical works of Aristotle, Porphyry and Boothius, and a 
fragment, De Generibus et Speciebus.  The last-named 
work, and also the psychological treatise De Inteilectibus, 
published apart by Cousin (in Fragmens Philosophiques, 
vol. ii.), are now considered upon internal evidence not to 
be hy Abelard himself, but only to have sprung out of his 
school.  A genuine work, the Glossulae super Porphyrium, 
from which Charles de Remusat, in his classical monograph 
Abelard (1845), has given extracts, remains in manuscript. 

The general importance of Abelard lles in his having fixed 
more decisively than any one before him the scholastic manner 
of philosophizing, with its object of giving a formally 
rational expression to the received ecclesiastical doctrine 
. However his own particular interpretations may have been 
condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit 
as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in 
the 13th century with approval from the heads of the church.  
Through him was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendancy 
of the philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became 
firmly established in the half-century after his death, when 
first the completed Organon, and gradually ail the other 
works of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools: 
before his time it was rather upon the authority of Plato 
that the prevailing Realism sought to lean.  As regards his 
so-called Conceptualism and his attitude to the question of 
Universals, see SCHOLASTICISM.  Outside of his dialectic, 
it was in ethics that Abelard showed greatest activity of 
philosophical thought; laying very particular stress upon 
the subjective intention as determining, if not the moral 
character, at least the moral value, of human action.  His 
thought in this direction, wherein he anticipated something 
of modern speculation, is the more remarkable because his 
scholastic successors accomplished least in the field of 
morals, hardly venturing to bring the principles and rules of 
conduct under pure philosophical discussion, even after the 
great ethical inquiries of AAstotle became fully known to them. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY --Abelard's own works remain the best sources 
for his life, especially his Historia Culamitatum, an 
autobiography, and the correspondence with Heloise.  The 
literature on Abelard is extensive, but consists principally 
of monographs on different aspects of his philosophy.  
Charles de Remusat's Abelard (2 vols., 1845) remains an 
authority; it must be distinguished from his drama Abelard 
(1877), which is an attempt to give a picture of medieval 
life.  McCabe's life of Abelard is written closely from 
the sources. eee also the valuable analysis by Nitsch 
in the article ``Abalard'' There is a comprehensive 
bibliograohy in U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources 
hist. du moyen age, s. ``Abailard.'' (G. C. R.; J. T. S.*) 

ABELIN, JOHANN PHILIPP, an early 16th-century German 
chronicler, was born, probably, at Strasburg, and died there 
between the years 1634 and 1637.  He wrote numerous histories 
over the pseudonyms of Philipp Arlanibaus, Abeleus and Johann 
Eudwighottfaed or Gotofredus, his earliest works of importance 
being his history of the German wars of Gustavus Adolphus, 
entitled Arma Suecica (pub. 1631-1634, in 12 parts), and the 
Inventarium Sueciae (1632)---both compilations from existing 
records.  His best known work is the Theatrum Europaeum, a 
series of chronicles of the chief events in the history of the 
world down to 1619.  He was himself responsible for the first two 
volumes.  It was continued by various writers and grew to 
twenty-one volumes (Frankf. 1633-1738).  The chief interest 
of the work is, however, its illustration by the beautiful 
copperplate engravings of Matthaus Meriah (1593-1650).  Abelin 
also wrote a history of the antipodes, Historia Antipodum 
(posthumously pub.  Frankf. 1655), and a history of India. 

See G. Droysen, Arlanibaeus, Godofredus, Abelinus (Berlin, 
1864); and notice in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic. 

ABENCERRAGES, a family or faction that is said to have held a 
prominent position in the Moorish kingdom of Granada in the 15th 
century.  The name appears to have been derived from the Yussuf 
ben-Serragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mahommed 
VII., who did that sovereign good service in his struggles 
to retain the crown of which he was three times deprived.  
Nothing is known of the family with certainty; but the name 
is familiar from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de 
Hita, Guerras civiles de Granada, which celebrates the feuds 
of the Abencerrages and the rival family of the Zegris, and 
the cruel treatment to which the former were subjected.  J. 
P. de Florian's Gonsalve de Cordoue and Chateaubriand's Le 
dernier des Abencerrages are imitations of Perez de Hita's 
work.  The hall of the Abencerrages in the Alhambra takes its 
name from being the reputed scene of the massacre of the family. 

ABENDANA, the name of two Jewish theologians. (1) JACOB 
(1630-i695), rabbi (Hakham) of the Spanish Jews in London 
from 1680.  Like his brother Isaac, Jacob Abendana had 
a circle of Christian friends, and his reputation led to 
the appreciation of Jewish scholarship by modern Christian 
theologians. (2) ISAAC (c. 1650-1710), his brother, 
taught Hebrew at Cambridge and afterwards at Oxford.  He 
compiled a Jewish Calendar and wrote Discourses on the 
Ecclesiastical and Civil Polity of the Jews (1706). 

ABENEZRA (IBN EZRA), or, to give him his full name, 
ABRAHAM BEN MEIR IBN Ezra (1092 or 1093-1167), one of the 
most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the 
Middle Ages.  He was born at Toledo, left his native land of 
Spain before 1140 and led until his death a life of restless 
wandering, which took him to North Africa, Egypt, Italy (Rome, 
Lucca, Mantua,Verona), Southern France(Narbonne, Beziers), 
Northern France (Dreux), England (London), and back again to 
the South of France.  At several of the above-named places he 
remained for some time and developed a rich literary activity.  
In his native land he had already gained the reputation of a 
distinguished poet and thinker; but, apart from his poems, his 
works, which were all in the Hebrew language, were written 
in the second period of his life.  With these works, which 
cover in the first instance the field of Hebrew philology and 
Biblical exegesis, he fulfilled the great mission of making 
accessible to the Jews of Christian Europe the treasures of 
knowledge enshrined in the works written in Arabic which he 
had brought with him from Spain.  His grammatical writings, 
among which Moznayim (``the Scales,'' written in 1140) 
and Zahot (``Correctness,'' written in 1141) are the most 
valuable, were the first expositions of Hebrew grammar in the 
Hebrew language, in which the system of Hayyuj and his school 
prevailed.  He also translated into Hebrew the two writings 
of Hayyuj in which the foundations of the system were laid 
down.  Of greater original value than the grammatical works of 
Ibn Ezra are his commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, 
of which, however, a part has been lost.  His reputation as an 
intelligent and acute expounder of the Bible was founded on his 
commentary on the Pentateuch, of which the great popularity is 
evidenced by the numerous commentaries which were written upon 
it.  In the editions of this commentary (ed. princ.  Naples 
1488) the commentary on the book of Exodus is replaced by a 
second, more complete commentary of Ibn Ezra, while the 
first and shorter commentary on Exodus was not printed until 
1840.  The great editions of the Hebrew Bible with rabbinical 
commentaries contained also commentaries of Ibn Ezra's on the 
following books of the Bible: Isaiah, Minor Prophets, Psalms, 
Job, Pentateuch, Daniel; the commentaries on Proverbs, Ezra 
and Nehemiah which bear his name are really those of Moses 
Kimhi.  Ibn Ezra wrote a second commentary on Genesis as he 
had done on Exodus, but this was never finished.  There are 
second commentaries also by him on the Song of Songs, Esther and 
Daniel.  The importance of the exegesis of Ibn Ezra consists 
in the fact that it aims at arriving at the simple sense of 
the text, the so-called ``Pesohat,'' on solid grammatical 
principles.  It is in this that, although he takes a great 
part of his exegetical material from his predecessors, the 
originality of his mind is everywhere apparent, an originality 
which displays itself also in the witty and lively language of his 
commentaries.  To judge by certain signs, of which Spinoza 
in his Tractatus Theologico Politicus makes use, Ibn 
Ezra belongs to the earliest pioneers of the criticism of the 
Pentateuch.  His commentaries, and especially some of the longer 
excursuses, contain numerous contributions to the philosophy of 
religion.  One writing in particular, which belongs to this 
province (Vosod Mera), on the division and the reasons 
for the Biblical commandments, he wrote in 1158 for a London 
friend, Joseph b.  Jacob.  In his philosophical thought 
neo-platonic ideas prevail; and astrology also had a place 
in his view of the world.  He also wrote various works on 
mathematical and astronomical subjects.  Ibn Ezra died on the 
28th of January 1167, the place of his death being unknown. 

Among the literature on Ibn Ezra may be especially mentioned: 
M. Friedlander, Essays on the Writings of Ibn Ezra 
(London, 1877); W. Bacher, Abraham Ibn Ezra als Grammatiker 
(Strasburg, 1882); M. Steinschneider, Abraham Ibn Ezra, in 
the Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik, Band xxv., 
Supplement; D. Rosin, Die Religions philosophie Abraham 
Ibn Ezra's in vols. xiii. and xliii. of the Monatschrift 
fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums; his Diwan 
was edited by T. Egers (Berlin, 1886): a collection of his 
poems, Reime und Gedichte, with translation and commentary, 
were published by D. Rosin in several annual reports of the 
Jewish theological Seminary at Breslau (1885--1894). (W. BA.) 

ABENSBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the 
Abens, a tributary of the Danube, 18 m.  S.W. of Regensburg, 
with which it is connected by rail.  Pop. 2202.  It has a small 
spa, and its sulphur baths are resorted to for the cure of 
rheumatism and gout.  The town is the Castra Abusina of the 
Romans, and Roman remains exist in the neighbourhood.  Here, 
on the 20th of April 1809, Napoleon gained a signal victory 
over the Austrians under the Archduke Louis and Genegal Hiller. 

ABEOKUTA, a town of British West Africa in the Egba 
division of the Yoruba country, S. Nigeria Protectorate.  It 
is situated in 7 deg.  8' N., 3 deg.  25' E., on the Ogun river, 64 
m.  N. of Lagos by railway, or 81 m. by water.  Population, 
approximately 60,000.  Abeokuta lies in a beautiful and fertile 
country, the surface of which is broken by masses of grey 
granite.  It is spread over an extensive area, being surrounded 
by mud walls 18 miles in extent.  Abeokuta, under the reforming 
zeal of its native rulers, was largely transformed during 
the early years of the 20th century.  Law courts, government 
offices, prisons and a substantial bridge were built, good roads 
made, and a large staff of sanitary inspectors appointed.  
The streets are generally narrow and the houses built of 
mud.  There are numerous markets in which a considerable 
trade is done in native products and articles of European 
manufacture.  Palm-oil, timber, rubber, yams and shea-butter 
are the chief articles of trade.  An official newspaper is 
published in the Yoruba and English languages.  Abeokuta is 
the headquarters of the Yoruba branch of the Church Missionary 
Societyi and British and American, missionaries have met 
with some success in their civilizing work.  In their schools 
about 2000 children are educated.  The completion in 1899 
of a railway from Lagos helped not only to develop trade 
but to strengthen generally the influence of the white man. 

Abeokuta (a word meaning ``under the rocks,''), dating 
from 1825, owes its origin to the incessant inroads of the 
slavehunters from Dahomey and Ibadan, which compelled the 
village populations scattered over the open country to take 
refuge in this rocky stronghold against the common enemy.  
Here they constituted themselves a free confederacy of many 
distinct tribal groups, each preserving the traditional customs, 
religious rites and even the very names of their original 
villages.  Yet this apparently incoherent aggregate held 
its ground successfully against the powerful armies often 
sent against the place both by the king of Dahomey from the 
west, and by the people of Ibadan from the north-east. 

The district of Egba, of which Abeokuta is the capital, has 
an estimated area of 3000 sq. m. and a population of some 
350,000.  It is officially known as the Abeokuta province 
of the Southern Nigeria protectorate.  It contains luxuriant 
forests of palmtrees, which constitute the chief wealth of the 
people.  Cotton is indigenous and is grown for export.  
The Egbas are enthusiastic farmers and have largely adopted 
European methods of cultivation.  They are very tenacious 
of their independence, but accepted without opposition the 
establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting 
a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human 
sacrifices, and exercising control over the working of the 
laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy.  The 
administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which 
exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial 
functions.  The president of this council, or ruling chief 
---chosen from among the members of the two recognized 
reigning families--is called the alake, a word meaning 
``Lord of Ake,'' Ake being the name of the principal quarter 
of Abeokuta, after the ancient capital of the Egbas.  The 
alake exercises little authority apart from his councili 
the form of government being largely democratic.  Revenue 
is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.  A visit 
of the alake to England in 1904 evoked considerable public 
interest.  The chief was a man of great intelligence, eager 
to study western civilization, and an ardent agriculturist. 

See the publications of the Church Missionary Society 
dealing mith the Voruba Mission; Col. A. B. Ellis's The 
Yoruba-speaking Peoples (London, 1894); and an article on 
Abeokuta by Sir Wm. Macgregor, sometime governor of Lagos, in 
the African Society's Journal, No. xii. (London, July 1904). 

ABERAVON, a contributory parliamentary and municipal borough 
of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the right bank of the Avon, near 
its mouth in Swansea Bay, 11 m.  E.S.E. of Swansea and 170 m. 
from London by rail.  Pop. (1901) 7553.  It has a station on the 
Rhondda and Swansea Bay railway and is also on the main South 
Wales line of the Great Western, whose station, however, is at 
fort Talbot, half a mile distant, on the eastern side of the 
Avon.  The valley of the Avon, which is only some three miles 
long, has been from about 1840 a place of much metallurgical 
activity.  There are tinplate and engineering works within 
the borough.  At Cwmavon, 1 1/2 m. to the north-east, are 
large copper-smelting works established in 1838, acquired 
two years later by the governor and Company of the Copper 
Miners of England, but now worked by the Rio Tinto Copper 
Company.  There are also iron, steel and tinplate works 
both at Cwmavon and at Port Talbot, which, when it consisted 
only of docks, was appropriately known as Aberavon Port. 

The town derives its name from the river Avon (corrupted from 
Avan), which also gave its name to a medieval lordship.  On 
the Norman conquest at Glamorgan, Caradoc, the eldest son of 
the defeated prince, Lestyn ab Gwrgan, continued to hold this 
lordship, and for the defence of thc passage of the river 
built here a castle whose foundations are still traceable in 
a field near the churchyard.  His descendants (who from the 
13th century onwards styled themselves De Avan or D'Avene) 
established, under line protection of the castle, a chartered 
town, which in 1372 received a further charter from Edward 
Le Despenser, into whose family the lordship had come on an 
exchange of lands.  In modern times these charters were not 
acted upon, the town being deemed a borough by prescription, 
but in 1861 it was incorporated under the Municipal 
Corporations Act. Since 1832 it has belonged to the Swansea 
parliamentary district of boroughs, uniting with Kenfig, 
Loughor, Neath and Swansea to return one member; but in 1885 
the older portion of Swansea was given a separate member. 

ABERCARN, an urban district in the southern parliamentary 
division of Monmouthshire, England, 10 m.  N.W. of Newport 
by the Great Western railway.  Pop. (1901) 12,607.  There are 
collieries, ironworks and tinplate works in the district; 
the town, which lies in the middle portion of the Ebbw 
valley, being situated on the south-eastern flank of the 
great mining region of Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire. 

ABERCORN, JAMES HAMILTON, 1ST EARL OF (c. 1575-1618), 
was the eldest son of Claud Hamilton, Lord Paisley (4th son of 
James, 2nd earl of Arran, and duke of Chatelherault), and of 
Margaret, daughter of George, 6th Lord Seton.  He was made 
sheriff of Linlithgow in 1600, received large grants of 
lands in Scotland and Ireland, was created in 1603 baron of 
Abercorn, and on the 10th of July 1606 was rewarded for his 
services in the matter of the union by being made earl of 
Abercorn, and Baron Hamilton, Mount Castle and Kilpatrick.  
He married Marion, daughter of Thomas, 5th Lord Boyd, and left 
five sons, of whom the eldest, baron of Strabane, succeeded 
him as 2nd earl of Abercorn.  He died on the 23rd of March 
1618.  The title of Abercorn, held by the head of the Hamilton 
family, became a marquessate in 1790, and a dukedom in 1868, 
the 2nd duke of Abercorn (b. 1838) being a prominent Unionist 
politician and chairman of the British South Africa Company. 

ABERCROMRIE, JOHN (1780-1844), Scottish physician, was the son 
of the Rev. George Abercrombie of Aberdeen, where he was born 
on the 10th of October 1780.  He was educated at the university 
of Edinburgh, and after graduating as M.D. in 1803 he settled 
down to practise in that city, where he soon attained a leading 
position.  From 1816 he published various papers in the 
Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis 
of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases 
of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the 
Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera 
of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.  He also found time 
for philosophical speculations, and in 1830 he published his 
Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and 
the Investigation of Truth, which was followed in 1833 by a 
sequel, The Philosophy of the Moral Feelings.  Both works, 
though showing little originality of thought, achieved wide 
popularity.  He died at Edinburgh on the 14th of November 1844. 

ABERCROMBY, DAVID, a 17th-century Scottish physician who 
was sufficiently noteworthy a generation after the probable 
date of his death to have his Nova Medicinae Praxis 
reprinted at Paris in 1740.  During his lifetime his Tuta 
ac efficax luis venereae saepe absque mercurio ac semper 
absque salivatione mercuriali curando methodus (1684) was 
translated into French, Dutch and German.  Two other works 
by him were De Pulsus Variatione (London, 1685), and Ars 
explorandi medicas facultates plantarum ex solo sapore 
(London, 1685--1688); His Opuscula were collected in 1687.  
These professional writings gave him a place and memorial 
in A. von Haller's Bibliotheca Medicinae Pract. (4 vols. 
8vo, 1779, tom. iii. p. 619); but he claims notice rather by 
his remarkable controversial books in theology and philosophy 
than by his medical writings.  Bred up at Douai as a Jesuit, 
he abjured popery, and published Protestancy proved Safer 
than Popery' (London, 1686).  But the most noticeable of 
his productions is A Discourse of Wit (London, 1685), which 
contains some of the most characteristic and most definitely-put 
metaphysical opinions of the Scottish philosophy of common 
sense.  It was followed by Academia Scientiarum (1687), 
and by A Moral Treatise of the Power. of Interest (1690), 
dedicated to Robert Boyle. A Short Account of Scots Divines, 
by him, was printed at Edinburgh in 1833, edited by James 
Maidment.  The exact date of his death is unknown, but 
according to Haller he was alive early in the 18th century. 

ABERCROMBY, PATRICK (1656-c.1716), Scottish physician 
and antiquarian, was the third son of Alexander Abercromby 
of Fetterneir in Aberdeenshire, and brother of Francis 
Abercromby, who was created Lord Glasford by James II. He 
was born at Forfar in 1656 apparently of a Roman Catholic 
family.  Intending to become a doctor of medicine he entered 
the university of St Andrews, where he took his degree of M.D. 
in 1685, but apparently he spent most of his youthful years 
abroad.  It has been stated that he attended the university of 
Paris.  The Discourse of Wit (1685), sometimes assigned to 
him, belongs to Dr David Abercromby (q.v.).  On his return to 
Scotland, he is found practising as a physician in Edinburgh, 
where, besides his professional duties, he gave himself with 
characteristic zeal to the study of antiquities.  He was 
appointed physician to James II. in 1685, but the revolution 
deprived him of the post.  Living during the agitations for 
the union of England and Scotland, he took part in the war 
of pamphlets inaugurated and sustained by prominent men on 
both sides of the Border, and he crossed swords with no less 
redoubtable a foe than Daniel Defoe in his Advantages of the 
Act of Security compared with those of the intended Union 
(Edinburgh, 1707), and A Vindication of the Same against Mr 
De Foe (ibid.). A minor literary work of Abercromby's was 
a translation of Jean de Beaugue's Histoire de la guerre 
d'Ecosse (1556) which appeared in 1707.  But the work with 
which his name is permanently associated is his Martial 
Atchievements of the Scots Nation, issued in two large folios, 
vol. i. 1711, vol. ii. 1716.  In the title-page and preface 
to vol. i. he disclaims the ambition of being an historian, 
but in vol. ii., in title-page and preface alike, he is no 
longer a simple biographer, but an historian.  Even though, 
read in the light of later researches, much of the first volume 
must necessarily be relegated to the region of the mythical, 
none the less was the historian a laborious and accomplished 
reader and investigator of all available authorities, as well 
manuscript as printed; while the roll of names of those who 
aided him includes every man of note in Scotland at the time, 
from Sir Thomas Craig and Sir George Mackenzie to Alexander 
Nisbet and Thomas Ruddiman.  The date of Abercromby's death is 
uncertain.  It has been variously assigned to 1715, 1716, 
1720, and 1726, and it is usually added that he left a widow 
in great poverty.  The Memoirs of the Abercrombys, commonly 
attributed to him, do not appear to have been published. 

See Robert Chambers, Eminent Scotsmen, s.v.; William Anderson, 
Scottish Nation, s.v.; Alexander Chalmers, Biog.  Dict., 
s.v.; George Chalmers, Life of Ruddiman; William Lee, Defoe. 

ABERCROMBY, SIR RALPH (1734-1801), British lieutenant-general, 
was the eldest son of George Abercromby of Tillibody, 
Clackmannanshire, and was born in October 1734.  Educated 
at Rugby and Edinburgh University, in 1754 he was sent to 
Leipzig to study civil law, with a view to his proceeding 
to the Scotch bar.  On returning from the continent he 
expressed a strong preference for the military profession, 
and a cornet's commission was accordingly obtained for him 
(March 1756) in the 3rd Dragoon Guards.  He served with his 
regiment in the Seven Years' war, and the opportunity thus 
afforded him of studying the methods of the great Frederick 
moulded his military character and formed his tactical 
ideas.  He rose through the intermediate grades to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel of the regiment (1773) and brevet colonel 
in 1780, and in 1781 he became colonel of the King's Irish 
infantry.  When that regiment was disbanded in 1783 he retired upon 
half-pay.  That up to this time he had scarcely been engaged 
in active service was owing mainly to his disapproval of the 
policy of the government, and especially to his sympathies with 
the American colonists in their struggles for independence; 
and his retirement is no doubt to be ascribed to similar 
feelings.  On leaving the army he for a time took up political 
life as member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire.  This, 
however, proved uncongenial, and, retiring in favour of his 
brother, he settled at Edinburgh and devoted himself to the 
education of his children.  But on France declaring war against 
England in 1793, he hastened to resume his professional duties; 
and, being esteemed one of the ablest and most intrepid 
officers in the whole British forces, he was appointed to the 
command of a brigade under the duke of York, for service in 
Holland.  He commanded the advanced guard in the action at Le 
Cateau, and was wounded at Nijmwegen.  The duty fell to him of 
protecting the British army in its disastrous retreat out of 
Holland, in the winter of 1794-1795.  In 1795 he received the 
honour of a knighthood of the Bath, in acknowledgment of his 
services.  The same year he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles 
Grey, as commander-in-chief of the British forces in the West 
Indies.  In 1796 Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a 
detachment of the army under his orders.  He afterwards obtained 
possession of the settlements of Demerara and Essequibo, in 
South America, and of the islands of St Lucia, St Vincent and 
Trinidad.  He returned in 1797 to Europe, and, in reward for 
his important services, was appointed colonel of the regiment 
of Scots Greys, entrusted with the governments of the Isle of 
Wight, Fort-George and Fort-Augustus, and raised to the rank of 
lieutenant-general.  He held, in 1797-1798, the chief command 
of the forces in Ireland.  There he laboured to maintain the 
discipline of the army, to suppress the rising rebellion, 
and to protect the people from military oppression, with a 
care worthy alike of a great general and an enlightened and 
beneficent statesman.  When he was appointed to the command 
in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the French was 
confidently anticipated by the English government.  He used 
his utmost efforts to restore the discipline of an army that 
was utterly disorganized; and, as a first step, he anxiously 
endeavoured to protect the people by re-establishing the 
supremacy of the civil power, and not allowing the military 
to be called out, except when it was indispensably necessary 
for the enforcement of the law and the maintenance of 
order.  Finding that he received no adequate support from the 
head of the Irish government, and that all his efforts were 
opposed and thwarted by those who presided in the councils 
of Ireland, he resigned the command.  His departure from 
Ireland was deeply lamented by the reflecting portion of the 
people, and was speedily followed by those disastrous results 
which he had anticipated, and which he so ardently desired 
and had so wisely endeavoured to prevent.  After holding for 
a short period the office of commander-in-chief in Scotland, 
Sir Ralph, when the enterprise against Holland was resolved 
upon in 1799, was again called to command under the duke of 
York.  The campaign of 1799 ended in disaster, but friend and 
foe alike confessed that the most decisive victory could not 
have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distinguished 
officer.  His country applauded the choice when, in 1801, he 
was sent with an army to dispossess the French of Egypt.  His 
experience in Holland and the West Indies particularly fitted 
him for this new command, as was proved by his carrying his 
army in health, in spirits and with the requisite supplies, 
in spite of very great difficulties, to the destined scene of 
action.  The debarkation of the troops at Aboukir, in 
the face of strenuous opposition, is justly ranked among 
the most daring and brilliant exploits of the English 
army.  A battle in the neighbourhood of Alexandria (March 
21, 1801) was the sequel of this successful landing, and it 
was Abercromby's fate to fall in the moment of victory.  He 
was struck by a spent ball, which could not be extracted, 
and died seven days after the battle.  His old friend and 
commander the duke of York paid a just tribute to the great 
soldier's memory in general orders: ``His steady observance 
of discipline, his ever-watchful attention to the health 
and wants of his troops, the persevering and unconquerable 
spirit which marked his military career, the splendour of 
his actions in the field and the heroism of his death, are 
worthy the imitation of all who desire, like him, a life of 
heroism and a death of glory.'' By a vote of the House of 
Commons, a monument was erected in his honour in St Paul's 
cathedral.  His widow was created Baroness Abercromby of 
Tullibody and Aboukir Bay, and a pension of L. 2000 a year 
was settled on her and her two successors in the title. 

A memoir of the later years of his life (1793-1801) by his 
third son, James (who was Speaker of the House of Commons, 
1835-1839, and became Lord Dunfermline), was published in 
1861.  For a shorter account of Sir Ralph Abercromby see 
Wilkinson, Twelve British Soldiers (London, 1899). 

ABERDARE, HENRY AUSTIN BRUCE, 1ST BARON (1815-1895), English 
statesman, was born at Duffryn, Aberdare, Glamorganshire, on 
the 16th of April 1815, the son of John Bruce, a Glamorganshire 
landowner.  John Bruce's original family name was Knight, 
but on coming of age in 1805 he assumed the name of Bruce, 
his mother, through whom he inherited the Duffryn estate, 
having been the daughter of William Bruce, high sheriff of 
Glamorganshire.  Henry Austin Bruce was educated at Swansea 
grammar school, and in 1837 was called to the bar.  Shortly 
after he had begun to practise, the discovery of coal beneath 
the Duffryn and other Aberdare Valley estates brought the 
family great wealth.  From 1847 to 1852 he was stipendiary 
magistrate for Merthyr Tydvil and Aberdare, resigning the 
position in the latter year, when he entered parliament 
as Liberal member for Merthyr Tydvil.  In 1862 he became 
under-secretary for the home department, and in 1869, after 
losing his seat at Merthyr Tydvil, but being re-elected 
for Renfrewshire, he was made home secretary by W. E. 
Gladstone.  His tenure of this office was conspicuous for a 
reform of the licensing laws, and he was responsible for the 
Licensing Act of 1872, which constituted the magistrates the 
licensing authority, increased the penalties for misconduct in 
public-houses and shortened the number of hours for the sale of 
drink.  In 1873 he relinquished the home secretaryship, at 
Gladstone's request, to become lord president of the council, 
and was almost simultaneously raised to the peerage as Baron 
Aberdare.  The defeat of the Liberal government in the following 
year terminated Lord Aberdare's official political life, and 
he subsequently devoted himself to social, educational and 
economic questions.  In 1876 he was elected F.R.S.; from 1878 
to 1892 he was president of the Royal Historical Society; 
and in 1881 he became president of the Royal Geographical 
Society.  In 1882 he began a connexion with West Africa which 
lasted the rest of his life, by accepting the chairmanship 
of the National African Company, formed by Sir George Taubman 
Goldie, which in 1886 received a charter under the title of the 
Royal Niger Company and in 1899 was taken over by the British 
government, its territories being constituted the protectorate of 
Nigeria.  West African affairs, however, by no means exhausted 
Lord Aberdare's energies, and it was principally through his 
efforts that a charter was in 1894 obtained for the university 
of Wales at Cardiff.  Lord Aberdare, who in 1885 was made a 
G.C.B., presided over several Royal Commissions at different 
times.  He died in London on the 25th of February 1895.  
His second wite was the daughter of Sir William Napier, the 
historian of the Peninsular war, whose Life he edited. 

ABERDARE, a market town of Glamorganshire, Wales, situated (as 
the name implies) at the confluence of the Dar and Cynon, the 
latter being a tributary of the Tain.  Pop. of urban district 
(1901), 43,365.  It is 4 m.  S.W. of Merthyr Tydvil, 24 from 
Cardiff and 160 from London by rail.  It has a station on the 
Pontypool and Swansea section of the Great Western railway, 
and is also served by the Llwydcoed and Abernant stations 
which are on a branch line to Merthyr.  The Tain Vale line 
(opened 1846) has a terminus in the town.  The Glamorgan canal 
has also a branch (made in 1811) running from Abercynon to 
Aberdare.  From being, at the beginning of the 19th century, 
a mere village in an agricultural district, the place grew 
rapidly in population owing to the abundance of its coal and 
iron ore, and the population of the whole parish (which was only 
1486 in 1801) increased tenfold during the first half of the 
century.  Ironworks were established at Llwydcoed and Abernant 
in 1799 and 1800 respectively, followed by others at Gadlys 
and Aberaman in 1827 and 1847.  These have not been worked 
since about 1875, and the only metal industries remaining 
in the town are an iron foundry or two and a small tinplate 
works at Gadlys (established in 1868).  Previous to 1836, 
most of the coal worked in the parish was consumed locally, 
chiefly in the ironworks, but in that year the working of 
steam coal for export was begun, pits were sunk in rapid 
succession, and the coal trade, which at least since 1875 
has been the chief support of the town, soon reached huge 
dimensions.  There are also several brickworks and breweries.  
During the latter half Of the 19th century, considerable 
public improvements were effected in the town, making it, 
despite its neighbouring collieries, an agreeable place of 
residence.  Its institutions included a post-graduate 
theological college (opened in connexion with the Church 
of England in 1892, until 1907, when it was removed to 
Llandaff).  There is a public park of fifty acres with two small 
lakes.  Aberdare, with the ecclesiastical parishes of St 
Fagan's (Trecynon) and Aberaman carved out of the ancient 
parish, has some twelve Anglican churches, one Roman Catholic 
church (built in 1866 in Monk Street near the site of a 
cell attached to Penrhys Abbey) and over fifty Noncoformist 
chapels.  The services in the majority of the chapels are in 
Welsh.  The whole parish falls within the parliamentary borough 
of Merthyr Tydvil.  The urban district includes what were 
once the separate villages of Aberaman, Abernant, Cwmbach, 
Cwmaman, Cwmdare, Llwydcoed and Trecynon.  There are several 
cairns and the remains of a circular British encampment on 
the mountain between Aberdare and Merthyr.  Hirwaun moor, 
4 m. to the N.W. of Aberdare, was according to tradition 
the scene of a battle at which Rhys ap Jewdwr, prince of 
Dyfed, was defeated by the ailied forces of the Norman Robert 
Fitzhamon and Iestyn ab Gwrgan, the last prince of Glamorgan. 

ABERDEEN, GEORGE GORDON, 1ST EARL OF (1637-1720), lord 
chancellor of Scotland, son of Sir John Gordon, 1st baronet 
of Haddo, Aberdeenshire, executed by the Presbyterians in 
1644, was born on the 3rd of October 1637.  He graduated 
M.A., and was chosen professor at King's College, Aberdeen, in 
1658.  Subsequently he travelled and studied civil law abroad.  
At the Restoration the sequestration of his father's lands was 
annulled, and in 1665 he succeeded by the death of his elder 
brother to the baronetcy and estates.  He returned home in 
1667, was admitted advocate in 1668 and gained a high legal 
reputation.  He represented Aberdeenshire in the Scottish 
parliament of 1669 and in the following assemblies, during his 
first session strongly opposing the projected union of the two 
legislatures.  In November 1678 he was made a privy councillor 
for Scotland, and in 1680 was raised to the bench as Lord 
Haddo.  He was a leading member of the duke of York's 
administration, was created a lord of session in June and 
in November 1681 president of the court.  The same year 
he is reported as moving in the council for the torture of 
witnesses.1 In 1682 he was made lord chancellor of Scotland, 
and was created, on the 13th of November, earl of Aberdeen, 
Viscount Formartine, and Lord Haddo, Methllck, Tarves and 
Kellie, in the Scottish peerage, being appointed also sheriff 
principal of Aberdeenshire and Midlothian.  Burnet reflects 
unfavourably upon him, calls him ``a proud and covetous man,'' 
and declares ``the new chancellor exceeded all that had gone 
before him.''2 He executed the laws enforcing religious 
conformity with severity, and filled the parish churches, but 
resisted the excessive measures of tyranny prescribed by the 
English government; and in consequence of an intrigue of the 
duke of Queensberry and Lord Perth, who gained the duchess of 
Portsmouth with a present of L. 27,000, he was dismissed in 1684.  
After his fall he was subjected to various petty prosecutions 
by his victorious rivals with the view of discovering some 
act of maladministration on which to found a charge against 
him, but the investigations only served to strengthen his 
credit.  He took an active part in parliament in 1685 and 
1686, but remained a non-juror during the whole of William's 
reign, being frequently fined for his non-attendance, and 
took the oaths for the first time after Anne's accession, on 
the 11th of May 1703.  In the great affair of the Union in 
1707, while protesting against the completion of the treaty 
till the act declaring the Scots aliens should be repealed, 
he refused to support the opposition to the measure itself 
and refrained from attending parliament when the treaty was 
settled.  He died on the 20th of April 1720, after having 
amassed a large fortune.  He is described by John Mackay as 
``very knowing in the laws and constitution of his country and 
is belleved to be the solidest statesman in Scotland, a fine 
orator, speaks slow but sure.'' His person was said to be 
deformed, and his ``want of mine or deportment'' was alleged 
as a disqualification for the office of lord chancellor.  He 
married Anne, daughter and sole heiress of George Lockhart of 
Torbrecks, by whom he had six children, his only surviving 
son, William, succeeding him as 2nd earl of Aberdeen. 

See Letters to George, earl of Aberdeen (with memoir: Spalding 
Club, 1851); Hist.  Account of the Senators of-the College 
of Justice, by G. Brunton and D. Haig (1832), p. 408; G. 
Crawfurd's Lives of the Officers of State (1726), p. 226; 
Memoirs of Affairs in Scotland, by Sir G. Mackenzie (1821), 
p. 148; Sir J. Lauder's (Lord Fountainhall) Journals (Scottish 
Hist.  Society, vol. xxxvi., 1900); J. Mackay's Memoirs 
(1733), p. 215; A. Lang's Hist. of Scotland, iii. 369, 376. 
                                                     (P. C. Y.)
1 Sir J. Lauder's Hist.  Notices (Bannatyne Club, 1848), p. 297. 

2 Hist. of his own Times, i. 523. 

ABERDEEN, GEORGE HAMILTON GORDON, 4TH EARL OF (1784-1860), 
English statesman, was the eldest son of George Gordon, Lord 
Haddo, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of William Baird of 
Newbyth, Haddingtonshire, and grandson of George, 3rd earl of 
Aberdeen.  Born in Edinburgh on the 28th of January 1784, 
he lost his father in 1791 and his mother in 1795; and as 
his grandfather regarded him with indifference, he went to 
reside with Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount Melville.  At 
the age of fourteen he was permitted by Scotch law to name 
his own curators, or guardians, and selecting William Pitt 
and Dundas for this office he spent much of his time at their 
houses, thus meeting many of the leading politicians of the 
day.  He was educated at Harrow, and St John's College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated as a nobleman in 1804.  Before this time, 
however, he had become earl of Aberdeen on his grandfather's 
death in 1801, and had travelled over a large part of the 
continent of Europe, meeting on his journeys Napoleon Bonaparte 
and other persons of distinction.  He also spent some time in 
Greece, and on his return to England founded the Athenian 
Society, membership of which was confined to those who had 
travelled in that country.  Moreover, he wrote an article in 
the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William 
Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord 
Byron to refer to him in Eniglish Bardo and Scotch Reviewers 
as ``the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen.'' Having attained 
his majority in 1805, he married on the 28th of July Catherine 
Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of John James, 1st marquess of 
Abercorn.  In December 1806 he was elected a representative 
peer for Scotland, and took his seat as a Tory in the House of 
Lords, but for some years he took only a slight part in public 
business.  However, by his birth, his abilities and his 
connexions alike he was marked out for a high position, and 
after the death of his wife in February 1812 he was appointed 
ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at 
Vienna, where he signed the treaty of Toplitz between Great 
Britain and Austria in October 1813; and accompanying the 
emperor Francis I. through the subsequent campaign against 
France, he was present at the battle of Leipzig.  He was 
one of the British representatives at the congress of 
Chatillon in February 1814, and in the same capacity was 
present during the negotiations which led to the treaty of 
Paris in the following May. Returning home he was created 
a peer of the United Kingdom as Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen 
(1814), and made a member of the privy council.  On the 15th 
of Juby 1815 he married Harriet, daughter of the Hon. John 
Douglas, and widow of James, Viscount Hamilton, and thus 
became doubly connected with the family of the marquess of 
Abercorn.  During the ensuing thirteen years Aberdeen took a 
less prominent part in public affairs, although he succeeded 
in passing the Entail (Scotland) Act of 1825.  He kept in 
touch, however, with foreign politics, and having refused to 
join the ministry of George Canning in 1827, became a member 
of the cabinet of the duke of Wellington as chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster in January 1828.  In the following June he 
was transferred to the office of secretary of state for foreign 
affairs, and having acquitted himself with credit with regard 
to the war between Russia and Turkey, and to affairs in Greece, 
Portugal and France, he resigned with Wellington in November 
1830, and shared his leader's attitude towards the Reform 
Bill of 1832.  As a Scotsman, Aberdeen was interested in the 
ecclesiastical controversy which culminated in the disruption of 
1843.  In 1840 he introduced a bill to settle the vexed question 
of patronage; but disliked by a majority in the general assembly 
of the Scotch church, and unsupported by the government, it 
failed to become law, and some opprobrium was cast upon its 
author.  In 1843 he brought forward a similar measure ``to 
remove doubts respecting the admission of ministers to 
benefices.'' This Admission to Benefices Act, as it was called, 
passed into law, but did not reconcile the opposing parties. 

During the short administration of Sir Robert Peel in 1834 
and 1835, Aberdeen had filled the office of secretary for 
the colonies, and in September 1841 he took office again 
under Peel, on this occasion as foreign secretary; the 
five years during which he held this position were the most 
fruitful and successful of his public life.  He owed his 
success to the confidence placed in him by Queen Victoria, 
to his wide knowledge of European politics, to his intimate 
friendship with Guizot, and not least to his own conciliatory 
disposition.  Largely owing to his efforts, causes of quarrel 
between Great Britain and France in Tahiti, over the marriage 
of Isabella II. of Spain, and in other directions, were 
removed.  More important still were his services in settling 
the question of the boundary between the United States and 
British North America at a time when a single injudicious 
word would probably have provoked a war.  In 1845 he supported 
Peel when in a divided cabinet he proposed to suspend the duty 
on foreign corn, and left office with that minister in July 
1846.  After Peel's death in 1850 he became the recognized 
leader of the Peelites, although since his resignation his 
share in public business had been confined to a few speeches 
on foreign affairs.  His dislike of the Ecclesiastical Titles 
Assumption Bill, the rejection of which he failed to secure in 
1851, prevented him from joining the government of Lord John 
Russell, or from forming an administration himself in this 
year.  In December 1852, however, be became first lord of 
the treasury and head of a coalition ministry of Whigs and 
Peelites.  Although united on free trade and in general 
on questions of domestic reform, a cabinet which contained 
Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell, in addition to 
Aberdeen, was certain to differ on questions of foreign 
policy.  The strong and masterful character of these and 
other colleagues made the task of the prime minister one 
of unusual difficulty, a fact which was recognized by 
contemporaries.  Charles Greville in his Memoirs says, 
``In the present cabinet are five or six first-rate men of 
equal, or nearly equal, pretensions, none of them likely to 
acknowledge the superiority or defer to the opinions of any 
other, and every one of these five or six considering himself 
abler and more important than their premier''; and Sir James 
Graham wrote, ``It is a powerful team, but it will require good 
driving.'' The first year of office passed off successfully, 
and it was owing to the steady support of the prime minister 
that Gladstone's great budget of 1853 was accepted by the 
cabinet.  This was followed by the outbreak of the dispute 
between France and Turkey over the guardianship of the 
holy places at Jerusalem, which, after the original cause 
of quarrel had been forgotten, developed into the Crimean 
war.  The tortuous negotiations which preceded the struggle 
need not be discussed here, but in defence of Aberdeen 
it may be said that he hoped and strove for peace to the 
last.  Rightly or wrongly, however, he held that Russell was 
indispensable to the cabinet, and that a resignation would 
precipitate war.  His outlook, usually so clear, was blurred 
by these considerations, and he lacked the strength to force 
the suggestions which he made in the autumn of 1853 upon his 
imperious colleagues.  Palmerston, supported by Russell and 
well served by Lord Stratford de Redcllffe, British ambassador 
at Constantinople, favoured a more aggressive policy, and 
Aberdeen, unable to control Palmerston, and unwilling to let 
Russell go, cannot be exonerated from blame.  When the war 
began he wished to prosecute it vigorously; but the stories 
of misery and mismanagement from the seat of war deprived 
the ministry of public favour.  Russell resigned; and on 
the 29th of January 1855 a motion by J. A. Roebuck, for the 
appointment of a select committee to enquire into the conduct 
of the War, was carried in the House of Commons by a large 
majority.  Treating this as a vote of want of confidence 
Aberdeen at once resigned office, and the queen bestowed 
upon him the order of the Garter.  He smoothed the way for 
Palmerston to succeed him, and while the earl of Clarendon 
remained at the foreign office he aided him with advice and 
was consulted on matters of moment.  He died in London on the 
14th of December 1860, and was buried in the family vault at 
Stanmore.  By his first wife he had one son and three 
daughters, all of whom predeceased their father.  By his second 
wife, who died in August 1833, he left four sons and one 
daughter.  His eldest son, George John James, succeeded as 5th 
earl; his second son was General Sir Alexander Hamilton-Gordon, 
K.C.B.; his third son was the Reverend Douglas Hamilton-Gordon; 
and his youngest son Arthur Hamilton, after holding various 
high offices under the crown, was created Baron Stanmore in 
1893.  Among the public offices held by the earl were those of 
lord-lieutenant of Aberdeenshire, president of the society of 
Antiquaries from 1812 to 1846 and fellow of the Royal Society. 

Aberdeen was a distinguished scholar with a retentive memory 
and a wide knowledge of literature and art.  His private life 
was exemplary, and he impressed his contemporaries with the 
loftiness of his character.  His manner was reserved, and 
as a speaker he was weighty rather than eloquent.  In public 
life he was remarkable for his generosity to his political 
opponents, and for his sense of justice and honesty.  He 
did not, however, possess the qualities which impress the 
populace, and he lacked the strength which is one of the 
essential gifts of a statesman.  His character is perhaps best 
described by a writer who says ``his strength was not equal 
to his goodness.'' His foreign policy was essentially one of 
peace and non-intervention, and in pursuing it he was accused 
of favouring the despotisms of Europe.  Aberdeen was a model 
landlord.  By draining the land, by planting millions of trees 
and by erecting numerous buildings, he greatly improved the 
condition of his Aberdeenshire estates, and studied continually 
the welfare of his dependants.  A bust of him by Matthew Noble 
is in Westminster Abbey, and his portrait was painted by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence.  He wrote An Inquiry into the Principles 
of Beauty in Grecian Architecture (London, 1822), and the 
Correspondence of the Earl of Aberdeen has been printed 
privately under the direction of his son, Lord Stanmore. 

The 6th earl, George (1841-1870), son of the 5th earl, 
was drowned at sea, and was succeeded by his brother 
John Campbell Gordon, 7th earl of Aberdeen, (b. 1847), a 
prominent Liberal politician, who was lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland in 1886, governor-general of Canada 1893--1898, 
and again the lord-lieutenant of Ireland when Sir Henry 
Campbell-Bannerman formed his ministry at the close of 1905. 

See Lord Stanmore, The Earl of Aberdeen (London, 1893); C. 
C. F. Greville, Memoirs, edited by H. Reeve (London, 1888); 
Spencer Walpole, History of England (London, 1878-1886), 
and Life of Lord John Russell (London, 1889); A. W. 
Kinglake, Invasion of the Crimea (London, 1877-1888); 
Sir T. Martin, Life of the Prince Consort (London, 
1875-1880); J. Morley, Life of Gladstone (London, 1903). 
                                                    (A. W. H. deg. )
ABERDEEN, a royal burgh, city and county of a city, 
capital of Aberdeenshire, and chief seaport in the north of 
Scotland.  It is the fourth Scottish town in population, 
industry and wealth, and stands on a bay of the North 
Sea, between the mouths of the Don and Dee, 130 1/2 m.  N. 
E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway.  Though Old 
Aberdeen, extending from the city suburbs to the southern 
banks of the Dob, has a separate charter, privileges and 
history, the distinction between it and New Aberdeen can no 
longer be said to exist; and for parliamentary, municipal 
and other purposes, the two towns now form practically one 
community.  Aberdeen's popular name of the ``Granite City,' 
is justified by the fact that the bulk of the town fs built 
of granite, but to appreciate its more poetical designation 
of the ``Silver City by the Sea,'' it should be seen after 
a heavy rainfall when its stately structures and countless 
houses gleam pure and white under the brilliant sunshine.  
The area of the city extends to 6602 acres, the burghs of 
Old Aberdeen and Woodside, and the district of Torry (for 
parliamentary purposes in the constituency of Kincardineshire) 
to the south of the Dee, having been incorporated in 1891.  
The city comprises eleven wards and eighteen ecclesiastical 
parishes, and is under the jurisdiction of a council with 
lord provost, bailies, treasurer and dean of guild.  The 
corporation owns the water (derived from the Dee at a spot 21 
m.  W.S.W. of the city) and gas supplles, electric lighting and 
tramways.  Since 1885 the city has returned two members to 
Parliament.  Aberdeen is served by the Caledonian, Great North 
of Scotland and North British railways (occupying a commodious 
joint railway station), and there is regular communication by 
sea with London and the chief ports on the eastern coast of 
Great Britain and the northern shores of the Continent.  The mean 
temperature of the city for the year is 45.8 deg.  F., for summer 
56 deg.  F., and for winter 37.3 deg.  F. The average yearly rainfall 
is 30.57 inches.  The city is one of the healthiest in Scotland. 

Streets and Buildings.--Roughly, the extended city runs 
north and south.  From the new bridge of Don to the ``auld 
brig'' of Dee there is tramway communication via King 
Street, Union Street and Holburn Road--a distance of over five 
miles.  Union Street is one of the most imposing thoroughfares 
in the British Isles.  From Castle Street it runs W. S. W. 
for nearly a mile, is 70 ft. wide, and contains the principal 
shops and most of the modern public buildings, all of granite.  
Part of the street crosses the Denburn ravine (utilized for 
the line of the Great North of Scotland railway) by a fine 
granite arch of 132 ft. span, portions of the older town 
still fringing the gorge, fifty feet below the level of Union 
Street.  Amongst the more conspicuous secular buildings in the 
street may be mentioned the Town and County Bank, the Music 
Hall, with sitting accommodation for 2000 persons, the Trinity 
Hall of the incorporated trades (originating in various years 
between 1398 and 1527, and having charitable funds for poor 
members, widows and orphans), containing some portraits 
by George Jamesone, a noteworthy set of carved oak chairs, 
dating from 1574, and the shields of the crafts with quaint 
inscriptions; the office of the Aberdeen Free Press, one of 
the most influential papers in the north of Scotland; the Palace 
Hotel; the office of the Nnrthern Assurance Company, and the 
Nutional Bank of Scotland.  In Castle Street, a continuation 
eastwards of Union Street, are situated the Municipnl and 
County Buildings, one of the most splendid granite edifices 
in Scotland, in the Franco-Scottish Gothic style, built in 
1867-1878.  They are of four stories and contain the great 
hall with an open timber ceiling and oak-panelled walls; the 
Sheriff Court House; the Town Hall, with excellent portraits 
of Prince Albert (Prince Consort), the 4th earl of Aberdeen, 
the various lord provosts and other distinguished citizens.  
In the vestibule of the entrance corridor stands a suit of 
black armour believed to have been worn by Provost Sir Robert 
Davidson, who feh in the battle of Harlaw, near Inverurie, in 
1411.  From the south-western corner a grand tower rises to 
a height of 210 ft., commanding a fine view of the city and 
surrounding country.  Adjoining the municipal buildings is 
the North of Scotland Bank, of Greek design, with a portico 
of Corinthian columns, the capitals of which are exquisitely 
carved.  On the opposite side of the street is the fine 
building of the Union Bank.  At the upper end of Castle Street 
stands the Salvation Army Citadel, an effective castellated 
mansion, the most imposing ``barracks'' possessed anywhere 
by this organization.  In front of it is the Market Cross, 
a beautiful, open-arched, hexagonal structure, 21 ft. in 
diameter and 18 ft. high.  The original was designed in 1682 
by Jnhn Montgomery, a native architect, but in 1842 it was 
removed hither from its old site and rebuilt in a better 
style.  On the entablature surmounting the Ionic columns are 
panels containing medallions of Scots sovereigns from James 
I. to James VII. From the centre rises a shaft, 12 1/2 ft. 
high, with a Corinthian capital on which is the royal,unicorn 
rampant.  On an eminence east of Castle Street are the military 
barracks.  In Market Street are the Mechanics' Institution, 
founded in 1824, with a good library; the Post and Telegraph 
offices; and the Market, where provisions of all kinds and 
general wares are sold.  The Fish Market, on the Albert Basin, 
is a busy scene in the early morning.  The Art Gallery and 
Museum at Schoolhill, built in the Italian Renaissance style 
of red and brown granite, contains an excellent Collection of 
pictures, the Macdonald Hall of portraits of contemporary 
artists by themselves being of altogether exceptional 
interest and unique of its kind in Great Britain.  The public 
llbrary, magnificently housed, contains more than 60,000 
volumes.  The theatre in Guild Street is the chief seat of 
dramatic, as the Palace Theatre in Bridge Place is of variety 
entertainment.  The new buildings of Marischal College fronting 
Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII. in 1906, form one 
of the most splendid examples of modern architecture in Great 
Britain; the architect, Alexander Marshall Mackenzie, a native 
of Aberdeen, having adapted his material, white granite, to 
the design of a noble building with the originality of genius. 

Churches.---Like most Scottish towns, Aberdeen is well 
equipped with churches, most of them of good design, but 
few of special interest.  The East and West churches of St 
Nicholas, their kirkyard separated from Union Street by an Ionic 
facade, 147 1/2 ft. long, built in 1830, form one continuous 
building, 220ft. in length, including the Drum Aisle (the 
ancient burial-place of the Irvines of Drum) and the Colllson 
Aisle, which divide them and which formed the transept of the 
12th-century church of St Nicholas.  The West Church was built in 
1775, in the Italian style, the East originally in 1834 in the 
Gothic.  In 1874 a fire destroyed the East Church and the 
old central tower with its fine peal of nine bells, one of 
which, Laurence or ``Lowrie,'' was 4 ft. in diameter at the 
mouth, 3 1/2 ft. high and very thick.  The church was rebuilt 
and a massive granite tower erected over the intervening 
aisles at the cost of the municipality, a new peal of 36 
bells, cast in Holland, being installed to commemorate the 
Victorian jubilee of 1887.  The Roman Catholic Cathedral in 
Huntly Street, a Gothic building, was erected in 1859.  The 
see of Aberdeen was first founded at Mortlach in Banffshire 
by Malcolm II. in 1004 to celebrate his victory there over 
the Danes, but in 1137 David I. transferred the bishopric 
to Old Aberdeen, and twenty years later the cathedral of 
St Machar, situated a few hundred yards from the Don, was 
begun.  Save during the episcopate of William Elphinstone 
(1484-1511), the building progressed slowly.  Gavin Dunbar, 
who followed him in 1518, was enabled to complete the 
structure by adding the two western spires and the southern 
transept.  The church suffered severely at the Reformation, 
but is still used as the parish church.  It now consists of the 
nave and side aisles.  It is chiefly built of outlayer granite, 
and, though the plainest cathedral in Scotland, its stately 
simplicity and severe symmetry lend it unique distinction.  
On the flat panelled ceiling of the nave are the heraldic 
shields of the princes, noblemen and bishops who shared in its 
erection, and the great west window contains modern painted 
glass of excellent colour and design.  The cemeteries are St 
Peter's in Old Aberdeen, Trinity near the links, Nellfield 
at the junction of Great Western and Holburn Roads, and 
Allenvale, very tastefully laid out, adjoining Duthie Park. 

Education.---Aberdeen University consists of King's College 
in Old Aberdeen, founded by Bishop Elphinstone in 1494, 
and Marischal College, in Broad Street, founded in 1593 by 
George Keith, 5th earl Marischal, which were incorporated in 
1860.  Arts and divinity are taught at King's, law, medicine 
and science at Marischal.  The number of students exceeds 800 
yearly.  The buildings of both colleges are the glories of 
Aberdeen.  King's forms a quadrangle with interior court, two 
sides of which have been rebuilt, and a library wing has been 
added.  The Crown Tower and the Chapel, the oldest parts, date from 
1500.  The former is surmounted by a structure about 40 ft. 
high, consisting of a six-sided lantern and royal crown, both 
sculptured, and resting on the intersections of two arched 
ornamental slips rising from the four corners of the top of the 
tower.  The choir of the chapel still contains the original 
oak canopied stalls, miserere seats and lofty open screens in 
the French flamboyant style, and of unique beauty of design and 
execution.  Their preservation was due to the enlightened 
energy of the principal at the time of the Reformation, who 
armed his folk to save the building from the barons of the 
Mearns after they had robbed St Machar's of its bells and 
lead.  Marischal College is a stately modern building, having 
been rebuilt in 1836-1841, and greatly extended several years 
later at a cost of L. 100,000.  The additions to the buildings 
opened by King Edward VII. in 1906 have been already mentioned.  
The beautiful Mitchell Tower is so named from the benefactor (Dr 
Charles Mitchell) who provided the splendid graduation hall.  
The opening of this tower in 1895 signalized the commemoration 
of the four hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the 
university.  The University Library comprises nearly 100,000 
books.  A Botanic Garden was presented to the university in 
1899.  Aberdeen and Glasgow Universities combine to return 
one member to Parliament.  The United Free Church Divinity 
Hall in Alford Place, in the Tudor Gothic style, dates from 
1850.  The Grammar School, founded in 1263, was removed in 
1861-1863 from its old quarters in Schoolhill to a large new 
building, in the Scots Baronial style, off Skene Street.  
Robert Gordon's College in Schoolhill was founded in 1729 
by Robert Gordon of Straloch and further endowed in 1816 by 
Alexander Simpson of Collyhill.  Originally devoted (as Gordon's 
Hospital) to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor 
burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganized 
in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical 
education, and has since been unusually successful.  Besides 
a High School for Girls and numerous board schools, there are 
many private higher-class schools.  Under the Endowments Act 
1882 an educational trust was constituted which possesses a 
capital of L. 155,000.  At Blairs, in Kincardineshire, five 
miles S.W. of Aberdeen, is St Mary's Roman Catholic College 
for the training of young men intended for the priesthood. 

Charities.---The Royal Infimary, in Woolmanhill, established 
in 1740, rebuilt in the Grecian style in 1833-1840, and 
largely extended after 1887 as a memorial of Queen Victoria's 
jubilee; the Royal Asylum, opened in 1800; the Female Orphan 
Asylum, in Albyn Place, founded in 1840; the Blind Asylum, 
in Huntly Street, established in 1843; the Royal Hospital 
for Sick Children; the Maternity Hospital, founded in 1823; 
the City Hospital for Infectious Diseases; the Deaf and Dumb 
Institution; Mitchell's Hospital in Old Aberdeen; the East 
and West Poorhouses, with lunatic wards; and hospitals devoted 
to specialized diseases, are amongst the most notable of 
the charitable institutions.  There are, besides, industrial 
schools for boys and girls and for Roman Catholic children, a 
Female School of Industry, the Seabank Rescue Home, Nazareth 
House and Orphanage, St Martha's Home for Girls, St Margaret's 
Convalescent Home and Sisterhood, House of Bethany, the 
Convent of the Sacred Heart and the Educational Trust School. 

Parks and Open Spaces.---Duthie Park, of 50 acres, the gift 
of Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston, occupies an 
excellent site on the north bank of the Dee. Victoria Park 
(13 acres) and its extension Westburn Park (13 acres) are 
situated in the north-western area; farther north lies Stewart 
Park (11 acres), called after Sir D. Stewart, lord provost in 
1893.  The capacious links bordering the sea between the 
mouths of the two rivers are largely resorted to for open-air 
recreation; there is here a rifle range where a ``wapinschaw,'' 
or shooting tournament, is held annually.  Part is laid out 
as an 18-hole golf course; a section is reserved for cricket 
and football; a portion has been railed off for a race-course, 
and a bathing-station has been erected.  Union Terrace 
Gardens are a popular rendezvous in the heart of the city. 

Statues.---In Union Terrace Gardens stands a colossal statue 
in bronze of Sir William Wallace, by W. G. Stevenson, R.S.A. 
(1888).  In the same gardens are a bronze statue of Burns 
and Baron Marochetti's seated figure of Prince Albert.  In 
front of Gordon's College is the bronze statue, by T. S. 
Burnett, A.R.S.A., of General Gordon (1888).  At the east 
end of Union Street is the bronze statue of Queen Victoria, 
erected in 1893 by the royal tradesmen of the city.  Near the 
Cross stands the granite statue of the 5th duke of Gordon (d. 
1836).  Here may also be mentioned the obelisk of Peterhead 
granite, 70 ft. high, erected in the square of Marischal 
College to the memory of Sir James M`Grigor (1778-1851), the 
military surgeon and director-general of the Army Medical 
Department, who was thrice elected lord rector of the College. 

Bridges.--The Dee is crossed by four bridges,--the old 
bridge, the Wellington suspension bridge, the railway bridge, 
and Victoria Bridge, opposite Market Street.  The first, till 
1832 the only access to the city from the south, consists of 
seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 ft. high, and 
was built early in the 16th century by Bishops Elphinstone and 
Dunbar.  It was nearly all rebuilt in 1718--1723, and in 
1842 was widened from 14 1/2 to 26 ft.  The bridge of Don has 
five granite arches, each 75 ft. in span, and was built in 
1827--1832.  A little to the west is the Auld Brig o' 
Balgownie, a picturesque single arch spanning the deep 
black stream, said to have been built by King Robert I., 
and celebrated by Byron in the tenth canto of Don Juan. 

Harbour.--A defective harbour, with a shallow sand and gravel 
bar at its entrance. long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but 
under various acts since 1773 it was greatly deepened.  The 
north pier, built partly by Smeaton in 1775-1781, and partly 
by Telford in 1810-1815, extends nearly 3000 ft. into the North 
Sea. It increases the depth of water on the bar from a few 
feet to 22 or 24 ft. at spring tides and to 17 or 18 ft. at 
neap.  A wet dock, of 29 acres, and with 6000 ft. of quay, 
was completed in 1848 and called Victoria Dock in honour 
of the queen's visit to the city in that year.  Adjoining 
it is the Upper Dock.  By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee 
near the harbour was diverted from the south at a cost of 
L. 80,000, and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres 
formerly made up) were provided on the north side of the 
river for the Albert Basin (with a graving dock), quays and 
warehouses.  A breakwater of concrete, 1050 ft. long, was 
constructed on the south side of the stream as a protection 
against south-easterly gales.  On Girdleness, the southern 
point of the bay, a lighthouse was built in 1833.  Near the 
harbour mouth are three batteries mounting nineteen guns. 

Industry.---Owing to the variety and importance of its chief 
industries Aberdeen is one of the most prosperous cities in 
Scotland.  Very durable grey granite has been quarried near 
Aberdeen for more than 300 years, and blocked and dressed 
paving ``setts,'' kerb and building stones, and monumental 
and other ornamental work of granite have long been exported 
from the district to all parts of the world.  This, though 
once the predominant industry, has been surpassed by the 
deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from 
beam-trawling, introduced in 1882, and steam line fishing 
in 1889, and threaten to rival if not to eclipse those of 
Grimsby.  Fish trains are despatched to London daily.  Most 
of the leading industries date from the 18th century, amongst 
them woollens (1703), linen (1749) and cotton (1779).  These 
give employment to several thousands of operatives.  The 
paper-making industry is one of the most famous and oldest in 
the city, paper having been first made in Aberdeen in 1694.  
Flax-spinning and jute and combmaking factories are also very 
flourishing, and there are successful foundries and engineering 
works.  There are large distilleries and breweries, and 
chemical works employing many hands.  In the days of wooden 
ships ship-building was a flourishing industry, the town being 
noted for its fast clippers, many of which established records 
in the ``tea races.'' The introduction of trawllng revived 
this to some extent, and despite the distance of the city 
from the iron fields there is a fair yearly output of iron 
vessels.  Of later origin are the jam, pickle and potted 
meat factories, hundreds of acres having been laid down in 
strawberries and other fruits within a few miles of the city. 

History.--Aberdeen was an important place as far back as the 
12th century.  William the Lion had a residence in the city, to 
which he gave a charter in 1179 confirming the corporate rights 
granted by David I. The city received other royal charters 
later.  It was burned by the English king, Edward III., in 
1336, but it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New 
Aberdeen.  The burgh records are the oldest in Scotland.  
They begin in 1398 and with one brief break are complete to 
the present day.  For many centuries the city was subject to 
attacks by the neighbouring barons, and was strongly fortified, 
but the gates were all removed by 1770.  In 1497 a blockhouse 
was built at the harbour mouth as a protection against the 
English.  During the struggles between the Royalists and 
Covenanters the city was impartially plundered by both 
sides.  In 1715 the Earl Marischal proclaimed the Old 
Pretender at Aberdeen, and in 1745 the duke of Cumberland 
resided for a short time in the city before attacking 
the Young Pretender.  The motto on the city arms is ``Bon 
Accord,'' which formed the watchword of the Aberdonians 
while aiding Robert Bruce in his battles with the English. 

Population.---In 1396 the population was about 3000.  By 1801 it had 
become 26,992; in 1841 it was 63,262; (1891) 121,623; (1901) 153,503. 

AUTHORITIES.--The charters of the burgh; extracts from 
the council register down to 1625, and selections from the 
letters. guildry and treasurer's accounts, forming 3 vols. 
of the Spalding Club; Cosmo Innes, Registrum Episcopatus 
Aberdonensis, Spalding Club; Walter Thore, The History 
of Aberdeen (1811); Robert Wilson, Historical Account and 
Delineation of Aberdeen (1822); William Kennedy, The Annals 
of Aberdeen (1818); Orem, Descripjion of the Chanonry, 
Cathedral and King's College of Old Aberdeen, 1724-1725 
(1830); Sir Andrew Leith Hay of Rannes, The Castellated 
Architecture of Aberdeen; Giles, Specimens of old 
Castellated Houses of Aberdeen (1838); James Bryce, Lives 
of Eminent Men of Aberdeen (1841); J. Gordon, Description 
of Both Towns of Aberdeen (Spalding Club, 1842); Joseph 
Robertson, The Book of Bon-Accord (Aberdeen, 1839); W. 
Robbie, Aberdeen: its Traditions and History (Aberdeen, 
1893); C. G. Burr and A. M. Munro, Old Landmarks of Aberdeen 
(Aberdeen, 1886); A. M. Munro, Memorials of the Aldermen, 
Provosts and Lord Provosts of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); 
P. J. Anderson, Charters, &c., illustrating the History 
of Records of Marischal College (New Spalding 1890); 
Selections from the Records of Marischal College (New 
Spalding Club, 1889, 1898..1899); J. Cooper, Chartulary of 
the Church of St Nicholas (New Spalding Club, 1888, 1892); 
G. Cadenhead, Sketch of the Territorial History of the 
Burgh of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1876); W. Cadenhead, Guide to 
the City of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); A. Smith, History 
and Antiquities of New and Old Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1882). 

ABERDEEN, a city and the county-seat of Brown county, South 
Dakota, U.S.A., about 125 m.  N.E. of Pierre.  Pop. (1890) 
3182; (1900) 4087, of whom 889 were foreign born; (1905) 5841; 
(1910) 10,753.  Aberdeen is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St Paul, the Great Northern, the Minneapolis and St 
Louis, and the Chicago and North Western railways.  It is 
the financial and trade centre for the northern part of the 
state, a fine agricultural region, and in 1908 had five banks 
and a number of wholesale houses.  The city is the seat of the 
Northern Normal and Industrial School, a state institution, 
and has a Carnegie Library; the principal buildings are the 
court house and the government buildings.  Artesian wells 
furnish good water-power, and artesian-well supplies, grain 
pitchers, brooms, chemicals and flour are manufactured.  The 
municipality owns and operates the water-works.  Aberdeen 
was settled in 1880, and was chartered as a city in 1883. 

ABERDEENSHIRE, a north-eastern county of Scotland, bounded 
N. and E. by the North Sea, S. by Kincardine, Forfar and 
Perth, and W. by Inverness and Banff.  It has a coast-line 
of 65 m., and is the sixth Scottish county in area, occupying 
1261,887 acres or 1971 sq. m.  The county is generally 
hilly, and from the south-west, near the centre of Scotland, 
the Grampians send out various branches, mostly to the 
north-east.  The shire is popularly divided into five 
districts.  Of these the first is Mar, mostly between the 
Dee and Don, which nearly covers the southern half of the 
county and contains the city of Aberdeen.  It is mountainous, 
especially Braemar (q.v.), which contains the greatest 
mass of elevated land in the British Isles.  The soil on the 
Dee is sandy, and on the Don loamy.  The second district, 
Formartine, between the lower Don and Ythan, has a sandy 
coast, which is succeeded inland by a clayey, fertile, tilled 
tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses and tilled land.  
Buchan, the third district, lies north of the Ythan, and, 
comprising the north-east of the county, is next in size to 
Mar, parts of the coast being bold and rocky, the interior bare, 
low, flat, undulating and in places peaty.  On the coast, 6 
m.  S. of Peterhead, are the Bullers of Buchan--a basin in 
which the sea, entering by a natural arch, boils up violently 
in stormy weather.  Buchan Ness is the most easterly point of 
Scotland.  The fourth district, Garioch, in the centre of the 
shire, is a beautiful, undulating, loamy, fertile valley. 
formerly called the granary of Aberdeen.  Strathbogie, the 
fifth district, occupying a considerable area south of the 
Deveron, mostly consists of hills, moors and mosses.  The 
mountains are the most striking of the physical features of the 
county.  Ben Macdhui (4296 ft.), a magnificent mass, the 
second highest mountain in Great Britain, Braeriach (4248), 
Cairntoul (4241), Ben-na-bhuaird (3924), Ben Avon (3843), 
``dark'' Lochnagar (3786), the subject of a well-known song by 
Byron, Cairn Eas (3556), Sgarsoch (3402), Culardoch (2953), 
are the principal heights in the division of Mar. Farther 
north rise the Buck of Cabrach (2368) on the Banffshire border, 
Tap o' Noth (1830), Bennachie (1698), a beautiful peak which 
from its central position is a landmark visible from many 
different parts of the county, and which is celebrated in John 
Imlah's song, ``O gin I were where Gadie rins,'' and Foudland 
(1529).  The chief rivers are the Dee, 90 m. long; the Iyon, 
82 m.; the Ythan, 37 m., with mussel-beds at its mouth; the 
Ugie, 20 m., and the Deveron, 62 m., partly on the boundary of 
Banffshire.  The rivers abound with salmon and trout, and the 
pearl mussel occurs in the Ythan and Don. A valuable pearl 
in the Scottish crown is said to be from the Ythan.  Loch 
Muick, the largest of the few lakes in the county, 1310 ft. 
above the sea, 2 1/2 m. long and  1/3 to  1/2 m. broad, lies some 
8  1/2 m.  S.W. of Ballater, and has Altnagiuthasach, a royal 
shooting-box, near its south-western end.  Loch Strathbeg, 6 
m.  S.E. of Fraserburgh, is only separated from the sea by 
a narrow strip of land.  There are noted chalybeate springs 
at Peterhead, Fraserburgh, and Pannanich near Ballater. 

Geology.---The greater part of the county is composed of 
crystalline schists belonging to the metamorphic rocks of 
the Eastern Highlands.  In the upper parts of the valleys 
of the Dee and the Don they form well-marked groups, of 
which the most characteristic are (1) the black schists and 
phyllites, with calcflintas, and a thin band of tremolite 
limestone, (2) the main or Blair Atholl limestone, (3) the 
quartzite.  These divisions are folded on highly inclined or 
vertical axes trending north-east and south-west, and hence 
the same zones are repeated over a considerable area.  The 
quartzite is generally regarded as the highest member of the 
series.  Excellent sections showing the component strata 
occur in Glen Clunie and its tributary valleys above Braemar.  
Eastwards down the Dee and the Don and northwards across the 
plain of Buchan towards Rattray Head and Fraserburgh there 
is a development of biotite gneiss, partly of sedimentary 
and perhaps partly of igneous origin.  A belt of slate which 
has been quarried for roofing purposes runs along the west 
border of the county from Turriff by Auchterless and the 
Foudland Hills towards the Tap o' Noth near Gartly.  The 
metamorphic rocks have been invaded by igneous materials, some 
before, and by far the larger series after the folding of the 
strata.  The basic types of the former are represented by 
the sills of epidiorite and hornblende gneiss in Glen Muick 
and Glen Callater, which have been permeated by granite and 
pegmatite in veins and lenticles, often foliated.  The later 
granites subsequent to the plication of the schists have a 
wide distribution on the Ben Macdhui and Ben Avon range, and 
on Lochnagar; they stretch eastwards from Ballater by Tarland 
to Aberdeen and north to Bennachie.  Isolated masses appear 
at Peterhead and at Strichen.  Though consisting mainly of 
biotite granite, these later intrusions pass by intermediate 
stages into diorite, as in the area between Balmoral and the 
head-waters of the Gairn.  The granites have been extensively 
quarried at Rubislaw, Peterhead and Kemnay.  Serpentine and 
troctolite, the precise age of which is uncertain, occur at 
the Black Dog rock north of Aberdeen, at Belhelvie and near Old 
Meldrum.  Where the schists of sedimentary origin have been 
pierced by these igneous intrusions, they are charged with 
contact minerals such as sillimanite, cordierite, kyanite and 
andalusite.  Cordierite-bearing rocks occur near Ellon, at the 
foot of Bennachie, and on the top of the Buck of Cahrach.  A 
banded and mottled calc-silicate hornfels occurring with the 
limestone at Iyerry Falls, W. N.W. of Braemar, has yielded 
malacolite, wollastonite, brown idocrase, garnet, sphene and 
hornblende.  A larger list of minerals has been obtained 
from an exposure of limestone and associated beds in Glen 
Gairn, about four miles above the point where that river 
joins the Dee. Narrow belts of Old Red Sandstone, resting 
unconformably on the old platform of slates and schists, have 
been traced from the north coast at Peterhead by Turriff to 
Fyvie, and also from Huntly by Gartly to Kildrummy Castle.  
The strata consist mainly of conglomerates and sandstones, 
which, at Gartly and at Rhyme, are associated with lenticular 
bands of andesite indicating contemporaneous volcanic 
action.  Small outliers of conglomerate and sandstone of this 
age have recently been found in the course of excavations in 
Aberdeen.  The glacial deposits, especially in the belt 
bordering the coast between Aberdeen and Peterhead, furnish 
important evidence.  The ice moved eastwards off the high 
ground at the head of the Dee and the Don, while the mass 
spreading outwards from the Moray Firth invaded the low 
plateau of Buchan; but at a certain stage there was a marked 
defection northwards parallel with the coast, as proved by 
the deposit of red clay north of Aberdeen.  At a later date 
the local glaciers laid down materials on top of the red 
clay.  The committee appointed by the British Association 
(Report for 1897, p. 333) proved that the Greensand, which 
has yielded a large suite of Cretaceous fossils at Moreseat, 
in the parish of Cruden, occurs in glacial drift, resting 
probably on granite.  The strata from which the Moreseat 
fossils were derived are not now found in place in that part 
of Scotland, but Mr Jukes Brown considers that the horizon 
of the fossils is that of the lower Greensand of the Isle of 
Wight or the Aptien stage of France.  Chalk flints are widely 
distributed in the drift between Fyvie and the east coast of 
Buchan.  At Plaidy a patch of clay with Liassic fossils 
occurs.  At several localities between Logie Coldstone and Dinnet 
a deposit of diatomite (Kieselguhr) occurs beneath the peat. 

Flora and Fauna.---The tops of the highest mountains have an 
arctic flora.  At the royal lodge on Loch Muick, 1350 ft. above 
the sea, grow larches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses, 
&c. Some ash-trees, four or five feet in girth, are growing 
at 1300 ft. above the sea.  T rees, especially Scotch fir and 
larch, grow well, and Braemar is rich in natural timber, said 
to surpass any in the north of Europe.  Stumps of Scotch fir 
and oak found in peat are sometimes far larger than any now 
growing.  The mole is found at 1800 ft. above the sea, and the 
squirrel at 1400.  Grouse, partridges and hares are plentiful, 
and rabbits are often too numerous.  Red deer abound in 
Braemar, the deer forest being the most extensive in Scotland. 

Climate and Agriculture.---The climate, except in the 
mountainous districts, is comparatively mild, owing to 
the proximity of much of the shire to the sea.  The mean 
annual temperature at Braemar is 43.6 deg.  F., and at Aberdeen 
45.8 deg. .  The mean yearly rainfall varies from about 30 to 37 
in.  The summer climate of the upper Dee and Don valleys is 
the driest and most bracing in the British Isles, and grain 
is cultivated up to 1600 ft. above the sea, or 400 to 500 
ft. higher than elsewhere in North Britain.  Poor, gravelly, 
clayey and peaty solis prevail, but tile-draining, bones and 
guano, and the best methods of modern tillage, have greatly 
increased the produce.  Indeed, in no part of Scotland has 
a more productive soil been made out of such unpromising 
material.  Farm-houses and steadings have much improved, and 
the best agricultural implements and machines are in general 
use.  About two-thirds of the population depend entirely 
on agriculture . Farms are small compared with those in 
the south-eastern counties.  Oats are the predominant crop, 
wheat has practically gone out of cultivation, but barley 
has largely increased.  The most distinctive industry is 
cattle-feeding.  A great number of the home-bred crosses 
are fattened for the London and local markets, and Irish 
animals are imported on an extensive scale for the same 
purpose, while an exceedingly heavy business in dead meat 
for London and the south is done all over the county.  
Sheep, horses and pigs are also raised in large numbers. 

Fisheries.---A large fishing population in villages along 
the coast engage in the white and herring fishery, which is the 
next most important industry to agriculture, its development 
having been due almost exclusively to the introduction of steam 
trawlers.  The total value of the annual catch, of which 
between a half and a third consists of herrings, amounts to 
L. 1,000,000.  Haddocks are salted and rock-dried (speldings) 
or smoked (finnans).  The ports and creeks are divided 
into the fishery rllstricts of Peterhead, Fraserburgh and 
Aberdeen, the last of which includes also three Kincardineshire 
ports.  The herring season for Aberdeen, Peterhead and 
Fraserburgh is from June to September, at which time 
the ports are crowded with boats from other Scottish 
districts.  There are valuable salmon-fishings--rod, net 
and stake-net--on the Dee, Don, Ythan and Ugie.  The average 
annual despatch of salmon from Aberdeenshire is about 400 tons. 

Other Industries.--Manufactures are mainly prosecuted in or 
near the city of Aberdeen, but throughout the rural districts 
there is much milling of corn, brick and tile making, smith-work, 
brewing and distilling, cart and farm-implement making, 
casting and drying of peat, and timber-felling, especially 
on Deeside and Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers, 
laths and barrel staves.  There are a number of paper-making 
establishments, most of them on the Don near Aberdeen. 

The chief source of mineral wealth is the noted durable 
granite, which is quarried at Aberdeen, Kemnay, Peterhead and 
elsewhere.  An acre of land on being reclaimed has yielded L. 40 to 
L. 50 worth of causewaying stones.  Sandstone and other rocks 
are also quarried at different parts.  The imports are mostly 
coal, lime, timber, iron, slate, raw materials for the textile 
manufactures, wheat, cattle-feeding stuffs, bones, guano, sugar, 
alcoholic liquors, fruits.  The exports are granite (roughdressed 
and polished), flax, woollen and cotton goods, paper, combs, 
preserved provisions, oats, barley, live and dead cattle. 

Communications.---From the south Aberdeen city is approached 
by the Caledonian (via Perth, Forfar and Stonehaven), and the 
North British (via Dundee, Montrose and Stonehaven) railways, 
and the shire is also served by the Great North of Scotland 
railway, whose main line runs via Kintore and Huntly to Keith and 
Elgin.  There are branch lines from various points opening up 
the more populous districts, as from Aberdeen to Ballater by 
Deeside, from Aberdeen to Fraserburgh (with a branch at Maud 
for Peterhead and at Ellon for Cruden Bay and Boddam), from 
Kintore to Alford, and from Inverurie to Old Meldrum and also to 
Macduff.  By sea there is regular communication with London, 
Leith, Inverness, Wick, the Orkneys and Shetlands, Iceland and the 
continent.  The highest of the macadamized roads crossing the 
eastern Grampians rises to a point 2200 ft. above sea-level. 

Population and Government.---In 1801 the population numbered 
284,036 and in 1901 it was 304,439 (of whom 159,603 were 
females), or 154 persons to the sq. m.  In 1901 there were 8 
persons who spoke Gaelic only, and 1333 who spoke Gaelic and 
English.  The chief towns are Aberdeen (pop. in 1901, 153,503), 
Bucksburn (2231), Fraserburgh (9105), Huntly (4136), Inverurie 
(3624), Peterhead (11,794), Turriff (2273).  The Supreme Court 
of Justiciary sits in Aberdeen to try cases from the counties of 
Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine.  The three counties are under 
a sheriff, and there are two sheriffs-substitute resident in 
Aberdeen, who sit also at Fraserburgh, Huntly, Peterhead and 
Turriff.  The sheriff courts are held in Aberdeen and 
Peterhead.  The county sends two members to parliament 
--one for East Aberdeenshire and the other for West 
Aberdeenshire.  The county town, Aberdeen (q.v.), returns two 
members.  Peterhead, Inverurie and Kintore belong to the Elgin 
group of parliamentary burghs, the other constituents being 
Banff, Cullen and Elgin.  The county is under school-board 
jurisdiction, and there are also several voluntary schools.  
There are higher-class schools in Aberdeen, and secondary 
schools at Huntly, Peterhead and Fraserburgh, and many of 
the other schools in the county earn grants for secondary 
education.  The County Secondary Education Committee dispense 
a large sum, partly granted by the education department and 
partly contributed by local authorities from the ``residue'' 
grant, and support, besides the schools mentioned, local 
clases and lectures in agriculture, fishery and other technical 
subjects, in addition to subsidizing the agricultural department 
of the university of Aberdeen.  The higher branches of 
education have always been thoroughly taught in the schools 
throughout the shire, and pupils have long been in the 
habit of going directly from the schools to the university. 

The native Scots are long-headed, shrewd, careful, canny, 
active, persistent, but reserved and blunt, and without 
demonstrative enthusiasm.  They have a physiognomy distinct 
from the rest of the Scottish people, and have a quick, 
sharp, rather angry accent.  The local Scots dialect is 
broad, and rich in diminutives, and is noted for the use 
of e for o or u, f for wh, d for th, &c. 
So recently as 1830 Gaelic was the fireside language of 
almost every family in Braemar, but now it is little used. 

History.---The country now forming the shires of Aberdeen 
and Banff was originally peopled by northern Picts, whom 
Ptolemy called Taixall, the territory being named Taixalon.  
Their town of Devana, once supposed to be the modern Aberdeen, 
has been identified by Prof.  John Stuart with a site in the 
parish of Peterculter, where there are remains of an ancient 
camp at Normandykes, and by Dr W. F. Skene with a station 
on Loch Davan, west of Aboyne.  So-called Roman camps have 
also been discovered on the upper Ythan and Deveron, but 
evidence of effective Roman occupation is still to seek.  
Traces of the native inhabitants, however, are much less 
equivocal.  Weems or earth-houses are fairly common in the 
west.  Relics of crannogs or lake-dwellings exist at Loch 
Ceander, or Kinnord, 5 m. north-east of Ballater, at Loch 
Goul in the parish of New Machar and elsewhere.  Duns or forts 
occur on hills at Dunecht, where the dun encloses an area 
of two acres, Bnrra near Old Meldrum, Tap o' Noth, Dunnideer 
near Insch and other places.  Monoliths, standing stones and 
``Druidical'' circles of the pagan period abound, and there are 
many examples of the sculptured stones of the early Christian 
epoch.  Efforts to convert the Picts were begun by Teman 
in the 5th century, aad continued by Columba (who founded 
a monastery at Old Deer), Drostan, Maluog and Machar, but 
it was long before they showed lasting results.  Indeed, 
dissensions within the Columban church and the expulsion 
of the clergy from Pictland by the Pictish king Nectan in 
the 8th century undid most of the progress that had been 
made.  The Vikings and Danes periodically raided the coast, 
but whhen (1040) Macbeth ascended the throne of Scotland the 
Northmen, under the guidance of Thorfinn, refrained from further 
trouble in the north-east.  Macbeth was afterwards slain at 
Lumphanan (1057), a cairn on Perkhill marking the spot.  The 
influence of the Norman conquest of England was felt even in 
Aberdeenshire.  Along with numerous Anglo-Saxon exiles, there 
also settled in the country Flemings who introduced various 
industries, Saxons who brought farming, and Scandinavians 
who taught nautical skill.  The Celts revolted more than 
once, but Malcolm Canmore and his successors crushed them 
and confiscated their lands.  In the reign of Alexander 
I. (d. 1124) mention is first made of Aberdeen (originally 
called Abordon and, in the Norse sagas, Apardion), which 
received its charter from William the Lion in 1179, by which 
date its burgesses had alfeady combined with those of Banff, 
Elgin, Inverness and other trans-Grampian communities to form 
a free Hanse, under which they enjoyed exceptional trading 
privileges.  By this time, too, the Church had been organized, 
the bishopric of Aberdeen having been established in 1150.  
In the 12th and 13th centuries some of the great Aberdeenshire 
famines arose, including the earl of Mar (c. 1122), the 
Leslies, Freskins (ancestors of the dukes of Sutherland), 
Durwards, Bysets, Comyns and Cheynes, and it is significant 
that in most cases their founders were immigrants.  The 
Celtic thanes and their retainers slowly fused with the 
settlers.  They declined to take advantage of the disturbed 
condition of the country during the wars of the Scots 
independence, and made common cause with the bulk of the 
nation.  Though John Comyn (d. 1300?), one of the competitors 
for the throne, had considerable interests in the shire, his 
claim received locally little support.  In 1296 Edward I. made 
a triumphal march to the north to terrorize the more turbulent 
nobles.  Next year Wilham Wallace surprised the English garrison 
in Aberdeen, but failed to capture the castle.  In 1303 Edward 
again visited the county, halting at the Castle of Kildrummy, 
then in the possession of Robert Bruce, who shortly afterwards 
became the acknowledged leader of the Scots and made Aberdeen 
his headquarters for several months.  Despite the seizure of 
Kildrummy Castle by the English in 1306, Bruce's prospects 
brightened from 1308, when he defeated John Comyn, earl of 
Buchan (d. 1313?), at Inverurie.  For a hundred years after 
Robert Bruce's death (1329) there was intermittent anarchy 
in the shire.  Aberdeen itself was burned by the English in 
1336, and the re-settlement of the districts of Buchan and 
Strathbogie occasioned constant quarrels On the part of the 
dispossessed.  Moreover, the crown had embroiled itself 
with some of the Highland chieftains, whose independence it 
sought to abolish.  This policy culminated in the invasion of 
Aberdeenshire by Donald, lord of the Isles, who was, however, 
defeated at Harlaw, near Inverurie, by the earl of Mar in 
1411.  In the 15th century two other leading county families 
appeared, Sir Alexander Forbes being created Lord Eorbes 
about 1442, and Sir Alexander Seton Lord Gordon in 1437 and 
earl of Huntly in 1445.  Bitter feuds raged between these 
families for a long period, but the Gordons reached the 
height of their power in the first half of the 16th century, 
when their domains, already vast, were enhanced by the 
acquisition, through marriage, of the earldom of Sutherland 
(1514).  Meanwhile commerce with the Low Countries, Poland 
and the Baltic had grown apace, Campvere, near Flushing in 
Holland, becoming the emporium of the Scottish traders, while 
education was fostered by the foundation of King's College 
at Aberdeen in 1497 (Marischal College followed a century 
later).  At the Reformation so little intuition had the 
clergy of the drift of opinion that at the very time that 
religious structures were being despoiled in the south, the 
building and decoration of churches went on in the shire.  
The change was acquiesced in without much tumult, though 
rioting took place in Aberdeen and St Machar's cathedral in 
the city suffered damage.  The 4th earl of Huntly offered 
some resistance, on behalf of the Catholics, to the influence 
of Lord James Stuart, afterwards the Regent Murray, but 
was defeated and killed at Corrichie on the hill of Fare in 
1562.  As years passed it was apparent that Presbyterianism 
was less generally acceptable than Episcopacy, of which system 
Aberdeenshire remained for generations the stronghold in 
Scotland.  Another crisis in ecclesiastical affairs arose in 
1638, when the National Covenant was ordered to be subscribed, 
a demand so grudgingly responded to that the marquis of 
Montrose visited the shire in the following year to enforce 
acceptance.  The Cavaliers, not being disposed to yield, 
dispersed an armed gathering of Covenanters in the affair 
called the Trot of Turriff (1639), in which the first blood 
of the civil war was shed.  The Covenanters obtained the upper 
hand in a few weeks, when Montrose appeared at the bridge 
of Dee and compelled the surrender of Aberdeen, which had no 
choice but to cast in its lot with the victors.  Montrose, 
however, soon changed sides, and after defeating the Covenanters 
under Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1644), delivered the city to 
rapine.  He worsted the Covenanters again after a stiff 
fight on the 2nd of July 1645, at Alford, a village in the 
beautiful Howe of Alford.  Peace was temporarily restored 
on the ``engagement', of the Scots commissioners to assist 
Charles I. On his return from Holland in 1650 Charles II. 
was welcomed in Aberdeen, but in little more than a year 
General Monk entered the city at the head of the Cromwellian 
regiments.  The English garrison remained till 1659, and 
next year the Restoration was effusively hailed, and prelacy 
was once more in the ascendant.  Most of the Presbyterians 
conformed, but the Quakers, more numerous in the shire 
and the adjoining county of Kincardine than anywhere else 
in Scotland, were systematically persecuted.  After the 
Revolution (1688) episcopacy passed under a cloud, but the 
clergy, yielding to force majeure, gradually accepted the 
inevitable, hoping, as long as Queen Anne lived, that prelacy 
might yet be recognized as the national form of Church 
government.  Her death dissipated these dreams, and as George 
I., her successor, was antipathetic to the clergy, it happened 
that Jacobitism and episcopalianism came to be regarded in the 
shire as identical, though in point of fact the non-jurors as 
a body never countenanced rebellion.  The earl of Mar raised 
the standard of revolt in Braemar (6th of September 1715); a 
fortnight later James was proclaimed at Aberdeen cross; the 
Pretender landed at Peterhead on the 22nd of December, and 
in February 1716 he was back again in France.  The collapse 
of the first rising ruined many of the lairds, and when the 
second rebellion occurred thirty years afterwards the county 
in the main was apathetic, though the insurgents held Aberdeen 
for five months, and Lord Lewis Gordon won a trifling victory 
for Prince Charles Edward at Inverurie (23rd of December 
1745).  The duke of Cumberland relieved Aberdeen at the end 
of February 1746, and in April the Young Pretender was a 
fugitive.  Thereafter the people devoted themselves to 
agriculture, industry and commerce, which developed by leaps 
and bounds, and, along with equally remarkable progress in 
education, transformed the aspect of the shire and made the 
community as a whole one of the most prosperous in Scotland. 

See W. Watt, History of Aberdeen and Banff (Edinburgh, 
1900); Collections for a History of the Shires of Aberdeen 
and Banff. (edited by Dr Joseph Robertson, Spalding Club); Sir 
A. Leith-Hay, Castles of Aberdeenshire (Aberdeen, 188R); 
J; Davidson, Inverurie and the Earldom of the Garioch 
(Edinburgh, 1878); Pratt, Buchan (rev. by) R. Anderson), 
(Aberdeen, 1900); A. I. M'Connochie, Deeside (Aberdeen, 1895). 

ABERDOUR, a village of Fifeshire, Scotland.  Pleasantly 
situated on the shore of the Firth of Forth, 17 1/2 m.  N.W. 
of Edinburgh by the North British railway and 7 m.  N.W. of 
Leith by steamer, it is much resorted to for its excellent 
sea-bathing.  There are ruins of a castle and an old decayed 
church, which contains some fine Norman work.  About 3 
m.  S.W. is Donibristle House, the seat of the earl of Murray 
(Moray), and the scene of the murder (Feb. 7, 1592) of James, 
2nd (Stuart) earl of Murray.  The island of Inchcolm, or 
Island of Columba,  1/4 m. from the shore, is in the parish of 
Aberdour.  As its name implies, its associations date back 
to the time of Columba.  The primitive stone-roofed oratory 
is supposed to have been a hermit's ceil.  The Augustinian 
monastery was founded in 1123 by Alexander I. The buildings 
are well preserved, consisting of a low square tower, church, 
cloisters, refectory and small chapterhouse.  The island 
of Columba was occasionally plundered by English and other 
rovers, but in the 16th century it became the property of 
Sir James Stuart, whose grandson became 2nd earl of Murray 
by virtue of his marriage to the elder daughter of the 1st 
earl.  From it comes the earl's title of Lord St Colme (1611). 

ABERDOVEY (Aberdyfi: the Dyfi is the county frontier), a 
seaside village of Merionethshire, North Wales, on the Cambrian 
railway.  Pop. (1901) 1466.  It lies in the midst of beautiful 
scenery, 4 m. from Towyn, on the N. bank of the Dyfi estuary, 
commanding views of Snowdon, Cader Idris, Arran Mawddy and 
Plynllmmon.  The Dyfi, here a mile broad, is crossed by a 
ferry to Borth sands, whence a road leads to Aberystwyth.  
The submerged ``bells of Aberdovey'' (since Seithennin ``the 
drunkard'' caused the formation of Cardigan Bay) are famous 
in a Welsh song.  Aberdovey is a health and bathing resort. 

ABERFOYLE, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, 34 1/4 
m.  N. by W. of Glasgow by the North British railway.  Pop. 
of parish (1901) 1052.  The village is situated at the base of 
Craigmore (1271 ft. high) and on the Laggan, a head-water of the 
Forth.  Since 1885, when the duke of Montrose constructed a 
road over the eastern shoulder of Craigmore to join the older 
road at tho entrance of the Trossachs pass, Aberfoyle has become 
the alternauve route to the Trossachs and Loch Katrine.  Loch 
Ard, about 2 m.  W. of LIberfoyle, lies 105 ft. above the 
sea.  It is 3 m. long (including the narrows at the east end) 
and 1 m. broad.  Towards the west end is Eilean Gorm (the 
green isle), and near the north-western shore are the falls of 
Ledard.  Two m.  N.W. is Loch Chon, a90 ft. above the sea, 
1 1/4 m. long, and about  1/2 m. broad.  It drains by the Avon 
Dhu to Loch Ard, which is drained in turn by the Laggan.  The 
slate quarries on Craigmore are the Only industry in Aberfoyle. 

ABERGAVENNY, a market town and municipal borough in the 
northern parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, 14 
m.  W. of Monmouth on the Great Western and the London and 
North-Western railways.  Pop. (1901) 7795.  It is situated 
at the junction of a small stream cailed the Gavenny with the 
river Usk; and the site, almost surrounded by lofty hills, 
is very beautiful.  The town was formerly walled, and has the 
remains of a castle built soon after the conquest, frequently 
the scene of border strife.  The church of St Mary belonged 
originally to a Benedictine monastery founded early in the 12th 
century.  The existing building, however, is Decorated and 
Perpendicular, and contains a fine series of memorials of dates 
from the 13th to the 17th century.  There is a free grammar 
school, which till 1857 had a fellowship at Jesus College, 
Oxford.  Breweries, ironworks, quarries, brick fields and 
collieries in the neihbourhood are among the principal industrial 
establishments.  Abergavenny was incorporated in 1899, and is 
governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.  Area, 825 acres. 

This was the Roman Gobannium, a small fort guarding the 
road along the valley of the Usk and ensuring quiet among 
the hill tribes.  There is practically no trace of this 
fort.  Abergavenny (Bergavenny) grew up under the protection 
of the lords of Abergavenny, whose title dated from William 
I. Owing to its situation, the town was frequently embroiled 
in the border warfare of the 12th and 13th centuries, and 
Giraldus Cambrensis relates how in 1173 the castle was seized 
by the Welsh.  Hamelyn de Baalun, first lord of Abergavenny, 
founded the Benedictine priory, which was subsequently 
endowed by William de Braose with a tenth of the profits 
of the castle and town.  At the dissolution of the priory 
part of this endowment went towards the foundation of a 
free grammar school, the site itself passing to the Gunter 
family.  During the Civil War prior to the siege of Ragban 
Castle in 1645, Charles I. visited Abergavenny, and presided 
in person over the trial of Sir Trevor Williams and other 
parliamentarians.  In 1639 Abergavenny received a charter 
of incorporation under the title of bailiff and burgesses.  
A charter with extended privileges was drafted in 1657, but 
appears never to have been enrolled or to have come into effect.  
OV1ng to the refusal of the chief officers of the corporation 
to take the oath of allegiance to William III. in 1688, the 
charter was annullod, and the town subseunentlv declined in 
prosperity.  The act of 27 Henry VIII., which provided that 
llonmouth, as county town, should return one burgess to 
parliament, further stated that other ancient Monmouthshire 
boroughs were to contribute towards the payment of the 
member.  In consequence of this clause Abergavenny on various 
occasions shared in the election, the last instance being in 
1685.  Reference to a market at Abergavenny is found in a charter 
granted to the prior by William de Braose (d. r211).  The right 
to hold two weekly markets and three yearly fairs, as hitherto 
held, was confirmed in 1657.  Abergavenny was celebrated for 
the production of Welsh flannel, and also for the manufacture, 
whilst the fashion prevailed, of periwigs of goats, hair. 

The title of Baron Abergavenny, in the Neville family, dates 
from Edward Neville (d. 1476), who was the youngest son of 
the 1st earl of Westmoreland by Joan Beaufort, daughter of 
John of Gaunt.  He married the heiress of Richard, earl of 
Worcester, whose father had inherited the castle and estate of 
Abergavenny, and was summoned in 1392 to parliament as Lord 
Bergavenny.  Edward Neville was summoned to parliament with 
this title in 1450.  His direct male descendants ended in 1387 
in Henry Neville, but a cousin, Edward Neville (d. 1622), was 
confirmed in the barony in 1604.  From him it has descended 
continuously, the title being increased to an earldom in 
1784; and in 1876 William Nevill (sic) 5th earl (b. 1826), 
an indefatigable and powerful supporter of the conseruative 
party, was created 1st marquess of Abergavenny. (See NEVILLE.) 

ABERIGH-MACKAY, GEORGE ROBERT (1848-1881), Anglo-Indian 
writer, son of a Bengal chaplain, was born on the 25th 
of July 1848, and was educated at Magdalen College School 
and Cambridge University.  Entering the Indian education 
department in 1870, he became professor of English literature 
in Delhi College in 1873, tutor to the raja of Rutlam 
1876, and principal of the Rajkumar College at Indore in 
1877.  He is best known for his book Twenty-one Days in India 
(1878--1879), a satire upon Anglo-Indian society and modes of 
thought.  This book gave promise of a successful literary 
Career, but the author died at the age of thirty-three. 

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1680-1740), Irish Presbyterian divine, 
was born at Coleraine, county Londonderry, where his father 
was Nonconformist minister, on the 19th of October 1680.  In 
his thirteenth year he entered the university of Glasgow, and 
on concluding his course thore went on to Edinburgh, where 
his intellectual and social attainments gained him a ready 
entrance into the most cultured circles.  Returning home he 
received licence to preach from his Presbytery before he was 
twenty-one.  In 1701 he was urgently invited to accept charge 
of an important congregation in Antrim; and after an interval 
of two years, mostly spent in further study in Dublin, he 
was ordained there on the 8th of August 1703.  Here he did 
notable work, both as a debater in the synods and assemblies 
of his church and as an evangelist.  In 1712 he lost his wife 
(Susannah Jordan), and the loss desolated his life for many 
years.  In 1717 he was invited to the congregation of Usher's 
Quay, Dublin, and contemporaneously to what was called the 
Old Congregation of Belfast.  The synod assigned him to 
Dublin.  After careful consideration he declined to accede, 
and remained at Antrim.  This refusal was regarded then as 
ecclesisstical high-treason; and a controversy of the most 
intense and disproportionate character followed, Abernethy 
standing firm for religious freedom and repudiating the 
sacerdotal assumptions of all ecclesiastical courts.  The 
controversy and quarrel bears the name of the two camps in the 
conflict, the ``Subscribers'' and the ``Non-subscribers.'' 
Out-and-out evangelical as (John Abernethy was, there can 
be no question that he and his associates sowed the seeds 
of that after-struggle (1821--1840) in which, under the 
leadership of Dr Henry Cooke, the Arian and Socinian elements 
of the Irish Presbyterian Church were thrown out.  Much of 
what he contended for, and which the ``Subscribers'' opposed 
bitterly, has been silently granted in the lapse of time.  
In 1726 the ``Non-subscribers,'' spite of an almost wofully 
pathetic pleading against separation by Abernethy, were cut 
off, with due ban and solemnity, from the Irish Presbyterian 
Church.  In 1730, although a ``Non-subscriber,'' he was 
invited to Wood Street, Dublin, whither he removed.  In 
1731 came on the greatest controversy in which Abernethy 
engaged, viz. in relation to the Test Act nominally, but 
practically on the entire question of tests and disabilities.  
His stand was ``against all laws that, upon account of mere 
differences of religious opinions and forms of worship, 
excluded men of integrity and ability from serving their 
country.'' He was nearly a century in advance of his age.  
He had to reason with those who denied that a Roman Catholic 
or Dissenter could be a ``man of integrity and ability.'' 
His Tracts---afterwards collected--did fresh service, 
generations later, and his name is honoured by all who love 
freedom of conscience and opinion.  He died in December 1740. 

See Dr Duchal's Life, prefixed to Sermons (1762): Diary in 
MS., 6 vols. 4to; Reid's Presbyterian Church in Ireland, iii. 234. 

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1764-1831), English surgeon, grandson of 
John Abernethy (see above), was born in London on the 3rd of 
April 1764.  His father was a London merchant.  Educated at 
Wolverhampton grammar school, he was apprenticed in 1779 to 
Sir Charles Blicke (1745-1815), surgeon to St Bartholomew's 
Hospital, London.  He attended the anatomical lectures of 
Sir William Blizard (1743-1835) at the London Hospital, 
and was early employed to assist as ``demonstrator''; 
he also attended Percival Pott's surgical lectures at St 
Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of John 
Hunter.  On Pott's resignation of the office of surgeon of St 
Bartholomew's, Sir Charles Blicke, who was assistant-surgeon, 
succeeded him, and Abernethy was elected assistant-surgeon in 
1787.  In this capacity he began to give lectures at his 
house in Bartholomew Close, which were so well attended 
that the governors of the hospital built a regular theatre 
(1790-1791), and Abernethy thus became the founder of the 
distinguished school of St Bartholomew's.  He held the office 
of assistant-surgeon of the hospital for the long period of 
twenty-eight years, till, in 1815, he was elected principal 
surgeon.  He had before that time been appointed lecturer in 
anatomy to the Royal College of Surgeons (1814).  Abernethy 
was not a great operator, though his name is associated with 
the treatment of aneurism by ligature of the external iliac 
artery.  His Surgical Observations on the Constitutional 
Origin and Treatment of Local Diseases (1809)--known as ``My 
Book,'' from the great frequency with which he referred his 
patients to it, and to page 72 of it in particular, under that 
name--was one of the earliest popular works on medical science, 
He taught that local diseases were frequently the results 
of disordered states of the digestive organs, and were to be 
treated by purging and attention to diet.  As a lecturer he was 
exceedingly attractive, and his success in teaching was largely 
attributable to the persuasiveness with which he enunciated his 
views.  It has been said, however, that the influence he exerted 
on those who attended his lectures was not beneficial in this 
respect, that his opinions were delivered so dogmatically, 
and all who differed from him were disparaged and denounced 
so contemptuously, as to repress instead of stimulating 
inquiry.  The celebrity he attained in his practice was due 
not only to his great professional skill, but also in part 
to the singularity of his manners.  He used great plainness 
of speech in his intercourse with his patients, treating them 
often brusquely and sometimes even rudely.  In the circle of 
his family and friends he was courteous and affectionate; and 
in all his dealings he was strictly just and honourable.  He 
resigned his position at St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1827, 
and died at his residence at Enfield on the 20th of April 1831. 

A collected edition of his works was published in 1830.  A biography, 
Memoirs of John Abernethy, by George Macilwain, appeared in 1853. 

ABERRATION (Lat. ab, from or away, errare, to wander), 
a deviation or wandering, especially used in the figurative 
sense: as in ethics, a deviation from the truth; in pathology, 
a mental derangement; in zoology and botany, abnormal 
development or structure.  In optics, the word has two special 
applications: (1) Aberration of Light, and (2) Aberration 
in Optical Systems.  These subjects receive treatment below. 

I. ABERIIATION OF LIGHT This astronomical phenomenon may 
be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the 
stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, 
according to the latitude of the star; consequently at 
any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true 
position.  This apparent motion is due to the finite velocity 
of light, and the progressive motion of the observer with the 
earth, as it performs its yearly course about the sun.  It 
may be familiarized by the following illustrations.  Alexis 
Claude Clairaut gave this figure: Imagine rain to be falling 
vertically, and a person carrying a thin perpendicular tube 
to be standing on the ground.  If the bearer be stationary, 
rain-drops will traverse the tube without touching its sides; 
if, however, the person be walking, the tube must be inchued 
at an angle varying as his velocity in order that the rain 
may traverse the tube centrally. (J. J. L. de Lalande gave 
the illustration of a roofed carriage with an open front: if 
the carriage be stationary, no rain enters; if, however, it be 
moying, rain enters at the front.  The ``umbrella', analogy 
is possibly the best known figure.  When stationary, the most 
efficient position in which to hold an umbrella is obviously 
vertical; when walking, the umbrella must be held more and 
more inclined from the vertical as the walker quickens his 
pace.  Another familiar figure, pointed Out by P. L. M. de 
Maupertuis, is that a sportsman, when aiming at a bird on the 
wing, sights his gun some distance ahead of the bird, the 
distance being proportional to the velocity of the bird.  
The mechanical idea, named the parallelogram of velocities, 
permits a ready and easy graphical representation of these 
facts.  Reverting to the analogy of Clairaut, let AB (fig. 
1) represent the velocity of the rain, and AC the relative 
velocity of the person bearing the tube.  The diagonal AD 
of the parallelogram, of which AB and AC are adjacent sides, 
will represent, both in direction and magnitude, the motion 
of the rain as apparent to the observer.  Hence for the 
rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined 
at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently 
termed the aberration: due to these two motions.  The 
umbrella analogy is similarly explained; the most efficient 
position heing when the stick points along the resultant AD. 

The discovery of the aberration of light in 1725, due to James 
Bradley, is one of the most important in the whole domain of 
astronomy.  That it wus unexpected there can be no doubt; 
and it was only by extraordinary perseverance and perspicuity 
that Bradley was able to explain it in 1727.  Its origin is 
seated in attempts made to free from doubt the prevailing 
discordances as to whether the stars possessed appreciable 
parallaxes.  The Copernican theory of the solar system--that 
the earth revolved annually about the sun--had received 
confirmation by the observations of Galileo and Tycho 
Brahe, and the mathematical investigations of Kepler and 
Newton.  As early as 1573, Thomas Digges had suggested that 
this theory should necessitate a parallactic shifting of 
the stars, and, consequently, if such stellar parallaxes 
existed, then the Copernican theory would receive additional 
confirmation.  Many observers claimed to have determined such 
parallaxes, but Tycho Brahe and G. B. Riccioll concluded 
that they existed only in the minds of the observers, and 
were due to instrumental and personal errors.  In 1680 Jean 
Picard, in his Voyage d'Uranibourg, stated, as a result 
of ten years' observations, that Polaris, or the Pole 
Star, exhibited variations in its position amounting to 40" 
annually; some astronomers endeavoured to explain this by 
parallax, but these attempts were futile, for the motion 
was at variance with that which parallax would occasion.  J. 
Flamsteed, from measurements made in 1689 and succeeding 
years with his mural quadrant, similarly concluded that the 
declination of the Pole Star was 40" less in July than in 
September.  R. Hooke, in 1674, pubilshed his observations of 
g Draconis, a star of the second magnitude which passes 
practically overhead in the latitude of London, and whose 
observations are therefore singularly free from the complex 
corrections due to astronomical refraction, and concluded 
that this star was 23" more northerly in July than in October. 

When James Bradley and Samuel Moineux entered this sphere of 
astronomical research in 1725, there consequently prevailed 
much uncertainty as to whether stellar parallaxes had been 
observed or not; and it was with the intention of definitely 
answering this question that these astronomers erected a large 
telescope at the house of the latter at Kew. They determined 
to reinvestigate the motion of g Draconis; the telescope, 
constructed by George Graham (1675-1751), a celebrated 
instrument-maker, was affixed to a vertical chimneystack, 
in such manner as to permit a small oscillation of the 
eyepiece, the amount of which, i.e. the deviation from the 
vertical, was regulated and measured by the introduction 
of a screw and a plumb-line.  The instrument was set up 
in November 1725, and observations on g Draconis were 
made on the 3rd, 5th, 11th, and 12th of December.  There 
was apparently no shifting of the star, which was therefore 
thought to be at its most southerly point.  On the 17th of 
December, however, Bradley observed that the star was moving 
southwards, a motion further shown by observations on the 
20th.  These results were unexpected, and, in fact, inexplicable 
by existing theories; and an examination of the telescope 
showed that the observed anomalies were not due to instrumental 
errors.  The observations were continued, and the star was 
seen to continue its southerly course until March, when it 
took up a position some 20" more southerly than its December 
position.  After March it began to pass northwards, a motion 
quite apuarent by the middle of April; in June it passed 
at the same distance from the zenith as it did in December; 
and in September it passed through its most northerly 
position, the extreme range from north to south, i.e. the 
angle between the March and September positions, being 40". 

This motion is evidently not due to parallax, for, in this 
case, the maximum range should be between the June and 
December positions; neither was it due to observatiooal 
errors.  Bradley and Molyneux discussed several hypotheses in 
the hope of fixing the solution.  One hypothesis was: while 
g Draconis was stationary, the plumb-line, from which 
the angular measurements were made, varied; this would follow 
if the axis of the earth varied.  The oscillation of the 
earth's axis may arise in two distinct ways; distinguished 
as ``nutation of the axis'' and ``variation of latitude.'' 
Nutation, the only form of oscillation imagined by Bradley, 
postulates that while the earth's axis is fixed with respect 
to the earth, i.e. the north and south poles occupy permanent 
geographical positions, yet the axis is not directed towards 
a fixed point in the heavens; variation of latitude, however, 
is associated with the shifting of the axis within the earth, 
i.e. the geographical position of the north pole varies. 

Nutation of the axis would determine a similar apparent 
motion for all stars: thus, all stars having the same polar 
distance as g Draconis should exhibit the same apparent 
motion after or before this star by a constant interval.  
Many stars satisfy the condition of equality of polar distance 
with that of g Draconis, but few were bright enough to 
be observed in Molyneux's telescope.  One such star, however, 
with a right ascension nearly equal to that of g Draconis, 
but in thc opposite sense, was selected and kept under 
observation.  This star was seen to possess an apparent 
motion similar to that which would be a consequence of the 
nutation of the earth's axis; but since its declination 
varied only one half as much as in the case of g Draconis, 
it was obvious that nutation did not supply the requisite 
solution.  The question as to whether the motion was due to 
an irregular distribution of the earth's atmosphere, thus 
involving abnormal variations in the refractive index, was 
also investigated; here, again, negative results were obtained. 

Bradley had already perceived, in the case of the two stars 
previously scrutinized, that the apparent difference of 
declination from the maximum positions was nearly proportional 
to the sun's distance from the equinoctial points; and he 
reallzed the necessity for more observations before any 
generalization could be attempted.  For this purpose he 
repaired to the Rectory, Wanstead, then the residence of Mrs 
Pound, the widow of his uncle James Pound, with whom he had 
made many observations of the heavenly bodies.  Here he had set 
up, on the 19th of August 1727, a more convenient telescope 
than that at Kew, its range extending over 6 1/4 deg.  on each 
side of the zenith, thus covering a far larger area of the 
sky.  Two hundred stars in the British Catalogue of 
Flamsteed traversed its field of view; and, of these, about 
fifty were kept under close observation.  His conclusions 
may be thus summatized: (1) only stars near the solstitial 
colure had their maximum north and south positions when the 
sun was near the equinoxes, (2) each star was at its maximum 
positions when it passed the zenith at six o'clock morning 
and evening (this he afterwards showed to be inaccurate, and 
found the greatest change in declination to be proportional 
to the latitude of the star), (3) the apparent motions of 
all stars at about the same time was in the same direction. 

A re-examination of his previously considered hypotheses as 
to the cause of these phenomena was fruitless; the true theory 
was ultimately discovered by a pure accident, comparable in 
simplicity and importance with the association of a falling 
apple with the discovery of the principle of universal 
gravitation.  Sailing on the river Thames, Bradley repeatedly 
observed the shifting of a vane on the mast as the boat altered 
its courser and, having been assured that the motion of the 
vane meant that the boat, and not the wind, had altered its 
direction, he realized that the position taken up by the vane 
was determined by the motion of the boat and the direction of the 
wind.  The application of this observation to the phenomenon 
which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in 
1727, he published his theory of the aberration of light--a 
corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.  Let 
S (fig. 2) be a star and the observer be carried along the 
line AB; let SB be perpendicular to AB. If the observer be 
stationary at B, the star will appear in the direction BS; 
if, however, he traverses the distance BA in the same time 
as light passes from the star to his eye, the star will E 
appear in the direction AS. Since, however, the observer is 
not conscious of his own translatory motion with the earth 
in its orbit, the star appears to have a displacement which 
is at all times parallel to the motion of the observer.  To 
generalize this, let S (fig. 3) be the sun, ABCD the earth's 
orbit, and s the true position of a star.  When the earth 
is at A, in consequence of aberration, the star is displaced 
to a point a, its displacement sa being parallel to the 
earth's motion at A; when the earth is at B, the star appears 
at b; and so on throughout an orbital revolution of the 
earth.  Every star, therefore, describes an apparent orbit, 
which, if the line joining the sun and the star be perpendicular 
to the plane ABCD, will be exactly similar to that of the 
earth, i.e. almost a circle.  As the star decreases in 
latitude, this circle will be viewed more and more obliquely, 
becoming a flatter and flatter ellipse until, with zero 
latitude, it degenerates into a straight line (fig. 4). 

The major axis of any such aberrational ellipse is always parallel 
to AC, i.e. the ecliptic, and since it is equal to the ratio 
of the velocity of light to the velocity of the earth, it is 
necessarily constant.  This constant length subtends an angle 
of about 40" at the earth; the ``constant of aberration'' is 
half this angle.  The generally accepted value is 20.445", due 
to Struve; the last two figures are uncertain, and all that can 
be definitely affirmed is that the value lies between 20.43" and 
20.48".  The minor axis, on the other hand, is not constant, 
but, as we have already seen, depends on the latitude, being 
the product of the major axis into the sine of the latitude. 

Assured that his explanation was true, Bradley corrected his 
observations for aberration, but he found that there still 
remained a residuum which was evidently not a parallax, for 
it did not exhibit an annual cycle.  He reverted to his early 
idea of a nutation of the earth's axis, and was rewarded by the 
discovery that the earth did possess such an osculation (see 
ASTRONOMY).  Bradley recognized the fact that the experimental 
determination of the aberration constant gave the ratio of the 
velocities of light and of the earth; hence, if the velocity 
of the earth be known, the velocity of light is determined.  
In recent years much attention has been given to the nature 
of the propagation of light from the heavenly bodies to the 
earth, the argument generally being centred about the relative 
effect of the motion of the aether on the velocity of light.  
This subject is discussed in the articles AETHER and LIGHT. 

REFERENCES.--A detailed account of Bradley's work is 
given in S. Rigaud, Memoirs of Bradley (1832), and in 
Charles Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary 
(1795); a particularly clear and lucid account is given 
in H. H. Turner, Astronomical Discovery (1904).  The 
subject receives treatment in all astronomical works. 

II. ABERRIATION IN OPTICAL SYSTEMS Aberration in optical 
systems, i.e. in lenses or mirrors or a series of them, 
may be defined as the non-concurrence of rays from the 
points of an object after transmission through the system; 
it happens generally that an image formed by such a system 
is irregular, and consequently the correction of optical 
systems for aberration is of fundamental importance to the 
instruunent-maker.  Reference should he made to the articles 
REFLEXION, REFRACTION and CAUSTIC for the general characters 
of reflected and refracted rays (the article LENS considers 
in detail the properties of this instrument, and should also 
be consulted); in this article will be discussed the nature, 
varieties and modes of aberrations mainly from the practical 
point of view, i.e. that of the optical-instrument maker. 

Aberrations may be divided in two classes: chromatic (Gr. 
oroma, colour) aberrations, caused by the composite 
nature of the light generally applied (e.g. white light), 
which is dispersed by refraction, and monochromatic (Gr. 
monos, one) aberrations produced without dispersion.  
Consequently the monochromatic class includes the aberrations 
at reflecting surfaces of any coloured light, and at refracting 
surfaces of monochromatic or light of single wave length. 

(a) Monochromatic Aberration. The elementary theory of optical 
systems leads to the theorem; Rays of light proceeding from 
any ``object point,' unite in an ``image point''; and therefore 
an ``object space'' is reproduced in an ``image space.'' The 
introduction of simple auxiliary terms, due to C. F. Gauss 
(Dioptrische Untersuchungen, Gottingen, 1841), named the 
focal lengths and focal planes, permits the determination 
of the image of any object for any system (see LENS). The 
Gaussian theory, however, is only true so long as the angles 
made by all rays with the optical axis (the symmetrical axis 
of the system) are infinitely small, i.e. with infinitesimal 
objects, images and lenses; in practice these conditions are 
not realized, and the images projected by uncorrected systems 
are, in general, ill defined and often completely blurred, 
if the aperture or field of view exceeds certain limits.  
The investigations of James Clerk Maxwell (Phil.Mag., 1856; 
Quart.  Journ.  Math., 1858, and Ernst Abbe1) showed that 
the properties of these reproductions, i.e. the relative 
position .and magnitude of the images, are not special 
properties of optical systems, but necessary consequences of 
the supposition (in Abbe) of the reproduction of all points 
of a space in image points (Maxwell assumes a less general 
hypothesis), and are independent of the manner in which the 
reproduction is effected.  These authors proved, however, that 
no optical system can justify these suppositions, since they 
are contradictory to the fundamental laws of reflexion and 
refraction.  Consequently the Gaussian theory only supplies 
a convenient method of approximating to reality; and no 
constructor would attempt to realize this unattainable ideal.  
All that at present can be attempted is, to reproduce a single 
plane in another plane; but even this has not been altogether 
satisfactorily accomplished, aberrations always occur, and 
it is improbable that these will ever be entirely corrected. 

This, and related general questions, have been treated--besides 
the above-mentioned authors--by M. Thiesen (Berlin.  
Akad.  Sitzber., 1890, xxxv. 799; Berlin.Phys.Ges.  
Verb., 1892) and H. Bruns (Leipzig. Math.  Phys.  
Ber., 1895, xxi. 325) by means of Sir W. R. Hamilton's 
``characteristic function'' (Irish Acad.  Trans., ``Theory 
of Systems of Rays,,' 1828, et seq.).  Reference may also 
be made to the treatise of Czapski-Eppenstein, pp. 155-161. 

A review of the simplest cases of aberration will now be 
given. (1) Aberration of axial points (Spherical aberration 
in the restricted sense).  If S (fig.5) be any optical 
system, rays proceeding from an axis point O under an angle 
u1 will unite in the axis point O'1; and those under an 
angle u2 in the axis point O'2.  If there be refraction 
at a collective spherical surface, or through a thin positive 
lens, O'2 will lie in front of O'1 so long as the angle 
u2 is greater than u1 (``under correction''); and 
conversely with a dispersive surface or lenses (``over 
correction'').  The caustic, in the first case, resembles 
the sign > (greater than); in the second K (less than).  If 
the angle u1 be very small, O'1 is the Gaussian image; 
and O'1 O'2 is termed the ``longitudinal aberration,'' 
and O'1R the ``lateral aberration'' of the pencils with 
aperture u2. If the pencil with the angle u2 be that 
of the maximum aberration of all the pencils transmitted, 
then in a plane perpendicular to the axis at O'1 there is 
a circular ``disk of confusion'' of radius O'1R, and in a 
parallel plane at O'2 another one of radius O'2R2; between 
these two is situated the ``disk of least confusion.'' 

The largest opening of the pencils, which take part in the 
reproduction of O, i.e. the angle u, is generally determined 
by the margin of one of the lenses or by a hole in a thin 
plate placed between, before, or behind the lenses of the 
system.  This hole is termed the ``stop'' or ``diaphragm''; 
Abbe used the term ``aperture stop'' for both the hole and 
the limiting margin of the lens.  The component S1 of the 
system, situated between the aperture stop and the object 
O, projects an image of the diaphragm, termed by Abbe the 
``entrance pupil''; the ``exit pupil'' is the image formed 
by the component S2, which is placed behind the aperture 
stop.  All rays which issue from O and pass through the aperture 
stop also pass through the entrance and exit pupils, since these 
are images of the aperture stop.  Since the maximum aperture 
of the pencils issuing from O is the angle u subtended by the 
entrance pupil at this point, the magnitude of the aberration 
will be determined by the position and diameter of the entrance 
pupil.  If the system be entirely behind the aperture stop, 
then this is itself the entrance pupil (``front stop''); 
if entirely in front, it is the exit pupil (``back stop''). 

If the object point be infinitely distant, all rays received 
by the first member of the system are parallel, and their 
intersections, after traversing the system, vary according 
to their ``perpendicular height of incidence,'' i.e. their 
distance from the axis.  This distance replaces the angle 
u in the preceding considerations; and the aperture, i.e. 
the radius of the entrance pupil, is its maximum value. 

(2) Aberration of elements, i.e. smallest objects at right 
angles to the axis.--If rays issuing from O (fig. 5) be 
concurrent, it does not follow that points in a portion 
of a plane perpendicular at O to the axis will be also 
concurrent, even if the part of the plane be very small.  
With a considerable aperture, the neighbouring point N will 
be reproduced, but attended by aberrations comparable in 
magnitude to ON. These aberrations are avoided if, according to 
Abbe, the ``sine condition,'' sin u'1/sin u1=sin u'2jsin 
u2, holds for all rays reproducing the point O. If the 
object point O be infinitely distant, u1 and u2 are 
to be replaced by pi and h2, the perpendicular heights of 
incidence; the ``sine condition', then becomes sin u,1jh1 
sin u'2/h2. A system fulfilling this condition and free 
from spherical aberration is called ``aplanatic'' (Greek 
a-, privative, plann, a wandering).  This word was 
first used by Robert Blair (d. 1828), professor of practical 
astronomy at Edinburgh University, to characterize a superior 
achromatism, and, subsequently, by many writers to denote 
freedom from spherical aberration.  Both the aberration of axis 
points, and the deviation from the sine condition, rapidly 
increase in most (uncorrected) systems with the aperture. 

(3) Aberration of lateral object points (points beyond the 
axis) with narrow pencils.  Astigmatism.---A point O (fig. 
6) at a finite distance from the, axis (or with an infinitely 
distant object, a point which subtends a finite angle at the 
system) is, in general, even then not sharply reproduced, if 
the pencil of rays issuing from it and traversing the system 
is made infinitely narrow by reducing the aperture stop; such 
a pencil consists of the rays which can pass from the object 
point through the now infinitely small entrance pupil.  It 
is seen (ignoring exceptional cases) that the pencil does 
not meet he refracting or reflecting surface at right angles; 
therefore it is astigmatic (Gr. a-, privative, stigmia, a 
point).  Naming the central ray passing through the entrance 
pupil the ``axis of the pencil,' or ``principal ray,'' we 
can say: the rays of the pencil intersect, not in one point, 
but in two focal lines, which we can assume to be at right 
angles to the principal ray; of these, one lies in the plane 
containing the principal ray and the axis of the system, 
i.e. in the ``first principal section'' or ``meridional 
section,', and the other at right angles to it, i.e. in the 
second principal section or sagittal section.  We receive, 
therefore, in no single intercepting plane behind the system, 
as, for example, a focussing screen, an image of the object 
point; on the other hand, in each of two planes lines O' and 
O" are separately formed (in neighbouring planes ellipses are 
formed), and in a plane between O' and O" a circle of least 
confusion.  The interval O'O", termed the astigmatic difference, 
increases, in general, with the angle W made by the principal 
ray OP with the axis of the system, i.e. with the field of 
view.  Two ``astigmatic image surfaces'' correspond to one 
object plane; and these are in contact at the axis point; on 
the one lie the focal lines of the first kind, on the other 
those of the second.  Systems in which the two astigmatic 
surfaces coincide are termed anastigmatic or stigmatic. 

Sir Isaac Newron was probably the discoverer of astigmation; 
the position of the astigmatic image lines was determined by 
Thomas Young (A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy, 
1807); and the theory has been recently developed by A. 
Gullstrand (Skand. Arch. f. physiol., 1890, 2, p. 269; 
Allgemeine Theorie der monochromat. Aberrationen, etc., 
Upsala, 1900; Arch. f.  Ophth., 1901, 53, pp. 2, 185).  A 
bibliography by P. Culmann is given in M. von Rohr's Die 
Bilderzeugung in opitschen Instrumenten (Berlin, 1904). 

(4) Aberration of lateral object points with broad pencils.  
Coma. ---By opening the stop wider, similar deviations arise 
for lateral points as have been already discussed for axial 
points; but in this case they are much more complicated.  
The course of the rays in the meridional section is no longer 
symmetrical to the principal ray of the pencil; and on an 
intercepting plane there appears, instead of a luminous 
point, a patch of light, not symmetrical about a point, and 
often exhibiting a resemblance to a comet having its tail 
directed towards or away from the axis.  From this appearance 
it takes its name.  The unsymmetrical form of the meridional 
pencil--formerly the only one considered--is coma in the 
narrower sense only; other errors of coma have been treated by 
A. Konig and M. von Rohr (op. cit.), and more recently by 
A. Gullstrand (op. cit.; Ann. d.  Phys., 1905, 18, p. 941). 

(5) Curvature of the field of the image.---If the above errors 
be eliminated, the two astigmatic surfaces united, and a sharp 
image obtained with a wide aperture--there remains the necessity 
to correct the curvature of the image surface, especially when 
the image is to be received upon a plane surface, e.g. in 
photography.  In most cases the surface is concave towards the system. 

(6) Distortion of the image.--If now the image be sufficiently 
sharp, inasmuch as the rays proceeding from every object point 
meet in an image point of satisfactory exactitude, it may happen 
that the image is distorted, i.e. not sufficiently like the 
object.  This error consists in the different parts of the 
object being reproduced with different magnifications; for 
instance, the inner parts may differ in greater magnification 
than the outer (``barrel-shaped distortion''), or conversely 
(``cushion-shaped distortion'') (see fig. 7). Systems free 
of this aberration are called ``orthoscopic'' (orthos , 
right, skopein to look).  This aberration is quite distinct 
from that of the sharpness of reproduction; in unsharp, 
reproduction, the question of distortion arises if only parts of 
the object can be recognized in the figure.  If, in an unsharp 
image, a patch of light corresponds to an object point, the 
``centre of gravity'' of the patch may be regarded as the image 
point, this being the point where the plane receiving the 
image, e.g. a focussing screen, intersects the ray passing 
through the middle of the stop.  This assumption is justified 
if a poor image on the focussing screen remains stationary 
when the aperture is diminished; in practice, this generally 
occurs.  This ray, named by Abbe a ``principal ray'' (not to be 
confused with the ``principal rays'' of the Gaussian theory), 
passes through the centre of the enttance pupil before the first 
refraction, and the centre of the exit pupil after the last 
refraction.  From this it follows that correctness of drawing 
depends solely upon the principal rays; and is independent 
of the sharpness or curvature of the image field.  Referring 
to fig. 8, we have O'Q'/OQ = a' tan w'/a tan w = 1/N, 
where N is the ``scale'' or magnification of the image.  For 
N to be constant for all values of w, a' tan w'/a tan 
w must also be constant.  If the ratio a'/a be sufficiently 
constant, as is often the case, the above relation reduces 
to the ``condition of Airy,'' i.e. tan w'/ tan w= a 
constant.  This simple relation (see Camb.  Phil.  Trans., 
1830, 3, p. 1) is fulfilled in all systems which are symmetrical 
with respect to their diaphragm (briefly named ``symmetrical 
or holosymmetrical objectives''), or which consist of two like, 
but different-sized, components, placed from the diaphragm 
in the ratio of their size, and presenting the same curvature 
to it (hemisymmetrical objectives); in these systems tan 
w' / tan w = 1. The constancy of a'/a necessary for 
this relation to hold was pointed out by R. H. Bow (Brit.  
Journ.  Photog., 1861), and Thomas Sutton (Photographic 
Notes, 1862); it has been treated by O. Lummer and by M. von 
Rohr (Zeit. f.  Instrumentenk., 1897, 17, and 1898, 18, p. 4). 
It requires the middle of the aperture stop to be reproduced in 
the centres of the entrance and exit pupils without spherical 
aberration.  M. von Rohr showed that for systems fulfilling 
neither the Airy nor the Bow-Sutton condition, the ratio a' 
tan w'/a tan w will be constant for one distance of the 
object.  This combined condition is exactly fulfilled 
by holosymmetrical objectives reproducing with the scale 
1, and by hemisymmetrical, if the scale of reproduction 
be equal to the ratio of the sizes of the two components. 

Analytic Treatment of Aberrations.---The preceding review 
of the several errors of reproduction belongs to the ``Abbe 
theory of aberrations,'' in which definite aberrations are 
discussed separately; it is well suited to practical needs, for 
in the construction of an optical instrument certain errors are 
sought to be eliminated, the selection of which is justified by 
experience.  In the mathematical sense, however, this selection 
is arbitrary; the reproduction of a finite object with a finite 
aperture entails, in all probability, an infinite number of 
aberrations.  This number is only finite if the object and 
aperture are assumed to be ``infinitely small of a certain 
order''; and with each order of infinite smallness, i.e. with 
each degree of approximation to reality (to finite objects and 
apertures), a certain number of aberrations is associated.  This 
connexion is only supplied by theories which treat aberrations 
generally and analytically by means of indefinite series. 

A ray proceeding from an object point O (fig. 9) can be defined 
by the co-ordinates (x, e).  Of this point O in an object 
plane I, at right angles to the axis, and two other co-ordinates 
(x, y), the point in which the ray intersects the entrance 
pupil, i.e. the plane II. Similarly the corresponding image 
ray may be defined by the points (x', e'), and (x', 
y'), in the planes I' and II'. The origins of these four 
plane co-ordinate systems may be collinear with the axis 
of the optical system; and the corresponding axes may be 
parallel.  Each of the four co-ordinates x', e', x', y' 
are functions of x, e, x, y; and if it be assumed that the 
field of view and the aperture be infinitely small, then x, 
e, x, y are of the same order of infinitesimals; consequently 
by expanding x', e', x', y' in ascending powers of x, 
e, x, y, series are obtained in which it is only necessary 
to consider the lowest powers.  It is readily seen that if the 
optical system be symmetrical, the orqins of the co-ordinate 
systems collinear with the optical axis and the corresponding 
axes parallel, then by changing the signs of x, e, x, 
y, the values x', e', x', y' must likewise change their 
sign, but retain their arithmetical values; this means that the 
series are restricted to odd powers of the unmarked variables. 

The nature of the reproduction consists in the rays proceeding 
from a point O being united in another point O'; in general, 
this will not be the case, for x', e' vary if x, e be 
constant, but x, y variable.  It may be assumed that the 
planes I' and II' are drawn where the images of the planes 
I and II are formed by rays near the axis by the ordinary 
Gaussian rules; and by an extension of these rules, not, 
however, corresponding to reality, the Gauss image point 
O'0, with co-ordinates x'0, e'0, of the point O at 
some distance from the axis could be constructed.  Writing 
Dx'=x'-x'0 and De'=e'-e'0, then Dx' and 
De' are the aberrations belonging to x, e and x, y, 
and are functions of these magnitudes which, when expanded in 
series, contain only odd powers, for the same reasons as given 
above.  On account of the aberrations of all rays which 
pass through O, a patch of light, depending in size on 
the lowest powers of x, e, x, y which the aberrations 
contain, will be formed in the plane I'. These degrees, 
named by (J. Petzval (Bericht uber die Ergebnisse einiger 
dioptrischer Untersuchnungen, Buda Pesth, 1843; Akad.  
Sitzber., Wien, 1857, vols. xxiv. xxvi.) ``the numerical 
orders of the image,'' are consequently only odd powers; the 
condition for the formation of an image of the mth order 
is that in the series for Dx' and De' the coefficients 
of the powers of the 3rd, 5th . . . (m-2)th degrees must 
vanish.  The images of the Gauss theory being of the third 
order, the next problem is to obtain an image of 5th order, 
or to make the coefficients of the powers of 3rd degree 
zero.  This necessitates the satisfying of five equations; 
in other words, there are five alterations of the 3rd order, 
the vanishing of which produces an image of the 5th order. 

The expression for these coefficients in terms of the constants 
of the optical system, i.e. the radii, thicknesses, refractive 
indices and distances between the lenses, was solved by L. 
Seidel (Astr. Nach., 1856, p. 289); in 1840, J. Petzval 
constructed his portrait objective, unexcelled even at the present 
day, from similar calculations, which have never been published 
(see M. von Rohr, Theorie und Geschichte des photographischen 
Objectivs, Berlin, 1899, p. 248).  The theory was elaborated 
by S. Finterswalder (Munchen. Acad.  Abhandl., 1891, 
17, p. 519), who also published a posthumous paper of Seidel 
containing a short view of his work (Munchen.  Akad. 
Sitrber., 1898, 28, p. 395); a simpler form was given by A. 
Kerber (Beitrage zur Dioptrik, Leipzig, 1895-6-7-8-9).  A. 
Konig and M. von Rohr (see M. von Rohr, Die Bilderzeugung 
in optischen Instrumenten, pp. 317-323) have represented 
Kerber's method, and have deduced the Seidel formulae from 
geometrical considerations based on the Abbe method, and have 
interpreted the analytical results geometrically (pp. 212-316). 

The aberrations can also be expressed by means of the 
"characteristic function'' of the system and its differential 
coefficients, instead of by the radii, &c., of the lenses; 
these formulae are not immediately applicable, but give, 
however, the relation between the number of aberrations and the 
order.  Sir William Rowan Hamilton (British Assoc.  Report, 
1833, p. 360) thus derived the aberrations of the third order; 
and in later times the method was pursued by Clerk Maxwell 
(Proc.  London Math.  Soc., 1874--1875; (see also the treatises 
of R. S. Heath and L. A. Herman), M. Thiesen (Berlin. Akad.  
Sitzber., 1890, 35, p. 804), H. Bruns (Leipzig.  Math.  
Phys.  Ber., 1895, 21, p. 410), and particularly successfully 
by K. Schwartzschild (Gottingen.  Akad.  Abhandl., 1905, 
4, No. 1), who thus discovered the aberrations of the 5th 
order (of which there are nine), and possibly the shortest 
proof of the practical (Seidel) formulae.  A. Gullstrand (vide 
supra, and Ann. d.  Phys., 1905, 18, p. 941) founded his 
theory of aberrations on the differential geometry of surfaces. 

The aberrations of the third order are: (1) aberration of the 
axis point; (2) aberration of points whose distance from the 
axis is very small, less than of the third order---the deviation 
from the sine condition and coma here fall together in one class; 
(3) astigmatism; (4) curvature of the field; (5) distortion. 

(1) Aberration of the third order of axis points is dealt with 
in all text-books on optics.  It is important for telescope 
objectives, since their apertures are so small as to permit 
higher orders to be neglected.  For a single lens of very 
small thickness and given power, the aberration depends upon 
the ratio of the radii r:r', and is a minimum (but never 
zero) for a certain value of this ratio; it varies inversely 
with the refractive index (the power of the lens remaining 
constant).  The total aberration of two or more very thin lenses 
in contact, being the sum of the individual aberrations, can be 
zero.  This is also possible if the lenses have the same algebraic 
sign.  Of thin positive lenses with n=1.5, four are necessary 
to correct spherical aberration of the third order.  These 
systems, however, are not of great practical importance.  In 
most cases, two thin lenses are combined, one of which has 
just so strong a positive aberration (``under-correction,'' 
vide supra) as the other a negative; the first must be a 
positive lens and the second a negative lens; the powers, 
however: may differ, so that the desired effect of the lens is 
maintained.  It is generally an advantage to secure a great 
refractive effect by several weaker than by one high-power 
lens.  By one, and likewise by several, and even by an 
infinite number of thin lenses in contact, no more than two 
axis points can be reproduced without aberration of the third 
order.  Freedom from aberration for two axis points, one of which 
is infinitely distant, is known as ``Herschel's condition.'' 
All these rules are valid, inasmuch as the thicknesses and 
distances of the lenses are not to be taken into account. 

(2) The condition for freedom from coma in the third order 
is also of importance for telescope objectives; it is 
known as ``Fraunhofer's condition.'' (4) After eliminating 
the aberration On the axis, coma and astigmatism, the 
relation for the flatness of the field in the third order is 
expressed by the ``Petzval equation,'' S1/r(n'-n) = 
0, where r is the radius of a refracting surface, n 
and n' the refractive indices of the neighbouring media, 
and S the sign of summation for all refracting surfaces. 

Practical Elimination of Aberrations.---The existence of 
an optical system, which reproduces absolutely a finite plane 
on another with pencils of finite aperture, is doubtful; but 
practical systems solve this problem with an accuracy which 
mostly suffices for the special purpose of each species of 
instrument.  The problem of finding a system which reproduces 
a given object upon a given plane with given magnification 
(in so far as aberrations must be taken into account) could 
be dealt with by means of the approximation theory; in most 
cases, however, the analytical difficulties are too groat.  
Solutions, however, have been obtained in special cases (see 
A. Konig in M. von Rohr's Die Bilderzeugung, p. 373; K. 
Schwarzschild, Gottingen.  Akad. Abhandl., 1905, 4, Nos. 
2 and 3). At the present time constructors almost always employ 
the inverse method: they compose a system from certain, often 
quite personal experiences, and test, by the trigonometrical 
calculation of the paths of several rays, whether the system 
gives the desired reproduction (examples are given in A. 
Gleichen, Lehrbuch der geometrischen Optik, Leipzig and Berlin, 
1902).  The radii, thicknesses and distances are continually 
altered until the errors of the image become sufficiently 
small.  By this method only certain errors of reproduction are 
investigated, especially individual members, or all, of those named 
above.  The analytical approximation theory is often employed 
provisionally, since its accuracy does not generally suffice. 

In order to render spherical aberration and the deviation from 
the sine condition small throughout the whole aperture, there 
is given to a ray with a finite angle of aperture u* (width 
infinitely distant objects: with a finite height of incidence 
h*) the same distance of intersection, and the same sine 
ratio as to one neighbouring the axis (u* or h* may not be 
much smaller than the largest aperture U or H to be used in the 
system).  The rays with an angle of aperture smaller than 
u* would not have the same distance of intersection and 
the same sine ratio; these deviations are called ``zones,'' 
and the constructor endeavours to reduce these to a minimum.  
The same holds for the errors depending upon the angle of 
the field of view, w: astigmatism, curvature of field 
and distortion are eliminated for a definite value, w*, 
``zones of astigmatism, curvature of field and distortion,' 
attend smaller values of w.  The practical optician names 
such systems: ``corrected for the angle of aperture u* 
(the height of incidence h*) or the angle of field of 
view w*.'' Spherical aberration and changes of the sine 
ratios are often represented graphically as functions of the 
aperture, in the same way as the deviations of two astigmatic 
image surfaces of the image plane of the axis point are 
represented as functions of the angles of the field of view. 

The final form of a practical system consequently rests 
on compromise; enlargement of the aperture results in 
a diminution of the available field of view, and vice 
versa.  The following may be regarded as typical:--(1) 
Largest aperture; necessary corrections are--for the axis 
point, and sine condition; errors of the field of view are 
almost disregarded; example-- high-power microscope objectives. 
(2) Largest field of view; necessary corrections are--for 
astigmatism, curvature of field and distortion; errors of 
the aperture only slightly regarded; examples--photographic 
widest angle objectives and oculars.  Between these extreme 
examples stands the ordinary photographic objective: the 
portrait objective is corrected more with regard to aperture; 
objectives for groups more with regard to the field of 
view. (3) Telescope objectives have usually not very large 
apertures, and small fields of view; they should, however, 
possess zones as small as possible, and be built in the simplest 
manner.  They are the best for analytical computation. 

(b) Chromatic or Colour Aberration. In optical systems 
composed of lenses, the position, magnitude and errors 
of the image depend upon the refractive indices of the 
glass employed (see LENS, and above, ``Monochromatic 
Aberration'').  Since the index of refraction varies with 
the colour or wave length of the light (see DISPERSION), 
it follows that a system of lenses (uncorrected) projects 
images of different colours in somewhat different places 
and sizes and with different aberrations; i.e. there are 
``chromatic differences'' of the distances of intersection, 
of magnifications, and of monochromatic aberrations.  If 
mixed light be employed (e.g. white light) all these images 
are formed; and since they are ail ultimately intercepted 
by a plane (the retina of the eye, a focussing screen of a 
camera, &c.), they cause a confusion, named chromatic 
aberration; for instance, instead of a white margin on a dark 
background, there is perceived a coloured margin, or narrow 
spectrum.  The absence of this error is termed achromatism, 
and an optical system so corrected is termed achromatic.  
A system is said to be ``chromatically under-corrected'' 
when it shows the same kind of chromatic error as a thin 
positive lens, otherwise it is said to be ``over-corrected.'' 

If, in the first place, monochromatic aberrations be neglected 
---in other words, the Gaussian theory be accepted---then 
every reproduction is determined by the positions of the focal 
planes, and the magnitude of the focal lengths, or if the focal 
lengths, as ordinarily happens, be equal, by three constants of 
reproduction.  These constants are determined by the data 
of the system (radii, thicknesses, distances, indices, &c., 
of the lenses); therefore their dependence on the refractive 
index, and consequently on the colour, are calculable (the 
formulae are given in Czapski-Eppenstein, Grundzuge der 
Theorie der optischen Instrumente (1903, p. 166).  The 
refractive indices for different wave lengths must be known 
for each kind of glass made use of.  In this manner the 
conditions are maintained that any one constant of reproduction 
is equal for two different colours, i.e. this constant is 
achromatized.  For example, it is possible, with one thick 
lens in air, to achromatize the position of a focal plane of 
the magnitude of the focal length.  If all three constants 
of reproduction be achromatized, then the Gaussian image for 
all distances of objects is the same for the two colours, 
and the system is said to be in ``stable achromatism.'' 

In practice it is more advantageous (after Abbe) to determine 
the chromatic aberration (for instance, that of the distance 
of intersection) for a fixed position of the object, and 
express it by a sum in which each component conlins the amount 
due to each refracting surface (see Czapski-Eppenstein, op. 
cit. p. 170; A. Konig in M. v.  Rohr's collection, Die 
Bilderzeugung, p. 340).  In a plane containing the image point 
of one colour, another colour produces a disk of confusion; 
this is similar to the confusion caused by two ``zones'' in 
spherical aberration.  For infinitely distant objects the 
radius Of the chromatic disk of confusion is proportional to 
the linear aperture, and independent of the focal length (vide 
supra, ``Monochromatic Aberration of the Axis Point''); and 
since this disk becomes the less harmful with au increasing 
image of a given object, or with increasing focal length, 
it follows that the deterioration of the image is propor-, 
tional to the ratio of the aperture to the focal length, 
i.e. the ``relative aperture.'' (This explains the gigantic 
focal lengths in vogue before the discovery of achromatism.) 

Examples.--(a) In a very thin lens, in air, only one constant 
of reproduction is to be observed, since the focal length and 
the distance of the focal point are equal.  If the refractive 
index for one colour be n, and for another n+dn, and the 
powers, or reciprocals of the focal lengths, be f and f + d
f, then (1) df/f = dn/(n-1) = 1/n; dn is called 
the dispersion, and n the dispersive power of the glass. 

(b) Two thin lenses in contact: let f1 and f2 be 
the powers corresponding to the lenses of refractive indices 
n1 and n2 and radii r'1, r"1, and r'2, 
r"2 respectively; let f denote the total power, and d
f, dn1, dn2 the changes of f, n1, and n2 
with the colour.  Then the following relations hold:-- 

(2) f = f1-f2== (n1 - 1)(1/r'1-1/r''1) +(n2-1)(1/
r'2 - 1/r''2) = (n1 - 1)k1 + (n2 - 1)k2; and 

(3) df = k1dn1 + k2dn2.  
For achromatism df = 0, hence, from (3), 

(4) k1/k2 = -dn2 / dn1, or f1/f2 = -n1/
n2.  Therefore f1 and f2 must have different algebraic 
signs, or the system must be composed of a collective and a 
dispersive lens.  Consequently the powers of the two must be 
different (in order that f be not zero (equation 2)), and 
the dispersive powers must also be different (according to 4). 

Newton failed to perceive the existence of media of 
different dispersive powers required by achromatism; 
consequently he constructed large reflectors instead of 
refractors.  James Gregory and Leonhard Euler arrived at the 
correct view from a false conception of the achromatism of 
the eye; this was determined by Chester More Hall in 1728, 
Klingenstierna in 1754 and by Dollond in 1757, who constructed 
the celebrated achromatic telescopes. (See TELESCOPE.) 

Glass with weaker dispersive power (greater v) is named 
``crown glass''; that with greater dispersive power, ``flint 
glass.'' For the construction of an achromatic collective lens 
(f positive) it follows, by means of equation (4), that a 
collective lens I. of crown glass and a dispersive lens II. of 
flint glass must be chosen; the latter, although the weaker, 
corrects the other chromatically by its greater dispersive 
power.  For an achromatic dispersive lens the converse must be 
adopted.  This is, at the present day, the ordinary type, 
e.g., of telescope objective (fig. 10); the values of 
the four radii must satisfy the equations (2) and (4). Two 
other conditions may also be postulated: one is always the 
elimination of the aberration on the axis; the second either 
the ``Herschel'' or ``Fraunhofer Condition,'' the latter being 
the best vide supra, ``Monochromatic Aberration'').  In 
practice, however, it is often more useful to avoid the second 
condition by making the lenses have contact, i.e. equal 
radii.  According to P. Rudolph (Eder's Jahrb. f.  Photog., 
1891, 5, p. 225; 1893, 7, p. 221), cemented objectives of 
thin lenses permit the elimination of spherical aberration 
on the axis, if, as above, the collective lens has a smaller 
refractive index; on the other hand, they permit the elimination 
of astigmatism and curvature of the field, if the collective 
lens has a greater refractive index (this follows from the 
Petzval equation; see L. Seidel, Astr.  Nachr., 1856, p. 
289).  Should the cemented system be positive, then the more 
powerful lens must be positive; and, according to (4), to the 
greater power belongs the weaker dispersive power (greater 
v), that is to say, clown glass; consequently the crown 
glass must have the greater refractive index for astigmatic 
and plane images.  In all earlidr kinds of glass, however, 
the dispersive power increased with the refractive index; 
that is, v decreased as n increased; but some of the 
Jena glasses by E. Abbe and O. Schott were crown glasses of 
high refractive index, and achromatic systems from such crown 
glasses, with flint glasses of lower refractive index, are 
called the ``new achromats,'' and were employed by P. Rudolph 
in the first ``anastigmats'' (photographic objectives). 

Instead of making df vanish, a certain value can be assigned 
to it which will produce, by the addition of the two lenses, 
any desired chromatic deviation, e.g. sufficient to eliminate 
one present in other parts of the system.  If the lenses I. 
and II. be cemented and have the same refractive index for one 
colour, then its effect for that one colour is that of a lens 
of one piece; by such decomposition of a lens it can be made 
chromatic or achromatic at will, without altering its spherical 
effect.  If its chromatic effect (df/f) be greater than 
that of the same lens, this being made of the more dispersive 
of the two glasses employed, it is termed ``hyper-chromatic.'' 

For two thin lenses separated by a distance D the condition 
for achromatism is D = v1f1+v2f2; if v1=v2 
(e.g. if the lenses be made of the same glass), this reduces 
to D= 1/2 (f1+f2), known as the ``condition for oculars.'' 

If a constant of reproduction, for instance the focal length, 
be made equal for two colours, then it is not the same for 
other colours, if two different glasses are employed.  For 
example, the condition for achromatism (4) for two thin lenses 
in contact is fulfilled in only one part of the spectrum, since 
dn2/dn1 varies within the spectrum.  This fact was first 
ascertained by J. Fraunhofer, who defined the colours by means 
of the dark lines in the solar spectrum; and showed that the 
ratio of the dispersion of two glasses varied about 20% from the 
red to the violet (the variation for glass and water is about 
50%).  If, therefore, for two colours, a and b, fa = 
fb = f, then for a third colour, c, the focal length is 
different, viz. if c lie between a and b, then fc<
f, and vice versa; these algebraic results follow from 
the fact that towards the red the dispersion of the positive 
crown glass preponderates, towards the violet that of the 
negative flint.  These chromatic errors of systems, which 
are achromatic for two colours, are called the ``secondary 
spectrum,'' and depend upon the aperture and focal length 
in the same manner as the primary chromatid errors do. 

In fig. 11, taken from M. von Rohr,s Theoric und Geschichte des 
photographischen Objectivs, the abscissae are focal lengths, and the 
ordinates wave-lengths; of the latter the Fraunhofer lines used are-- 


 
 A'       C      D   Green Hg.   F    G'    Violet Hg.
 767.7  656.3  589.3  546.1    486.2 454.1  405.1 mm,
 

and the focal lengths are made equal for the lines C and F. 
In the neighbourhood of 550 mm the tangent to the curve 
is parallel to the axis of wave-lengths; and the focal 
length varies least over a fairly large range of colour, 
therefore in this neighbourhood the colour union is at its 
best.  Moreover, this region of the spectrum is that which 
appears brightest to the human eye, and consequently this 
curve of the secondary on spectrum, obtained by making 
fc = fF, is, according to the experiments of Sir G. 
G. Stokes (Proc.  Roy. Soc., 1878), the most suitable for 
visual instruments (``optical achromatism,').  In a similar 
manner, for systems used in photography, the vertex of the 
colour curve must be placed in the position of the maximum 
sensibility of the plates; this is generally supposed to be at 
G'; and to accomplish this the F and violet mercury lines are 
united.  This artifice is specially adopted in objectives for 
astronomical photography (``pure actinic achromatism'').  For 
ordinary photography, however, there is this disadvantage: 
the image on the focussing-screen and the correct adjustment 
of the photographic sensitive plate are not in register; in 
astronomical photography this difference is constant, but in 
other kinds it depends on the distance of the objects.  On this 
account the lines D and G' are united for ordinary photographic 
objectives; the optical as well as the actinic image is 
chromatically inferior, but both lie in the same place; and 
consequently the best correction lies in F (this is known as 
the ``actinic correction'' or ``freedom from chemical focus''). 

Should there be in two lenses in contact the same focal lengths 
for three colours a, b, and c, i.e. fa = fb = 
fc = f, then the relative partial dispersion (nc-
nb) (na-nb) must be equal for the two kinds of glass 
employed.  This follows by considering equation (4) for the 
two pairs of colours ac and bc. Until recently no glasses 
were known with a proportionap degree of absorption; but R. 
Blair (Trans.  Edin.  Soc., 1791, 3, p. 3), P. Barlow, and 
F. S. Archer overcame the difficulty by constructing fluid 
lenses between glass walls.  Fraunhofer prepared glasses which 
reduced the secondary spectrum; but permanent success was 
only assured on the introduction of the Jena glasses by E. 
Abbe and O. Schott.  In using glasses not having proportional 
dispersion, the deviation of a third colour can be eliminated 
by two lenses, if an interval be allowed between them; or 
by three lenses in contact, which may not all consist of 
the old glasses.  In uniting three colours an ``achromatism 
of a higher order'' is derived; there is yet a residual 
``tertiary spectrum,'' but it can always be neglected. 

The Gaussian theory is only an approximation; monochromatic 
or spherical aberrations still occur, which will be different 
for different colours; and should they be compensated for one 
colour, the image of another colour would prove disturbing.  
The most important is the chromatic difference of aberration 
of the axis point, which is still present to disturb the 
image, after par-axial rays of different colours are united 
by an appropriate combination of glasses.  If a collective 
system be corrected for the axis point for a definite 
wave-length, then, on account of the greater dispersion in 
the negative components--the flint glasses,--over-correction 
will arise for the shorter wavelengths (this being the 
error of the negative components), and under-correction for 
the longer wave-lengths (the error of crown glass lenses 
preponderating in the red).  This error was treated by 
Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and, in special detail, by C. F. 
Gauss.  It increases rapidly with the aperture, and is more 
important with medium apertures than the secondary spectrum 
of par-axial rays; consequently, spherical aberration must 
be elliminated for two colours, and if this be impossible, 
then it must be eliminated for those particular wave-lengths 
which are most effectual for the instrument in question (a 
graphical representation of this error is given in M. von Rohr, 
Theorie und Geschichte des photographischen Objectivs). 

The condition for the reproduction of a surface element in the 
place of a sharply reproduced point--the constant of the sine 
relationship must also be fulfilled with large apertures for 
several colours.  E. Abbe succeeded in computing microscope 
objectives free from error of the axis point and satisfying 
the sine condition for several colours, which therefore, 
according to his definition, were ``aplanatic for several 
colours''; such systems he termed ``apochromatic''.  While, 
however, the magnification of the individual zones is the 
same, it is not the same for red as for blue; and there is a 
chromatic difference of magnification.  This is produced in the 
same amount, but in the opposite sense, by the oculars, which 
ate used with these objectives (``compensating oculars''), so 
that it is eliminated in the image of the whole microscope.  
The best telescope objectives, and photographic objectives 
intended for three-colour work, are also apochromatic, even 
if they do not possess quite the same quality of correction 
as microscope objectives do.  The chromatic differences of 
other errors of reproduction have seldom practical importances. 

1 The investigations of E. Abbe on geometrical optics, 
originally published only in his university lectures, were 
first compiled by S. Czapski in 1893.  See below, AUTHORITIES. 
AUTHORITIES.---The standard treatise in English is H. D. 
Taylor, A System of Applied Optics (1906); reference may also 
be made to R. S. Heath, A Treatise on Geometrical Optics (2nd 
ed., 1895); and L A. Herman, A Treatise on Geometrical Optics 
(1900).  The ideas of Abbe were first dealt with in S. Czapski, 
Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe, published 
separately at Breslau in 1893, and as vol. ii. of Winkelmann's 
Handbuch der Physik in 1894; a second edition, by Czapski 
and O. Eppenstein, was published at Leipzig in 1903 with the 
title, Grundzuge der Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach 
Abbe, and in vol. ii. of the 2nd ed. of Winkelmann's Handbuch 
der Physik. The collection of the scientific staff of Carl 
Zeiss at Jena, edited by M. von Rohr, Die bilderzeugung in 
optischen Instrumenten vom Standpunkte der geometrischen 
Optik (Berlin, 1904), contains articles by A. Konig and 
M. von Rohr specially dealing with aberrations. (O. E.) 

ABERSYCHAN, an urban district in the northern parliamentary 
division of Monmouthshire, England, 11 m.  N. by W. of Newport, 
on the Great Western, London and North-Western, and Rhymney 
railways.  Pop. (1901) 17,768.  It lies in the narrow upper 
valley of the Afon Lwyd on the eastern edge of the great coal 
and iron mining district of Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire, 
and its large industrial population is occupied in the mines 
and ironworks.  The neighbourhood is wild and mountainous. 

ABERTILLERY, an urban district in the western parliamentary 
division of Monmouthshire, England, 16 m.  N.W. of Newport, on 
the Great Western railway.  Pop. (1891) 10,846; (1901) 21,945.  
It lies in the mountainous mining district of Monmouthshire 
and Glamorganshire, in the valley of the Ebbw Fach, and the 
large industrial population is mainly employed in the numerous 
coalmines, ironworks and tinplate works.  Farther up the 
valley are the mining townships of NANTYOLO and BLAINA, 
forming an urban district with a population (1901) of 13,489. 

ABERYSTWYTH, a municipal borough, market-town and seaport of 
Cardiganshire, Wales, near the confluence of the rivers Ystwyth 
and Rheidol, about the middle of Cardigan Bay. Pop. (1901) 
8013.  It is the terminal station of the Cambrian railway, 
and also of the Manchester and Milford line.  It is the 
most popular watering-place on the west coast of Wales, and 
possesses a pier, and a fine sea-front which stretches from 
Constitution Hill at the north end of the Marine Terrace to the 
mouth of the harbour.  The town is of modern appearance, and 
contains many public buildings, of which the most remarkable 
is the imposing but fantastic structure of the University 
College of Wales near the Castle Hill.  Much of the finest 
scenery in mid-Wales hes within easy reach of Aberystwyth. 

The history of Aberystwyth may be said to date from the time 
of Gilbert Strongbow, who in 1109 erected a fortress on the 
present Castle Hill.  Edward I. rebuilt Strongbow's castle 
in 1277, after its destruction by the Welsh.  Between the 
years 1404 and 1408 Aberystwyth Castle was in the hands of 
Owen Glendower, but finally surrendered to Prince Harry of 
Monmouth, and shortly after this the town was incorporated 
under the title of Ville de Lampadarn, the ancient name of the 
place being Llanbadarn Gaerog, or the fortified Llanbadarn, 
to distinguish it from Llanbadarn Fawr, the village one mile 
inland.  It is thus styled in a charter granted by Henry 
VIII., but by Elizabeth's time the town was invariably termed 
Aberystwyth in all documents.  In 1647 the parliamentarian 
troops razed the castle to the ground, so that its remains 
are now inconsiderable, though portions of three towers still 
exist.  Aberystwyth was a contributory parliamentary borough 
until 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the 
county.  In modern times Aberystwyth has become a Welsh 
educational centre, owing to the erection here of one of the 
three colleges of the university of Wales (1872), and of a 
hostel for women in connexion with it.  In 1905 it was decided 
to fix here the site of the proposed Welsh National Library. 

ABETTOR (from ``to abet,'' O. Fr. abeter, a and beter, to 
bait, urge dogs upon any one; this word is probably of Scandinavian 
origin, meaning to cause to bite), a law term implying one 
who instigates, encourages or assists another to commit an 
offence.  An abettor differs from an accessory (q.v.) in that 
he must be present at the commission of the crime; all abettors 
(with certain exceptions) are principals, and, in the absence
of specific statutory provision to the contrary, are punishable 
to the same extent as the actual perpetrator of the offence.  
A person may in certain cases be convicted as an abettor in 
the commission of an offence in which he or she could not be a 
principal, e.g. a woman or boy under fourteen years of age 
in aiding rape, or a solvent person in aiding and abetting 
a bankrupt to commit offences against the bankruptcy laws. 

ABEYANCE (O. Fr. abeance, ``gaping''), a state of 
expectancy in respect of property, titles or office, when the 
right to them is not vested in any one person, but awaits the 
appearance or determination of the true owner.  In law, the 
term abeyance can only be applied to such future estates as 
have not yet vested or possibly may not vest.  For example, an 
estate is granted to A for life, with remainder to the heir of 
B, the latter being alive; the remainder is then said to be in 
abeyance, for until the death of B it is uncertain who his heir 
is.  Similarly the freehold of a benefice, on the death of the 
incumbent, is said to be in abeyance until the next incumbent 
takes possession.  The most common use of the term is in 
the case of peerage dignities.  If a peerage which passes to 
heirs-general, like the ancient baronies by writ, is held 
by a man whose heir-at-law is neither a male, nor a woman 
who is an only child, it goes into abeyance on his death 
between two or more sisters or their heirs, and is held by 
no one till the abeyance is terminated; if eventually only 
one person represents the claims of all the sisters, he or 
she can claim the termination of the abeyance as a matter of 
right.  The crown can also call the peerage out of abeyance at 
any moment, on petition, in favour of any one of the sisters 
or their heirs between whom it is in abeyance.  The question 
whether ancient earldoms created in favour of a man and his 
``heirs'' go into abeyance like baronies by writ has been 
raised by the claim to the earldom of Norfolk created in 1312, 
discussed before the Committee for Privileges in 1906.  It is 
common, but incorrect, to speak of peerage dignities which are 
dormant (i.e. unclaimed) as being in abeyance. (J. H. R.) 

ABGAR, a name or title borne by a line of kings or 
toparchs, apparently twenty-nine in number, who reigned in 
Osrhoene and had their capital at Edessa about the time of 
the Christian era.  According to an old tradition, one of 
these princes, perhaps Abgar V. (Ukkama or Uchomo, ``the 
black''), being afflicted with leprosy, sent a letter to 
Jesus, acknowledging his divinity, craving his help and 
offering him an asylum in his own residence, but Jesus wrote 
a letter declining to go, promising, however, that after his 
ascension he would send one of his disciples.  These letters 
are given by Eusebius (Eccl.  Hist. i. 13), who declares 
that the Syriac document from which he translates them had 
been preserved in the archives at Edessa from the time of 
Abgar.  Eusebius also states that in due course Judas, son of 
Thaddaeus, was sent (in 340 = A.D. 29). In another form of 
the story, derived from Moses of Chorene, it is said further 
that Jesus sent his portrait to Abgar, and that this existed 
in Edessa (Hist. Armen., ed.  W. Whiston, ii. 29-32).  
Yet another version is found in the Syriac Doctrina Addaei 
(Addaeus=Thaddaeus), edited by G. Phillips (1876).  Here it 
is said that the reply of Jesus was given not in writing, but 
verbally, and that the event took place in 343 (A.D. 32). 
Greek forms of the legend are found in the Acta Thaddaei 
(C. Tischendorf, Acta apostoloruiu apocr. 261 ff.). 

These stories have given rise to much discussion.  The testi- 
mony of Augustine and Jerome is to the effect that Jesus wrote 
nothing.  The correspondence was rejected as apocryphal by 
Pope Gelasius and a Roman Synod (c. 495), though, it is 
true, this view has not been shared universally by the Roman 
church (Tillemont, Memoires, i. 3, pp. 990 ff ). Amongst 
Evangelicals the spuriousness of the letters is almost generally 
admitted.  Lipsius (Die Edessenische Abgarsage, 1880) has 
pointed out anachronisms which seem to indicate that the story 
is quite unhistorical.  The first king of Edessa of whom we have 
any trustworthy information is Abgar VIII., bar Ma'nu (A.D. 
176-213).  It is suggested that the legend arose from a desire 
to trace the christianizing of his kingdom to an apostolic 
source.  Eusebius gives the legend in its oldest form; it was 
worked up in the Doctrina Addaei in the second half of the 4th 
century; and Moses of Chorene was dependent upon both these sources. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY---R, Schmidt in Herzoe-Hauck, Realencyklopadie; 
Die Edessenische Abgarsage kritisch untersucht (1880); 
Matthes, Die Edessenische Abgarsage auf ihre Fortbildung 
untersucht (1882); Les Origines de l'eglise d'Edesse 
et la legende d'A. (1888); A. Harnack, Geschichte d. 
altchristlichen Litteratur, i. 2 (1893); L. Duchesne, 
Bulletin critique, 1889, pp. 41-48; for the Epistles see 
APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE, sect. ``New Testament'' (c.) 

ABHIDHAMMA, the name of one of the three Pitakas, or 
baskets of tradition, into which the Buddhist scriptures 
(see BUDDHISM) are divided.  It consists of seven works: 1. 
Dhamma Sangani (enumeration of qualities). 2. Vibhanga 
(exposition). 3. Katha Vatthu (bases of opinion). 4. 
Puggala Pannatti (on individuals). 5. Dhatu Katha (on 
relations of moral dispositions). 6. Yamaka (the pairs, that 
is, of ethical states). 7. Patthana (evolution of ethical 
states).  These have now been published by the Pah Text 
Society.  The first has been translated into English, and an 
abstract of the third has been published.  The approximate 
date of these works is probably from about 400 B.C. to 
about 250 B.C., the first being the oldest and the third 
the latest of the seven.  Before the publication of the texts, 
when they were known only by hearsay, the term Abhidhamma 
was usually rendered ``Metaphysics.'' This is now seen to be 
quite erroneous. Dhamma means the doctrine, and Abhidhamma 
has a relation to Dhamma similar to that of by-law to 
law.  It expands, classifies, tabulates, draws corollaries 
from the ethical doctrines laid down in the more popular 
treatises.  There is no metaphysics in it atnall, only 
psychological ethics of a peculiarly dry and scholastic kind.  
And there is no originality in it; only endless permutations 
and combinations of doctrines already known and accepted.  
As in the course of centuries the doctrine itself, in certain 
schools, varied, it was felt necessary to rewrite these secondary 
works.  This was first done, so far as is at present known, 
by the Sarvastivadins (Realists), who in the century before 
and after Christ produced a fresh set of seven Abhidhamma 
books.  These are lost in India, but still exist in Chinese 
translations.  The translations have been analysed in a 
masterly way by Professor Takakusu in the article mentioned 
below, They deal only with psychological ethics.  In the 
course of further centuries these hooks in turn were superseded 
by new treatises; and in one school at least, that of the 
Maha-yana (great Vehicle) there was eventually developed a 
system of metaphysics.  But the word Abhidhamma then fell 
out of use in that school, though it is still used in the 
schools that continue to follow the original seven books. 

See Buddhist Psychology by Caroline Rhys Davids (London, 1900), 
translation of the Dhamma Sangani, with valuable introduction; 
or the Royal Asiatic Society, 1892, contains an abstract of the 
Katha ``On the Abhidhamma books of the Sarvastivadins,'' by 
Prof.  Takakusu, in Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1905. 

(l'. W. R. D.) 

ABHORRERS, the name given in 1679 to the persons who 
expressed their abhorrence at the action of those who 
had signed petitions urging King Charles II. to assemble 
parliament.  Feel ing against Roman Catholics, and especially 
against James, duke of York, was running strongly; the 
Exclusion Bill had been passed by the House of Commons, 
and the popularity of James, duke of Monmouth, was very 
great.  To prevent this bill from passing into law, Charles 
had dissolved parliament in July 1679, and in the following 
October had prorogued its successor without allowing it to 
meet.  He was then deluged with petitions urging him to 
call it together, and this agitation was opposed by Sir 
George Jeffreys (q.v.) and Francis Wythens, who presented 
addresses expressing ``abhorrence'' of the ``Petitioners,'' 
and thus initiated the movement of the abhorrers, who 
supported the action of the king. ``The frolic went all 
over England,'' says Roger North; and the addresses of 
the Abhorrers which reached the king from all parts of the 
country formed a counterblast to those of the Petitioners.  
It is said that the terms Whig and Tory were first applied 
to English political parties in consequence of this dispute. 

ABIATHAR (Heb. Ebyathar, ``the [divine] father is 
pre-eminent''), in the Bible, son of Ahimelech or Ahijah, 
priest at Nob. The only one of the priests to escape from 
Saul's massacre, he fled to David at Keilah, taking with him 
the ephod (1 Sam. xxii. 20 f., xxiii. 6, 9). He was of great 
service to David, especially at the time of the rebellion 
of Absalom (2 Sam. xv. 24, 29, 35, xx. 25). In 1 Kings iv. 
4 Zadok and Abiathar are found acting together as priests 
under Solomon.  In 1 Kings i. 7, 19, 25, however, Abiathar 
appears as a supporter of Adonijah, and in ii. 22 and 26 
it is said that he was deposed by Solomon and banished to 
Anathoth.  In 2 Sam. viii. 17 ``Abiathar, the son of Ahimelech'' 
should be read, with the Syriac, for ``Ahimelech, the son 
of Abiathar.'' For a similar confusion see Mark ii. 26. 

ABICH, OTTO WILHELM HERMANN VON (1806-1886), German 
mineralogist and geologist, was born at Berlin on the 11th 
of December 1806, and educated at the university in that 
city.  His earliest scientific work related to spinels and other 
minerals, and later he made special studies of fumaroles, of the 
mineral deposits around volcanic vents and of the structure of 
volcanoes.  In 1842 he was appointed professor of mineralogy 
in the university of Dorpat, and henceforth gave attention 
to the geology and mineralogy of Russia.  Residing for some 
time at Tiflis he investigated the geology of the Caucasus.  
Ultimately' he retired to Vienna, where he died on the 1st 
of July 1886.  The mineral Abichite was named after him. 

PUBLICATIONS.---Vues illustratives de quelques phenomenes 
geologiques, prises sur le Vesuve et l'Etna, pendant 
les annees 1833 et 1834 (Berlin, 1836); Ueber die 
Natur und den Zusammenhang der vulcanischen Bildungen 
(Brunswick, 1841); Geologische Forschungen in den 
Kaukasischen Landern (3 vols., Vienna, 1878, 1882, and 1887). 

ABIGAIL (Heb. Abigayil, perhaps ``father is joy''), or 
ABIGAL (2 Sam. iii. 3), in the Bible, the wife of Nabal the 
Carmelite, on whose death she became the wife of David (1 Sam. 
xxv.).  By her David had a son, whose name appears in the 
Hebrew of 2 Sam. iii. 3 as Chileab, in the Septuagint as 
Daluyah, and in 1 Chron. iii. 1 as Daniel.  The name 
Abigail was also borne by a sister of David (2 Sam. xvii. 
25; 1 Chron. ii. 16 f.).  From the former (self-styled 
``handmaid'' 1 Sam. xxv. 25 f.) is derived the colloquial use 
of the term for a waiting-woman (cf. Abigail, the ``waiting 
gentlewoman,'' in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady.) 

ABIJAH (Heb. Abiyyah and Abiyyahu, ``Yah is father''), 
a name borne by nine different persons mentioned in the Old 
Testament, of whom the most noteworthy are the following. (i) 
The son and successor of Rehoboam, king of Judah (2 Chron. 
xii. 16--xiii.), reigned about two years (918-915 B.C..) 
The accounts of him in the books of Kings and Chronicles are 
very conflicting (compare 1 Kings xv. 2 and 2 Chron. xi.20 
with 2 Chron. xiii.2).  The Chronicler tells us that he has 
drawn his facts from the Midrash (commentary) of the prophet 
Iddo This is perhaps sufficient to explain the character of 
the narrative. (2) The second son of Samuel (1 Sam. viii. 
2; 1 Chron. vi. 28 [13j).  He and his brother Joel judged at 
Beersheba.  Their misconduct was made by the elders of 
Israel a pretext for demanding a king (1 Sam. viii. 4). 
(3) A son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel; he died young 
(1 Kings xiv. 1 ff., 17). (4) Head of the eighth order of 
priests (1 Chron. xxiv. 10), the order to which Zacharias, 
the father of John the Baptist, belonged (Luke i. 5). 

The alternative form Abijam is probably a 
mistake, though it is upheld by M. Jastrow. 

ABILA, (1) a city of ancient Syria, the capital of the 
tetrarchy of Abilene, a territory whose extent it is impossible 
to define.  It is generally called Abila of Lysanias, to 
distinguish it from (2) below.  Abila was an important town on 
the imperial highway from Damascus to Heliopolis (Baalbek).  
The site is indicated by ruins of a temple, aqueducts, &c., 
and inscriptions on the banks of the river Barada at Suk 
Wadi Barada, a village called by early Arab geographers 
Abil-es-Suk, between Baalbek and Damascus.  Though the names 
Abel and Abila differ in derivation and in meaning, their 
similarity has given rise to the tradition that this was the 
place of Abel's burial.  According to Josephus, Abilene was a 
separate Iturean kingdom till A.D. 37, when it was granted 
by C to Agrippa I.; in 52 Claudius granted it to Agrippa II. 
(See also LYSANIAS.) (2) A city in Perea, now Abil-ez-Zeit. 

ABILDGAARD, NIKOLAJ ABRAHAM (1744-1809), called ``the 
Father of Danish Painting,'' was born at Copenhagen, the 
son of Soren Abildgaard, an antiquarian draughtsman of 
repute.  He formed his style on that of Claude and of Nicolas 
Poussin, and was a cold theorist, inspired not by nature but by 
art.  As a technical painter he attained remarkable success, 
his tone being very harmonious and even, but the effect, to a 
foreigner's eye, is rarely interesting.  His works are scarcely 
known out of Copenhagen, where he won an immense fame in his 
own generation.  He was the founder of the Danish school of 
painting, and the master of Thorwaldsen and Eckersherg. 

ABIMELECH (Hebrew for ``father of [or is] the king''). 
(1) A king of Gerar in South Palestine with whom Isaac, in 
the Bible, had relations.  The patriarch, during his sojourn 
there, alleged that his wife Rebekah was his sister, but the 
king doubting this remonstrated with him and pointed out how 
easily adultery might have been unintentionally committed (Gen. 
xxvi.).  Abimelech is called ``king of the Philistines,'' but 
the title is clearly an anachronism.  A very similar story 
is told of Abraham and Sarah (ch. xx.), but here Abimelech 
takes Sarah to wife, although he is warned by a divine vision 
before the crime is actually committed.  The incident is 
fuller and shows a great advance in bdeas of morality.  Of 
a more primitive character, however, is another parallel 
story of Abraham at the court of Pharaoh, king of Egypt (xii. 
10-20), where Sarah his wife is taken into the royal household, 
and the plagues sent by Yahweh lead to the discovery of the 
truth.  Further incidents in Isaac's life at Gerar are narrated 
in Gen. xxvi. (cp. xxi. 22-34, time of Abraham), notably a 
covenant with Abimelech at Beer-sheba (whence the name is 
explained ``well of the oath''); (see ABRAHAM.) By a pure 
error, or perhaps through a confusion in the traditions, Achish 
the Philistine (of Gath, 1 Sam. xxi., xxvii.), to whom David 
fled, is called Abimelech in the superscription to Psalm xxxiv. 

(2) A son of Jerubbaal or Gideon (q.v.), by his Shechemite 
concubine (Judges viii. 31, ix.).  On the death of Gideon, 
Abimelech set himself to assert the authority which his 
father had earned, and through the influence of his mother's 
clan won over the citizens of Shechem.  Furnished with money 
from the treasury of the temple of Baal-berith, he hired a 
band of followers and slew seventy (cp. 2 Kings x. 7) of his 
brethren at Ophrah, his father's home.  This is one of the 
earliest recorded instances of a practice common enough on 
the accession of Oriental despots.  Abimelech thus became 
king, and extended his authority Over central Palestine.  
But his success was short-lived, and the subsequent discord 
between Abimelech and the Shechemites was regarded as a just 
reward for his atrocious massacre.  Jotham, the only one who 
is said to have escaped, boldly appeared on Mount Gerizim 
and denounced the ingratitude of the townsmen towards the 
legitimate sons of the man who had saved them from Midian. 
``Jotham's fable'' of the trees who desired a king may be 
foreign to the context; it is a piece of popular lore, and 
cannot be pressed too far: the nobler trees have no wish to 
rule over others, only the bramble is self-confident.  The 
``fable'' appears to be antagonistic to ideas of monarchy.  
The origin of the conflicts which subsequently arose is not 
clear.  Gaal, a new-comer, took the opportunity at the time 
of the vintage, when there was a festival in tho temple, to 
head a revolt and seized Shechem.  Abimelech, warned by his 
deputy Zebul, left his residence at Arumah and approached the 
city.  In a fine bit of realism we are told how Gaal observed 
the approaching foe and was told by Zebul, ``You see the 
shadow of the hills as men,'' and as they drew nearer Zebul's 
ironical remark became a taunt, ``Where is now thy mouth? 
is not this the people thou didst despise? go now and fight 
them!'' This revolt, which Abimelech successfully quelled, 
appears to be only an isolated episode.  Another account 
tells of marauding bands of Shechemites which disturbed the 
district.  The king disposed his men (the whole chapter is 
specially interesting for the full details it gives of the 
nature of ancient military operations), and after totally 
destroying Shechem, proceeded against Thebez, which had also
revolted.  Here, while storming the citadel, he was struck on 
the head by a fragment of a millstone thrown from the wall by a 
woman.  To avoid the disgrace of perishing by a woman's hand, 
he begged his armour-bearer to run him through the body, but 
his memory was not saved from the ignominy he dreaded (2 Sam. 
xi. 21). It is usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first 
attempt to establish a monarchy in Israel, but the story is 
mainly that of the rivalries of a half-developed petty state, 
and of the ingratitude of a community towards the descendants 
of its deliverer. (See, further, JEWS, JUDGES.) (S. A. C.) 

ABINGDON, a market town and municipal borough in the 
Abingdon parliamentary division of Berkshire, England, 6 
m.  S. of Oxford, the terminus of a branch of the Great 
Western railway from Radley.  Pop. (1901) 6480.  It lies 
in the fiat valley of the Thames, on the west (right) bank, 
where the small river Ock flows in from the Vale of White 
Horse.  The church of St Helen stands near the river, and 
its fine Early English tower with Perpendicular spire is the 
principal object in the pleasant views of the town from the 
river.  The body of the church, which has five aisles, is 
principally Perpendicular.  The smaller church of St Nicholas 
is Perpendicular in appearance, though parts of the fabric are 
older.  Of a Benedictine abbey there remain a beautiful 
Perpendicular gateway, and ruins of buildings called the prior's 
house, mainly Early English, and the guest house, with other 
fragments.  The picturesque narrow-arched bridge over the Thames 
near St Helen's church dates originally from 1416.  There may 
be mentioned further the old buildings of the grammar school, 
founded in 1563, and of the charity called Christ's Hospital 
(1583); while the town-hall in the marketplace, dating from 
1677, is attributed to Inigo Jones.  The grammar school now 
occupies modern buildings, and ranks among the lesser public 
schools of England, having scholarships at Pembroke College, 
Oxford.  St Peter's College, Radley, 2 m. from Abingdon, is 
one of the principal modern public schools.  It was opened in 
1847.  The buildings he close to the Thames, and the school is 
famous for rowing, sending an eight to the regatta at Henley each 
year.  Abingdon has manufactures of clothing and carpets and 
a large agricultural trade.  The borough is under a mayor, 
four aldermen and twelve councillors.  Area, 730 acres. 

Abingdon (Abbedun, Abendun) was famous for its abbey, which 
was of great wealth and importance, and is believed to have 
been founded in A.D. 675 by Cissa, one of the subreguli of 
Centwin.  Abundant charters from early Saxon monarchs are 
extant confirming laws and privileges to the abbey, and the 
earliest of these, from King Ceadwalla, was granted before 
A.D. 688. in the reign of Alfred the abbey was destroyed 
by the Danes, but it was restored by Edred, and an imposing 
list of possessions in the Domesday survey evidences recovered 
prosperity.  William the Conqueror in 1084 celebrated Easter at 
Abingdon, and left his son, afterwards Henry I., to be educated 
at the abbey.  After the dissolution in 1538 the town sank 
into decay, and in 1555, on a representation of its pitiable 
condition, Queen Mary granted a charter establishing a mayor, 
two bailiffs, twelve chief burgesses, and sixteen secondary 
burgesses, the mayor to be clerk of the market, coroner and 
a Justice of the peace.  The council was empowered to elect 
one burgess to parliament, and this right continued until the 
Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885.  A town clerk and other 
officers were also appointed, and the town boundaries described 
in great detail.  Later charters from Elizabeth, James I., 
James II., George Il. and George III. made no considerable 
change.  James II. changed the style of the corporation to 
that of a mayor, twelve aldermen and twelve burgesses.  The 
abbot seems to have held a market from very early times, and 
charters for the holding of markets and fairs mere granted by 
various sovereigns from Edward I. to George II. In the 13th 
and 14th centuries Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural 
centre with an extensive trade in wool, and a famous weaving 
and clothing manufacture.  The latter industry declined 
before the reign of Queen Mary, but has since been revived. 

The present Christ's Hospital originally belonged to 
the Gild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which 
Edward VI. founded the hospital under its present name. 

See Victoria County History, Berkshire; Joseph 
Stevenson, Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, A.D. 
201--1189 (Rolls Series, 2 vols., London, 1858). 

ABINGER, JAMES SCARLETT, 1ST BARON (1769-1844), English 
judge, was born on the 13th of December 1760 in Jamaica, where 
his father, Robert Scarlett, had property.  In the summer of 
1785 he was sent to England to complete his education, and 
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his B.A. degree in 
1789.  Having entered the Inner Temple he was called to the 
bar in 1791, and joined the northern circuit and the Lancashire 
sessions.  Though he had no professional connexions, by steady 
application he gradually obtained a large practice, ultimately 
confining himself to the Court of King's Bench and the northern 
circuit.  He took silk in 1816, and from this time till the 
close of 1834 he was the most successful lawyer at the bar; 
he was particularly effective before a jury, and his income 
reached the high-water mark of L. 18,500, a large sum for that 
period.  He began life as a Whig, and first entered parliament in 
1819 as member for Peterborough, representing that constituency 
with a short break (1822-1823) till 1830, when he was elected 
for the borough of Malton.  He became attorney-general, and was 
knighted when Canning formed his ministry in 1827; and though 
he resigned when the duke of Wellington came into power in 
1828, he resumed office in 1829 and went out with the duke of 
Wellington in 1830.  His opposition to the Reform Bill caused 
his severance from the Whig leaders, and having joined the 
Tories he was elected, first for Colchester and then in 1832 
for Norwich, for which borough he sat until the dissolution of 
parliament.  He was appointed lord chief baron of the exchequer 
in 1834, and presided in that court for more than nine 
years.  While attending the Norfolk circuit on the 2nd of 
April he was suddenly seized with apoplexy, and died in his 
lodgings at Bury on the 7th of April 1844.  He had been raised 
to the peerage as Baron Abinger in 1835, taking his title from 
the Surrey estate he had bought in 1813.  The qualities which 
brought him success at the bar were not equally in place on 
the bench; he was partial, dictatorial and vain; and complaint 
was made of his domineering attitude towards juries.  But his 
acuteness of mind and clearness of expression remained to the 
end.  Lord Abinger was twice married (the second time only 
six months before his death), and by his first wife (d. 1829) 
had three sons and two daughters, the title passing to his 
eldest son Robert (1794-1861).  His second son, General Sir 
James Yorke Scarlett (1799-1871), leader of the heavy cavalry 
charge at Balaclava, is dealt with in a separate article; and 
his elder daughter, Mary, married John, Baron Campbell, and 
was herself created Baroness Stratheden (Lady Stratheden and 
Campbell) (d. 1860).  Sir Philip Anglin Scarlett (d. 1831), 
Lord Abinger's younger brother, was chief justice of Jamaica. 

See P. C. Scarlett, Memoir of Jaimes, 1st Lord Abinger (1877); 
Foss's Lives of the Judges; E. Manson, Builders of our Law (1904). 

ABINGTON, FRANCES (1737-1815), English actress, was the 
daughter of a private soldier named Barton, and was, at 
first, a flower girl and a street singer.  She then became 
servant to a French milliner, obtaining a taste in dress 
and a knowledge of French which afterwards stood her in good 
stead.  Her first appearance on the stage was at the Haymarket 
in 1755 as Miranda in Mrs Centlivre's Busybody. In 1756, on 
the recommendation of Samuel Foote, she became a member of the 
Drury Lane company, where she was overshadowed by Mrs Pritchard 
and Kitty Clive.  In 1759, after an unhappy marriage with her 
music-master, one of the royal trumpeters, she is mentioned in 
the bills as Mrs Abington.  Her first success was in Ireland 
as Lady Townley, and it was only after five years, on the 
pressing invitation of Garrick, that she returned to Drury 
Lane.  There she remained for eighteen years, being the 
original of more than thirty important characters, notably 
Lady Teazle (1777).  Her Beatrice, Portia, Desdemona and 
Ophelia were no less liked than her Miss Hoyden, Biddy Tipkin, 
Lucy Lockit and Miss Prue.  It was in the last character in 
Love for Love that Reynolds painted his best portrait of 
her.  In 1782 she left Drury Lane for Covent Garden.  After an 
absence from the stage from 1790 until 1797, she reappeared, 
quitting it finally in 1799.  Her ambition, personal wit 
and cleverness won her a distinguished position in society, 
in spite of her humble origin.  Women of fashion copied her 
frocks, and a head-dress she wore was widely adopted and known 
as the ``Abington cap.'' She died on the 4th of March 1815. 

ABIOGENESIS, in biology, the term, equivalent to the older 
terms ``spontaneous generation,'' Generatio acquivoca, 
Generatio primaria, and of more recent terms such as 
archegenesis and archebiosis, for the theory according to which 
fully formed living organisms sometimes arise from not-living 
matter.  Aristotle explicitly taught abiogenesis, and laid it 
down as an observed fact that some animals spring from putrid 
matter, that plant lice arise from the dew which falls on 
plants, that fleas are developed from putrid matter, and so 
forth.  T. J. Parker (Elementary Biology) cites a passage from 
Alexander Ross, who, commenting on Sir Thomas Browne's doubt 
as to ``whether mice may be bred by putrefaction,'' gives a 
clear statement of the common opinion on abiogenesis held until 
about two centuries ago.  Ross wrote: ``So may he (Sir Thomas 
Browne) doubt whether in cheese and timber worms are generated; 
or if beetles and wasps in cows' dung; or if butterflies, 
locusts, grasshoppers, shell-fish, snails, eels, and such like, 
be procreated of putrefied matter, which is apt to receive 
the form of that creature to which it is by formative power 
disposed.  To question this is to question reason, sense and 
experience.  If he doubts of this let him go to Egypt, and 
there he will find the fields swarming with mice, begot of 
the mud of Nylus, to the great calamity of the inhabitants.'' 

The first step in the scientific refutation of the theory 
of abiogenesis was taken by the Italian Redi, who, in 1668, 
proved that no maggots were ``bred'' in meat on which flies 
were prevented by wire screens from laying their eggs.  
From the 17th century onwards it was gradually shown that, 
at least in the case of all the higher and readily visible 
organisms, abiogenesis did not occur, but that omne vivum e 
vivo, every living thing came from a pre-existing living thing. 

The discovery of the microscope carried the refutation 
further.  In 1683 A. van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria, 
and it was soon found that however carefully organic matter 
might be protected by screens, or by being placed in stoppered 
receptacles, putrefaction set in, and was invariably accompanied 
by the appearance of myriads of bacteria and other low 
organisms.  As knowledge of microscopic forms of life increased, 
so the apparent possibilities of abiogenesis increased, and 
it became a tempting hypothesis that whilst the higher forms 
of life arose only by generation from their kind, there was 
a perpetual abiogenetic fount by which the first steps in the 
evolution of living organisms continued to arise, under suitable 
conditions, from inorganic matter.  It was due chiefly to L. 
Pasteur that the occurrence of abiogenesis in the microscopic 
world was disproved as much as its occurrence in the macroscopic 
world.  If organic matter were first sterilized and then 
prevented from contamination from without, putrefaction did 
not occur, and the matter remained free from microbes.  The 
nature of sterilization, and the difficulties in securing 
it, as well as the extreme delicacy of the manipulations 
necessary, made it possible for a very long time to be doubtful 
as to the application of the phrase omne vivum e vivo to 
the microscopic world, and there still remain a few belated 
supporters of abiogenesis.  Subjection to the temperature of 
boiling water for, say, half an hour seemed an efficient mode 
of sterilization, until it was discovered that the spores of 
bacteria are so involved in heat-resisting membranes, that only 
prolonged exposure to dry, baking heat can be recognized as an 
efficient process of sterilization.  Moreover, the presence of 
bacteria, or their spores, is so universal that only extreme 
precautions guard against a re-infection of the sterilized 
material.  It may now be stated definitely that all known 
living organisms arise only from pre-existing living organisms. 

So far the theory of abiogenesis may be taken as disproved.  
It must be noted, however, that this disproof relates only 
to known existing organisms.  All these are composed of a 
definite substance, known as protoplasm (q.v.), and the 
modern refutation of abiogenesis applies only to the organic 
forms in which protoplasm now exists.  It may be that in the 
progress of science it may yet become possible to construct 
living protoplasm from non-living material.  The refutation 
of abiogenesis has no further bearing on this possibility than 
to make it probable that if protoplasm ultimately be formed in 
the laboratory, it will be by a series of stages, the earlier 
steps being the formation of some substance, or substances, 
now unknown, which are not protoplasm.  Such intermediate 
stages may have existed in the past, and the modern refutation 
of abiogenesis has no application to the possibility of 
these having been formed from inorganic matter at some past 
time.  Perhaps the words archebiosis, or archegenesis, 
should be reserved for the theory that protoplasm in the 
remote past has been developed from not-living matter by a 
series of steps, and many of those, notably T. H. Huxley, who 
took a large share in the process of refuting contemporary 
abiogenesis, have stated their belief in a primordial 
archebiosis. (See BIOGENESIS and LIFE.) (P. C. M.) 

ABIPONES, a tribe of South American Indians of Guaycuran 
stock recently inhabiting the territory lying between Santa 
Fe and St Iago.  They originally occupied the Chaco district 
of Paraguay, but were driven thence by the hostility of the 
Spaniards.  According to Martin Dobrizhoffer, a Jesuit missionary, 
who, towards the end of the 18th century, lived among them 
for a period of seven years, they then numbered not more than 
5000.  They were a well-formed, handsome people, with black 
eyes and aquiline noses, thick black hair, but no beards.  
The hair from the forehead to the crown of the head was pulled 
out, this constituting a tribal mark.  The faces, breasts and 
arms of the women were covered with black figures of various 
designs made with thorns, the tattooing paint being a mixture 
of ashes and blood.  The lips and ears of both sexes were 
pierced.  The men were brave fighters, their chief weapons 
being the bow and spear.  No child was without bow and arrows; 
the bow-strings were made of foxes' entrails.  In battle 
the Abipones wore an armour of tapir's hide over which a 
jaguar's skin was sewn.  They were excellent swimmers and good 
horsemen.  For five months in the year when the floods were 
out they lived on islands or even in shelters built in the 
trees.  They seldom married before the age of thirty, and were 
singularly chaste. ``With the Abipones,'' says Darwin, ``when 
a man chooses a wife, he bargains with the parents about the 
price.  But it frequently happens that the girl rescinds 
what has been agreed upon between the parents and bridegroom, 
obstinately rejecting the very mention of marriage.  She often 
runs away and hides herself, and thus eludes the bridegroom.'' 
Infanticide was systematic, never more than two children being 
reared in one family, a custom doubtless originating in the 
difficulty of subsistence.  The young were suckled for two 
years.  The Abipones are now believed to be extinct as a tribe. 

Martin Dobrizhoffer's Latin Historia de Abiponibus 
(Vienna, 1784) was translated into English by Sara 
Coleridge, at the suggestion of Southey, in 1822, under 
the title of An Account of the Abipones (3 vols.). 

ABITIBBI, a lake and river of Ontario, Canada.  The lake, 
in 49 deg.  N., 80 deg.  W., is 60 m. long and studded with islands.  
It is shallow, and the shores in its vicinity are covered 
with small timber.  It was formerly employed by the Hudson's 
Bay Company as part of a canoe route to the fur lands of the 
north.  The construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway 
through this district has made it of some importance.  Its 
outlet is Abitibbi river, a rapid stream, which after a course 
of 200 m. joins the Moose river, flowing into James Bay. 

ABJURATION (from Lat. abjurare, to forswear), a solemn 
repudiation or renunciation on oath.  At common law, it 
signified the oath of a person who had taken sanctuary to 
leave the realm for ever; this was abolished in the reign of 
James I. The Oath at Abjuration, in English history, was 
a solemn disclaimer, taken by members of parliament, clergy 
and laymen against the right of the Stuarts to the crown, 
imposed by laws of William III., George I. and George III.; 
but its place has since been taken by the oath of allegiance. 

ABKHASIA, or ABHASIA, a tract of Russian Caucasia, 
government of Kutais.  The Caucasus mountains on the N. and 
N.E. divides it from Circassia; on the S.E. it is bounded 
by Mingrelia; and on the S.W. by the Black Sea. Though the 
country is generally mountainous, with dense forests of oak and 
walnut, there are some deep, well-watered valleys, and the 
climate is mild.  The soil is fertile, producing wheat, maize, 
grapes, figs, pomegranates and wine.  Cattle and horses are 
bred.  Honey is produced; and excellent arms are made.  This 
country was subdued (c. 550) by the Emperor Justinian, who 
introduced Christianity.  Native dynasties ruled from 735 to 
the 15th century, when the region was conquered by the Turks 
and became Mahommedan.  The Russians acquired possession 
of it piecemeal between 1829 and 1842, but their power was 
not firmly established until after 1864.  Area, 2800 sq. 
m.  The principal town is Sukhum-kaleh.  Pop. 43,000, of whom 
two-thirds are Mingrelians and one-third Abkhasians, a Cherkess 
or Circassian race.  The total number of Abkhasians in the 
two governments of Kutais and Kuban was 72,103 in 1897; large 
numbers emigrated to the Turkish empire in 1864 and 1878. 

ABLATION (from Lat. ablatus, carried away), the process of 
removing anything; a term used technically in geology of the wearing 
away of a rock or glacier, and in surgery for operative removal. 

ABLATITIOUS (from Lat. ablatus, taken away). reducina 
or withdrawing; in astronomy a force which interferes 
between the moon and the earth to lessen the strength 
of gravitation is called ``ablatitious,'' just as it is 
called ``addititious'' when it increases that strength. 

ABLATIVE (Lat. ablativus, sc. casus, from ablatum, taken 
away), in grammar, a case of the noun, the fundamental sense 
of which is direction from; in Latin, the principal language in 
which the case exists, this has been extended, with or without 
a preposition, to the instrument or agent of an act, and the 
place or time at, and manner in, which a thing is done.  The 
case is also found in Sanskrit, Zend, Oscan and Umbrian, and 
traces remain in other languages.  The ``Ablative Absolute,'' 
a grammatical construction in Latin, consists of a noun in 
the ablative case, with a participle, attribute or qualifying 
word agreeing with it, not depending on any other part of the 
sentence, to express the time, occasion or circumstance of a fact. 

ABLUTION (Lat. ablutio, from ablucre, ``to wash off''), 
a washing, in its religious use, destined to secure that 
ceremonial or ritualistic purity which must not be confused 
with the physical or hygienic cleanliness of persons and 
things obtained by the use of soap and water.1 Indeed the 
two states may contradict each other, as in the case of the 
4th-century Christian pilgrim to Jerusalem who boasted that 
she had not washed ner face for eighteen years for fear of 
removing therefrom the holy chrism of baptism.  The purport, 
then, of ablutions is to remove, not dust and dirt, but the---to 
us imaginary--stains contracted by contact with the dead, 
with childbirth, with menstruous women, with murder whether 
wilful or involuntary, with almost any form of bloodshed, with 
persons of inferior caste, with dead animal refuse, e.g. 
leather or excrement, with leprosy, madness and any form of 
disease.  Among all races in a certain grade of development 
such associations are vaguely felt to be dangerous and to impair 
vitality.  In a later stage the taint is regarded as alive, 
as a demon or evil spirit alighting on and passing into the 
things and persons exposed to contamination.  In general, 
water, cows' urine and blood of swine are the materials used in 
ablutions.  Of these water is the commonest, and its efficacy 
is enhanced if it be running, and still more if a magical or 
sacramental virtue has been imparted to it by ritual blessing or 
consecration.  Some concrete examples will best illustrate the 
nature of such ablutions.  In the Atharva-Veda, vii. 116, 
we have this allopathic remedy for fever.  The patient's skin 
burns, that of a frog is cold to the touch; therefore tie to 
the foot of the bed a frog, bound with red and black thread, 
and wash down the sick man so that the water of ablution falls 

1 in its technical ecclesiastical sense the ablution is 
the ritual washing of the chalice and of the priest's fingers 
after the celebration of Holy Communion in the Catholic 
Church.  The wine and water used for this purpose are themselves 
sometimes called ``the ablution.'' on the frog.  Let the 
medicine man or magician pray that the fever may pass into 
the frog, and the frog be forthwith re-leased, and the cure 
will be effected.  In the old Athenian Anthesteria the blood 
of victims was poured over the unclean.  A bath of bulls' 
blood was much in vogue as a baptism in the mysteries of 
Attis.  The water must in ritual washings run off in order 
to carry away the miasma or unseen demon of disease; and 
accordingly in baptism the early Christians used living or 
running water.  Nor was it enough that the person baptized 
should himself enter the water; the baptizer must pour it 
over his head, so that it run down his person.  Similarly 
the Brahman takes care, after ablution of a person, to wipe 
the cathartic water off from head to feet downwards, that the 
malign influence may pass out through the feet.  The same care 
is shown in ritual ablutions in the Bukovina and elsewhere. 

Water and fire, spices and sulphur, are used in ritual 
cleansings, says Iamblichus in his book on mysteries (v. 23), 
as being specially full of the divine nature.  Nevertheless in 
all religions, and especially in the Brahmanic and Christian, 
the cathartic virtue of water is enhanced by the introduction 
into it by means of suitable prayers and incantations of 
a divine or magical power.  Ablutions both of persons and 
things are usually cathartic, that is, intended to purge 
away evil influences (kathairein, to make katharos, 
pure).  But, as Robertson Smith observes, ``holiness is 
contagious, just as uncleanness is''; and common things and 
persons may become taboo, that is, so holy as to be dangerous 
and useless for daily life through the mere infection of 
holiness.  Thus in Syria one who touched a dove became taboo 
for one whole day, and if a drop of blood of the Hebrew 
sin-offering fell on a garment it had to be ritually washed 
off.  It was as necessary in the Hebrew religion for the 
priest to wash his hands ofter handling the sacred volume as 
before.  Christians might not enter a church to say their 
prayers without first washing their hands.  So Chrysostom 
says: ``Although our hands may be already pure, yet unless 
we have washed them thoroughly, we do not spread them upwards 
in prayer.'' Tertullian (c. 200) had long before condemned 
this as a heathen custom; none the less, it was insisted on 
in later ages, and is a survival of the pagan lustrations or 
perirranteria. Sozomen (vi. 6) tells how a priest sprinkled 
Julian and Valentinian with water according to the heathen custom 
as they entered his temple.  The same custom prevails among 
Mahommedans.  Porphyry (de Abst. ii. 44) relates that one 
who touched a sacrifice meant to avert divine anger must bathe 
and wash his clothes in running water before returning to his 
city and home, and similar scruples in regard to holy objects 
and persons have been observed among the natives of Polynesia, 
New Zealand and ancient Egypt.  The rites, met within all 
lands, of pouring out water or bathing in order to produce 
rain from heaven, differ in their significance from ablutions 
with water and belong to the realm of sympathetic magic. 

There are certain forms of purification which one does not 
know whether to describe as ablutions or anointings.  Thus 
Demosthenes in his speech ``On the crown', accused Aeschines 
of having ``purified the initiated and wiped them clean 
with (not from) mud and pitch.'' Smearing with gypsum 
(titanos. titanos) had a similar purifying effect, 
and it has been suggested i that the Titans were no more 
than old-world votaries who had so disguised themselves.  
Perhaps the use of ashes in mourning had the same origin.  
In the rite of death-bed penance given in the old Mozarabic 
Christian ritual of Spain, ashes were poured over the sick man. 

AUTHORITIES.--W.  R. Smith, Religion of the Semites; 
Jul. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums (=Skizzen und 
Verarbeiten, ritualibus (Tubingae, 1732); Art. ``Clean 
and Unclean'' in Hastings' Bible Dictionary and in Jewish 
Encyclopedia, vol. iv.; J. G. Frazer, Adonis, Attis, 
Osiris (London, 1906); Joseph Bingham, Antiquities 
(of the Christian Church, bk. viii.; Hermann Oldenberg, 
Die Religion des Veda's, Berlin, 1894. (F. C. C.) 

ABNAKI (``the whitening sky at daybreak,'' i.e. Easterners), 
a confederacy of North American Indians of Algonquian stock, 


1 By J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to Creek Religion, p. 493. 


called Terrateens by the New England tribes and colonial 
writers.  It included the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Norridgewock, 
Malecite and other tribes.  It formerly occupied what is now 
Maine and southern New Brunswick.  All the tribes were loyal 
to the French during the early years of the 18th century, but 
after the British success in Canada most of them withdrew to St 
Francis, Canada, subsequently entering into an agreement with 
the British authorities.  The Abnaki now number some 1600. 

For details see Handbook of American Indians, 
edited by F. W. Hodge (Washington, 1907). . 

ABNER (Hebrew for ``father of [or is a light''), in 
the Bible, first cousin of Saul and commander-in-chief of 
his army (I Sam. xiv. 50, xx. 25). He is only referred 
to incidentally in Saul's history (1 Sam. xvii. 55, xxvi. 
5), and is not mentioned in the account of the disastrous 
battle of Gilboa when Saul's power was crushed.  Seizing 
the only surviving son, Ishbaal, he set him up as king over 
Israel at Mahanaim, east of the Jordan.  David, who was 
accepted as king by Judah alone, was meanwhile reigning at 
Hebron, and for some time war was carried on between the two 
parties.  The only engagement between the rival factions which 
is told at length is noteworthy, inasmuch as it was preceded 
by an encounter at Gibeon between twelve chosen men from each 
side, in which the whole twenty-four seem to have perished 
(2 Sam. ii. 12).i In the general engagement which followed, 
Abner was defeated and put to flight.  He was closely pursued 
by Asahel, brother of Joab, who is said to have been ``light 
of foot as a wild roe.'' As Asahel would not desist from the 
pursuit, though warned, Abner was compelled to slay him in 
self-defence.  This originated a deadly feud between the 
leaders of the opposite parties, for Joab, as next of kin to 
Asahel, was by the law and custom of the country the avenger 
of his blood.  For some time afterwards the war was carried 
on, the advantage being invariably on the side of David.  At 
length Ishbaal lost the main prop of his tottering cause by 
remonstrating with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's 
concubines, an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, 
implied pretensions to the throne (cp. 2 Sam. xvi. 21 sqq.; 1 
Kings ii. 21 sqq.).  Abner was indignant at the deserved rebuke, 
and immediately opened negotiations with David, who welcomed 
him on the condition that his wife Michal should be restored to 
him.  This was done, and the proceedings were ratified by a 
feast.  Almost immediately after, however.  Joab, who had 
been sent away, perhaps intentionally returned and slew 
Abner at the gate of Hebron.  The ostensible motive for the 
assassination was a desire to avenge Asahel, and this would 
be a sufficient justification for the deed according to the 
moral standard of the time.  The conduct of David after the 
event was such as to show that he had no complicity in the 
act, though he could not venture to punish its perpetrators 
(2 Sam. iii. 31-39; cp. 1 Kings ii. 31 seq.). (See DAVID.) 

1 The object of the story of the encounter is to explain the name 
Helkath-hazzurim, the meaning of which is doubtful (Ency.  Bib. col. 
2006; Batten in Zeit. f. alt-test.  Wissens. 1906, pp. 90 sqq.). 

ABO (Finnish Turku), a city and seaport, the capital 
of the province of Abo-Bjorneborg, in the grand duchy of 
Finland, on the Aura-joki, about 3 m. from where it falls 
into the gulf of Bothnia.  Pop. (1810) 10,224; (1870) 19,617; 
(1904) 42,639.  It is 381 m. by rail from St Petersburg 
via Tavastehus, and is in regular steamer communication 
with St Petersburg, Vasa, Stockholm, Copenhagen and Hull.  
It was already a place of importance when Finland formed 
part of the kingdom of Sweden.  When the Estates of Finland 
seceded from Sweden and accepted the Emperor Alexander of 
Russia as their grand duke at the Diet of Borga in 1809, 
Abo became the capital of the new state, and so remained 
till 1819 when the seat of government was transferred to 
Helsingfors.  In November 1827 nearly the whole city was burnt 
down, the university and its valuable library being entirely 
destroyed.  Before this calamity Abo contained 1110 houses 
and 13,000 inhabitants; and its university had 40 professors, 
more than 500 students, and a library of upwards of 30,000 
volumes, together with a botanical garden, an observatory and 
a chemical laboratory.  The university has since been removed 
to Helsingfors. Abo remains the ecclesiastical capital of 
Finland, is the seat of the Lutheran archbishop and contains a 
fine cathedral dating from 1258 and restored after the fire of 
1827.  The cathedral is dedicated to St Henry, the patron saint 
of Finland, an English missionary who introduced Christianity 
into the country in the 12th century.  Abo is the seat of the 
first of the three courts of appeal of Finland.  It has two high 
schools, a school of commerce and a school of navigation.  The 
city is second only to Helsingfors for its trade; sail-cloth, 
cotton and tobacco are manufactured, and there are extensive 
saw-mills.  There is also a large trade in timber and a 
considerable butter export.  Ship-building has considerably 
developed, torpedo-boats being built here for the Russian 
navy.  Vessels drawing 9 or 10 feet come up to the town, 
but ships of greater draught are laden and discharged at its 
harbour (Bornholm, on Hyrvinsala Island), which is entered 
yearly by from 700 to 800 ships, of about 200,000 tons. 

ABO-BJORNEBORG, a province occupying the S.W. corner of 
Finland and including the Aland islands.  It has a total 
area of 24,171 square kilometres and a population (1900) of 
447,098, of whom 379,622 spoke Finnish and 67,260 Swedish; 
446,900 were of the Lutheran religion.  The province occupies 
a prominent position in Finland for its manufacture of cottons, 
sugar refinery, wooden goods, metals, machinery, paper, &c. 
Its chief towns are: Abo (pop. 42,639), Bjorneborg (16,053), 
Raumo (5501), Nystad (4165), Mariehamn (1171), Nadendal (917). 

ABODE (from ``abide,'' to dwell, properly ``to wait for'', to 
bide), generally, a dwelling.  In English law this term has a 
more restricted meaning than domicile, being used to indicate 
the place of a man's residence or business, whether that be 
either temporary or permanent.  The law may regard for certain 
purposes, as a man's abode, the place where he carries on 
business, though he may reside elsewhere) so that the term 
has come to have a looser significance than residence, 
which has been defined as ``where a man lives with his family 
and sleeps at night'' (R. v. Hammond, 1852, 17 Q.B. 
772).  In serving a notice of action, a solicitor's place of 
business may be given as his abode (Roberts v. Williams, 
1835, 5 L.J.M.C. 23), and in more recent decisions it 
has been similarly held that where a notice was required 
to be served under the Public Health Act 18l5, either 
personally or to some inmate of the owner's or occupier's 
``place of abode,'' a place of business was sufficient. 

ABOMASUM (caillette), the fourth or rennet stomach of 
Ruminantia.  From the omasum the food is finally deposited 
in the abomasum, a cavity considerably larger than either the 
second or third stomach, although less than the first.  The base 
of the abomasum is turned to the omasum. It is of an irregular 
conical form.  It is that part of the digestive apparatus 
which is analogous to the single stomach of other Mammalia, as 
the food there undergoes the process of chymification, after 
being macerated and ground down in the three first stomachs. 

ABOMEY, capital of the ancient kingdom of Dahomey, West 
Africa, now included in the French colony of the same name.  
It is 70 m.  N. by rail of the seaport of Kotonu, and has 
a population of about 15,000.  Abomey is built on a rolling 
plain, 800 ft. above sea-level, terminating in short bluffs to 
the N.W., where it is bounded by a long depression.  The town 
was surrounded by a mud wall, pierced by six gates, and was 
further protected by a ditch 5 ft. deep, filled with a dense 
growth of prickly acacia, the usual defence of West African 
strongholds.  Within the walls, which had a circumference of 
six miles, were villages separated by fields, several royal 
palaces, a market-place and a large square containing the 
barracks.  In November 1892, Behanzin, the king of Dahomey, 
being defeated by the French, set fire to Abomey and fled 
northward.  Under French administration the town has been 
rebuilt, placed (1905) in railway communication with the coast, 
and given an ample water supply by the sinking of artesian wells. 

ABOMINATION (from Lat. ab, from, and ominare, to forebode), 
anything contrary to omen, and therefore regarded with aversion; 
a word used often in the Bible to denote evil doctrines 
or ceremonial practices which were impure. An incorrect
derivation was ab homine (i.e. inhuman), and the spelling of the 
adjective ``abominable'' in the first Shakespeare folio is always 
``abhominable.'' Colloquially ``abomination'' and ``abominable'' 
are used to mean simply excessive in a disagreeable sense. 

ABOR HILLS, a tract of country on the north-east frontier of 
India, occupied by an independent tribe called the Abors.  It 
lies north of Lakhimpur district, in the province of eastern 
Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Mishmi Hills 
and on the west by the Miri Hills, the villages of the tribe 
extending to the Dibong river.  The term Abor is an Assamese 
word, signifying ``barbarous'' or ``independent,'' and is applied 
in a general sense by the Assamese to many frontier tribes; 
but in its restricted sense it is specially given to the above 
tract.  The Abors, together with the cognate tribes of Miris, 
Daphlas and Akas, are supposed to be descended from a Tibetan 
stock.  They are a quarrelsome and sulky race, violently divided 
in their political relations.  In former times they committed 
frequent raids upon the plains of Assam, and have been the 
object of more than one retaliatory expedition by the British 
government.  In 1893-94 occurred the first Bor Abor expedition. 
home military police sepoys were murdered in British territory, 
and a force of 600 troops was sent, who traversed the Abor 
country, and destroyed the villages concerned in the murder 
and all other villages that opposed the expedition.  A second 
expedition became necessary later on, two small patrols having 
been treacherously murdered; and a force of 100 British troops 
traversed the border of the Abor country and punished the tribes, 
while a blockade was continued against them from 1894 to 1900. 

See Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal, 1872. 

ABORIGINES, 
a mythical people of central Italy, connected in legendary 
history with Aeneas, Latinus and Evander.  They were supposed 
to have descended from their mountain home near Reate (an 
ancient Sabine town) upon Latium, whence they expelled the 
Siceli and subsequently settled down as Latini under a King 
Latinus (Dion Halic. i. 9. 60). The most generally accepted 
etymology of the name (ab origine), according to which they 
were the original inhabitants ( = Gk. autochthones) of the 
country, is inconsistent with the fact that the oldest authorities 
(e.g. Cato in his Origines) regarded them as Hellenic 
immigrants, not as a native Italian people.  Other explanations 
suggested are arborigines, ``tree-born,'' and aberrigines, 
``nomads.'' Historical and ethnographical discussions have 
led to no result; the most that can be said is that, if not 
a general term, ``aborigines'' may be the name of an Italian 
stock, about whom the ancients knew no more than ourselves` 

In modern times the term ``Aborigines'' has been extended in 
signification, and is used to indicate the inhabitants found in a 
country at its first discovery, in contradistinction to colonies or 
new races, the time of whose introduction into the country is known. 

The Aborigines' Protection Society was founded in 1838 in 
England as the result of a royal commission appointed at 
the instance of Sir T. Fowell Buxton to inquire into the 
treatment of the indigenous populations of the various British 
colonies.  The inquiry revealed the gross cruelty and injustice 
with which the natives had been often treated.  Since its 
foundation the society has done much to make English colonization 
a synonym for humane and generous treatment of savage races. 

ABORTION (from Lat. aboriri, to fail to be born, or perish), 
in obstetrics, the premature separation and expulsion of the 
contents of the pregnant uterus.  It is a common terminology to 
call premature labour of an accidental type a ``miscarriage,', 
in order to distinguish ``abortion', as a deliberately induced 
act, whether as a medical necessity by the accoucheur, or as 
a criminal proceeding (see MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE); otherwise 
the term ``abortion'' would ordinarily be used when occurring 
before the eighth month of gestation, and ``premature labour'' 
subsequently.  As an accident of pregnancy, it is far fram 
uncommon, although its relative frequency'' as compared 
with that of completed gestation, has been very differently 
estimated by accoucheurs.  It is more liable to occur in 
the earlier than in the later months of pregnancy, and 
it would also appear to occur more readily at the periods 
corresponding to those of the menstrual discharge.  It may 
be induced by numerous causes, both of a local and general 
nature.  Malformations of the pelvis, accidental injuries 
and the diseases and displacements to which the uterus is 
liable, on the one hand; and, on the other, various morbid 
conditions of the ovum or placenta leading to the death of 
the foetus, are among the direct local causes.  The general 
causes embrace certain states of the system which are apt to 
exercise a more or less direct influence upon the progress of 
utero-gestation.  The tendency to recurrence in persons who 
have previously miscarried is well known, and should ever 
be borne in mind with the view of avoiding any cause likely 
to lead to a repetition of the accident.  Abortion resembles 
ordinary labour in its general phenomena, excepting that in 
the former hemorrhage often to a large extent forms one of 
the leading symptoms.  The treatment embraces the means to 
be used by rest, astringents and sedatives, to prevent the 
occurrence when it merely threatens; or when, on the contrary, 
it is inevitable, to accomplish as speedily as possible 
the complete removal of the entire contents of the uterus. 

Among primitive savage races abortion is practised to a 
far less extent than infanticide (q.v.), which offers a 
simpler way of getting rid of inconvenient progeny.  But it 
is common among the American Indians, as well as in China, 
Cambodia and India, although throughout Asia it is generally 
contrary both to law and religion.  How far it was considered 
a crime among the civilized nations of antiquity has long been 
debated.  Those who maintain the impunity of the practice rely 
for their authority upon certain passages in the classical 
authors, which, while bitterly lamenting the frequency of this 
enormity, yet never allude to any laws by which it might be 
suppressed.  For example, in one of Plato's dialogues 
(Theaet.), Socrates is made to speak of artificial 
abortion as a practice, not only common but allowable; 
and Plato himself authorizes it in his Republic (lib. 
v.).  Aristotle (Polit. 222hb. vii. c. 17) gives it as his 
opinion that no child ought to be suffered to come into the 
world, the mother being above forty or the father above 
fifty-five years of age.  Lysias maintained, in one of his 
pleadings quoted by Harpocration, that forced abortion could 
not be considered homicide, because a child in utero was 
not an animal, and had no separate existence.  Among the 
Romans, Ovid (Amor. hb. ii.), Juvenal (Sat. vi. 594) and 
Seneca Consol. ad Hel. 16) mention the frequency of the 
offence, but maintain silence as to any laws for punishing 
it.  On the other hand, it is argued that the authority of 
Galen and Cicero (pro Cluentio) place it beyond a doubt 
that, so far from being allowed to pass with impunity, the 
offence in question was sometimes punished by death; that the 
authority of Lysias is of doubtful authenticity; and that the 
speculative reasonings of Plato and Aristotle, in matters of 
legislation, ought not to be confounded with the actual state 
of the laws.  Moreover, Stobaeus (Serm. 73) has preserved 
a passage from Musonius, in which that philosopher expressly 
states that the ancient law-givers inflicted punishments on 
females who caused themselves to abort.  After the spread of 
Christianity among the Romans, however, foeticide became equally 
criminal with the murder of an adult, and the barbarian hordes 
which afterwards overran the empire also treated the offence 
as a crime punishable Fith death.  This severe penalty remained 
in force in all the countries of Europe until the Middle 
Ages.  With the gradual disuse of the old barbarous punishments 
so universal in medieval times came also a reversal of opinion as 
to the magnitude of the crime involved in killing a child not yet 
born.  But the exact period of transition is not clearly marked. 

In England the Anglo-Saxons seem to have regarded abortion only 
as an ecclesiastical offence.  Sir Matthew Hale (1609-1676) 
tells us that if anything is done to ``a woman quick or great 
with child, to make an abortion, or whereby the child within 
her is killed, it is not murder or manslaughter by the law 
of England, because it is not yet in rerum natura.'' But 
the common law appears, nevertheless, to have treated as a 
misdemeanour any attempt to effect the destruction of such an 
infant, though unsuccessful.  Blackstone (1723-1780), to be 
sure, a hundred years later, says that, ``if a woman is quick 
with child, and by poison or otherwise killeth it in her 
womb, or if any one beat her, whereby the child dieth in her 
body, and she is delivered of a dead child, this, though not 
murder, was, by the ancient law, homicide or manslaughter.'' 
Whatever may have been the exact view taken by the common 
law, the offence was made statutory by an act of 1803, making 
the attempt to cause the miscarriage of a woman, not being, or 
not being proved, to be quick with child, a felony, punishable 
with fine, imprisonment, whipping or transportation for any 
term not exceeding fourteen years.  Should the woman have 
proved to have quickened, the attempt was punishable with 
death.  The provisions of this statute were re-enacted in 
1828.  The English law on the subject is now governed by 
the Offences against the Person Act 1861, which makes the 
attempting to cause miscarriage by administering poison or 
other noxious thing, or unlawfully using any instrument equally 
a felony, whether the woman be, or be not, with child.  No 
distinction is now made as to whether the foetus is or is not 
alive, legislation appearing to make the offence statutory 
with the object of prohibiting any risk to the life of the 
mother.  If a woman administers to herself any poison or 
other noxious thing, or unlawfully uses any instrument or 
other means to procure her own miscarriage, she is guilty of 
felony.  The punishment for the offence is penal servitude 
for life or not less than three years, or imprisonment 
for not more than two years.  If a child is born alive, 
but in consequence of its premature birth, or of the means 
employed, afterwards dies, the offence is murder; the 
general law as to accessories applies to the offence. 

In all the countries of Europe the causing of abortion is now 
punishable with more or less lengthy terms of imprisonment.  
Indeed, the tendency in continental Europe is to regard the 
abortion as a crime against the unborn child, and several 
codes (notably that of the German Empire) expressly recognize 
the life of the foetus, while others make the penalty more 
severe if abortion has been caused in the later stages of 
pregnancy, or if the woman is married.  According to the weight 
of authority in the United States abortion was not regarded 
as a punishable offence at common law, if the abortion was 
produced with the consent of the mother prior to the time 
when she became quick with child; but the Supreme Courts of 
Pennsylvania and North Carolina held it a crime at common 
law, which might be committed as soon as gestation had begun 
(Mills v. Com. 13 Pa. St. 630; State v. Slagle, 83 
N.C. 630).  The attempt is a punishable offence in several 
states, but not in Ohio.  Nor was it ever murder at common 
law to take the life of the child at any period of gestation, 
even in the very act of delivery (Mitchell v. Com. 78 Ky. 
204).  If the death of the woman results it is murder at 
common law (Com. v. Parker, 9 Met. [Mass.] 263).  It is 
now a statutory offence in all states of the Union, but the 
woman must be actually pregnant.  In most states not only is 
the person who causes the abortion punishable, but also any 
one who supplies any drug or instrument for the purpose.  The 
woman, however, is not an accomplice (except by statute as in 
Ohio, State v. M`Coy, 39 N.E. 316), nor is she guilty 
of any crime unless by statute as in New York (Penal Code, 
sec.  295) and California (Penal Code, sec.  275) and Connecticut 
(Gen.  Stats. 1902, sec.  1156).  She may be a witness, and her 
testimony does not need corroboration.  The attempt is also a 
crime in New York (1905, People v. Conrad, 102 App. D. 566). 

AUTHORITIES.---Ploncouet, Commentarius Medicus in processus 
criminales super homicidie et infanticidio, &c. (1736); 
Burao Ryan, Infanticide, its Law, Prevalence, Prevention 
and History (1862); G. Greaves, Observations on the Laws 
referring to Child-Murder and Criminal Abortion (1864); 
Storer and Heard, Criminal Abortion, its Nature, Evidence 
and Law (Boston, 1868); J. Cave Browne, Infanticide, its 
Origin, Progress and Suppression (1857); T. R. Beck, Medical 
Jurisprudence (1842); A. S. Taylor, Principles and Practice 
of Medical Jurisprudence (1894); Sir J. Stephen, History 
of the Criminal Law of England (1883); Sir W. O. Russell, 
Crimes and Misdemeanours (3 vols., 1896); Archbold's 
Pleading and Evidence in Criminal:Cases (1900); Roscoe's 
Evidence in Criminall Cases (1898) Treub, van Oppenraag and 
Vlaming, The Right to Life of the Unborn Child (New 
York, 1903); L. Hochheimer, Crimes and Criminal Procedure 
(York, 1897); A. A. Tardieu, Etude medico-legal sur 
l'avortement (Paris, 1904); F. Berolzheimer, System der 
Rechts- und Wissenschaftsphilosophie (Munich, 1904). 

ABOUKIR, a village on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 14 1/2 
m.  N.E. of Alexandria by rail, containing a castle used 
as a state prison by Mehemet Ali. Near the village are 
many remains of ancient buildings, Egyptian, Greek and 
Roman.  About 2 m.  S.E. of the village are ruins supposed to 
mark the site of Canopus.  A little farther east the Canopic 
branch of the Nile (now dry) entered the Mediterranean. 

Stretching eastward as far as the Rosetta mouth of the 
Nile is the spacious bay of Aboukir, where on the 1st of 
August 1798 Nelson fought the battle of the Nile, often 
referred to as the battle of Aboukir.  The latter title is 
applied more properly to an engagement between the French 
expeditionary army and the Turks fought on the 25th of July 
1799.  Near Aboukir, on the 8th of March 1801, the British 
army commanded by Sir R. Abercromby landed from its transports 
in the face of a strenuous opposition from a French force 
entrenched on the beach. (See FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS.) 

ABOUT, EDMOND FRANCOIS VALENTIN (1828-1885), French novelist, 
publicist and journalist, was born on the 14th of February 
1828, at Dieuze, in Lorraine.  The boy's school career was 
brilliant.  In 1848 he entered the Ecole Normale, taking the 
second place in the annual competition for admission, Taine being 
first.  Among his college contemporaries were Taine, Francisque, 
Sarcey, Challemel-Lacour and the ill-starred Prevost-Paradol.  
Of them all About was, according to Sarcey, the most highly 
vitalized, exuberant, brilliant and ``undisciplined.'' At 
the end of his college career he joined the French school in 
Athens, but if we may believe his own account, it had never 
been his intention to follow the professorial career, for 
which the Ecole Normale was a preparation, and in 1853 he 
returned to France and frankly gave himself to literature and 
journalism.  A book on Greece, La Grece contemporaine (1855), 
which did not spare Greek susceptibilities, had an immediate 
success.  In Tolla (1855) About was charged with drawing too 
freely on an earlier Italian novel, Vittoria Savelii (Paris, 
1841).  This caused a strong prejudice against him, and he 
was the object of numerous attacks, to which he was ready 
enough to retaliate.  The Lettres d'un bon jeune homme, 
written to the Figaro under the signature of Valentin de 
Quevilly, provoked more animosities.  During the next few 
years, with indefatigable energy, and generally with full 
public recognition, he wrote novels, stories, a play---which 
failed,---a book-pamphlet on the Roman question, many 
pamphlets on other subjects of the day, newspaper articles 
innumerable, some art criticisms, rejoinders to the attacks 
of his enemies, and popular manuals of political economy, L'A 
B C du travailleur (1868), Le progres (1864).  About's 
attitude towards the empire was that of a candid friend.  He 
believed in its improvability, greeted the liberal ministry 
of Emile Ollivier at the beginning of 1870 with delight and 
welcomed the Franco-German War. That day of enthusiasm had a 
terrible morrow.  For his own personal part he lost the loved 
home near Saverne in Alsace, which he had purchased in 1858 
out of the fruits of his earlier literary successes.  With 
the fall of the empire he became a republican, and, always an 
inveterate anti-clerical, he threw himself with ardour into 
the battle against the conservative reaction which made head 
during the first years of the republic.  From 1872 onwards 
for some five or six years his paper, the XIXe Siecle, 
of which he was the heart and soul, became a power in the 
land.  But the republicans never quite forgave the tardiness 
of his conversion, and no place rewarded his later zeal.  On 
the 23rd January 1884 he was elected a member of the French 
Academy, but died on the 16th of January 1885, before taking his 
seat.  His journalism---of which specimens in his earlier 
and later manners will be found in the two series of Lettres 
d'un bon jeune homme a sa cousine Madeleine (1861 and 
1863), and the posthumous Collection, Le dix-neuvieme 
siecle (1892)---was of its nature ephemeral.  So were 
the pamphlets, great and small.  His political economy 
was that of an orthodox popularizer, and in no sense epoch.
making.  His dramas are negligible.  His more serious novels, 
Madelon (1863), L'infame (1867), the three that form the 
trilogy of the Vieille Roche (1866), and Le roman d'un 
brave homme (1880)---a kind of counterblast to the view of 
the French workman presented in Zola's Assommoir---contain 
striking and amusing scenes, no doubt, but scenes which are 
often suggestive of the stage, while description, dissertation, 
explanation too frequently take the place of life.  His best 
work after all is to be found in the books that are almost 
wholly farcical, Le nez d'un notaire (1862); Le roi des 
montagnes (1856); L'homme a l'oreille cassee (1862); 
Trente et quarante (1858); Le cas de M. Guerin (1862).  
Here his most genuine wit, his sprightliness, his vivacity, 
the fancy that was in him, have free play. ``You will never 
be more than a little Voltaire,'' said one of his masters when 
he was a lad at school.  It was a true prophecy. (F. T. M.) 

ABRABANEL, ISAAC, called also ABRAVANEL, ABARBANEL 
(1437-1508), Jewish statesman, philosopher, theologian and 
commentator, was born at Lisbon of an ancient family which 
claimed descent from the royal house of David.  Like many of 
the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political 
ability He held a high place in the favour of King Alphonso 
V., who entrusted him with the management of important state 
affairs.  On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors 
and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John, 
and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held 
for eight years (14841492) the post of a minister of state 
under Ferdinand and Isabella.  When the Jews were banished 
from Spain in 1492, no exception was made in Abrabanel's 
favour.  He afterwards resided at Naples, Corfu and Monopoli, 
and in 1503 removed to Venice, where he held office as a 
minister of state till his death in 1508.  His repute as 
a commentator on the Scriptures is still high; in the 17th 
and 18th centuries he was much read by Christians such as 
Buxtorf.  Abrabanel often quotes Christian authorities, 
though he opposed Christian exegesis of Messianic passages.  
He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it 
was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden 
times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of 
statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings. 

ABRACADABRA, a word analogous to Abraxas (q.v.), used as 
a magical formula by the Gnostics of the sect of Basilides 
in invoking the aid of beneficent spirits against disease and 
misfortune.  It is found on Abraxas stones which were worn as 
amulets.  Subsequently its use spread beyond the Gnostics, 
and in modern times it is applied contemptuously (e g. by 
the early opponents of the evolution theory) to a conception 
or hypothesis which purports to be a simple solution of 
apparently insoluble phenomena.  The Gnostic physician Serenus 
Sammonicus gave precise instructions as to its mystical use 
in averting or curing agues and fevers generally.  The paper 
on which the word was written had to be folded in the form 
of a cross, suspended from the neck by a strip of linen so 
as to rest on the pit of the stomach, worn in this way for 
nine days, and then, before sunrise, cast behind the wearer 
into a stream running to the east.  The letters were usually 
arranged as a triangle in one of the following ways:-- 


 
 ABRACADABRA ABRACADABRA
 
 ABRACADABR BRACADABR
 
 ABRACADAB RACADAB
 
 ABRACADA ACADA
 
 ABRACAD CAD
 
 ABRACA A
 
 ABRAC
 
 ABRA
 
 ABR.
 
 AB
 
 A
 

ABRAHAM, or ABRAM (Hebrew for ``father is high''), the 
ancestor of the Israelites, the first of the great Biblical 
patriarchs.  His life as narrated in the book of Genesis 
reflects the traditions of different ages.  It is the latest 
writer (P) who mentions Abram (the original form of the name), 
Nahor and Haran, sons of Terah, at the close of a genealogy 
of the sons of Shem, which includes among its members Eber 
the eponym of the Hebrews.  Terah is said to have come from 
Ur of the Chaldees, usually identified with Mukayyar in south 
Babylonia.  He migrated to Haran1 in Mesopotamia, apparently 
the classical Carrhae, on a branch of the Habor.  Thence, 
after a short stay, Abram with his wife Sarai, and Lot 
the son of Haran, and all their followers, departed for 
Canaan.  The oldest tradition does not know of this twofold 
move, and seems to locate Abram's birthplace and the homes 
of his kindred at Haran (Gen. xxiv. 4, 7, xxvii. 43). At 
the divine command, and encouraged by the promise that Yahweh 
would make of him, although hitherto childless, a great 
nation, he journeyed down to Shechem, and at the sacred tree 
(cf. xxxv. 4, Josh. xxiv. 26, Judg. ix. 6) received a new 
promise that the land would be given unto his seed.  Having 
built an altar to commemorate the theophany, he removed to a 
spot between Bethel and Ai, where he built another altar and 
called upon (i.e. invoked) the name of Yahweh (Gen. xii. 
1-9).  Here he dwelt for some time, until strife arose between 
his herdsmen and those of Lot. Abram thereupon proposed to Lot 
that they should separate, and allowed his nephew the first 
choice.  Lot preferred the fertile land lying east of the 
Jordan, whilst Abram, after receiving another promise from 
Yahweh, moved down to the oaks of Mamre in Hebron and built an 
altar.  In the subsequent history of Lot and the destruction 
of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abram appears prominently in a 
fine passage where he intercedes with Yahweh on behalf of 
Sodom, and is promised that if ten righteous men can be 
found therein the city shall be preserved (xviii. 16-33). 

A peculiar passage, more valuable for the light it throws upon 
primitive ideas than for its contribution to the history of 
Abram, narrates the patriarch's visit to Egypt.  Driven by a 
famine to take refuge in Egypt (cf. xxvi. 11 xli. 57, xlii. 
1), he feared lest his wife's beauty should arouse the evil 
designs of the Egyptians and thus endanger his own safety, 
and alleged that Sarai was his sister.  This did not save 
her from the Pharaoh, who took her into the royal harem and 
enriched Abram with herds and servants.  But when Yahweh 
``plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues'' suspicion 
was aroused, and the Pharaoh rebuked the patriarch for his 
deceit and sent him away under an escort (xii. 10-xiii. 
1). This story of Abram and his increased wealth (xiii. 2) 
receives no comment at the hands of the narrator, and in its 
present position would make Sarai over sixty years of age 
(xii. 4, xvii. 1, 17). A similar experience is said to have 
happened to Abraham and Sarah at Gerar with the Philistine 
king Abimelech (xx. E), but the tone of the narrative is 
noticeably more advanced, and the presents which the patriarch 
receives are compensation for the king's offence.  Here, 
however, Sarah has reached her ninetieth year (xvii. 17). 
(The dates are due to the post-exilic framework in which 
the stories are inserted.) Still another episode of the same 
nature is re-corded of Isaac and Rebekah at Gerar, also with 
Abimelech.  Ethically it is the loftiest, and Isaac obtains 
his wealth simply through his successful farming.  Arising out 
of the incident is an account of a covenant between Abimelech 
and Isaac (xxvi. 16-33, J), a duplicate of which is placed in 
the time of Abraham (xxi. 22-34, J and E). Beersheba, which 
figures in both, is celebrated by the planting of a sacred 
tree and (like Bethel) by the invocation of the name of 
Yahweh.  This district is the scene of the birth of Ishmael 
and Isaac.  As Sarai was barren (cf. xi. 30)2 the promise 
that his seed should possess the land seemed incapable of 
fulfilment.  According to one rather obscure narrative, 
Abram's sole heir was the servant, who was over his household, 
apparently a certain Eliezer of Damascus3 (xv. 2, the text is 
corrupt).  He is now promised as heir one of his own flesh, 
and a remarkable and solemn passage records bow the promise 
was ratified by a covenant.  The description is particularly 
noteworthy for the sudden appearance of birds of prey, 
which attempted to carry off the victims of the sacrificial 
covenant.  The interpretation of the evil omen is explained 
by an allusion to the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt 
and their return in the fourth generation (xv. 16; contrast 
v. 13, after four hundred years; the chapter is extremely 
intricate and has the appearance of being of secondary 
origin).  The main narrative now relates how Sarai, in 
accordance with custom, gave to Abram her Egyptian handmaid 
Hagar, who, when she found she was with child, presumed upon 
her position to the extent that Sarai, unable to endure the 
reproach of barrenness (cf. the story of Hannah, 1 Sam. i. 
6), dealt harshly with her and forced her to flee (xvi. 
1-14, J; on the details see ISHMAEL.) Another tradition 
places the expulsion of Hagar after the birth of Isaac.  
It was thirteen years after the birth of Ishmael, according 
to the latest narratives, that God appeared unto Abram with 
a renewed promise that his posterity should inhabit the 
land.  To mark the solemnity of the occasion, the patriarch's 
name was changed to Abraham, and that of his wife to Sarah.4 
A covenant was concluded with him for all time, and as a sign 
thereof the rite of circumcision was instituted (xvii.  P). 
The promise of a son to Sarah made Abraham ``laugh'', a punning 
allusion to the name Isaac (q.v.) which appears again in other 
forms.  Thus, it is Sarah herself who ``laughs'' at the 
idea, when Yahweh appears to Abraham at Mamre (xviii. 1-15, 
J), or who, when the child is horn cries ``God hath made 
me laugh; every one that heareth will laugh at me'' (xxi. 
6, E). Finally, there is yet another story which attributes 
the flight of Hagar and Ishmael to Sarah's jealousy at the 
sight of Ishmael's ``mocking'' (rather dancing or playing, the 
intensive form of the verb ``to laugh'') on the feast day when 
Isaac was weaned (xxi. 8 sqq.).  But this last story is clearly 
out of place, since a child who was then fourteen years old 
(cf. xvii. 24, xxi. 5) could scarcely be described as a weak 
babe who had to be carried (xxi. 14; see the commentaries). 

Abraham was now commanded by God to offer up Isaac in the land of 
Moriah.  Proceeding to obey, he was prevented by an angel as 
he was about to sacrifice his son, and slew a ram which he 
found on the spot.  As a reward for his obedience he received 
another promise of a numerous seed and abundant prosperity 
(xxii.  E). Thence he returned to Beersheba.  The story is 
one of the few told by E, and significantly teaches that human 
sacrifice was not required by the Almighty (cf. Mic. vi. 7 
seq.).  The interest of the narrative now extends to Isaac 
alone.  To his ``only son'' (cp. xxii. 2, 12) Abraham gave 
all he had, and dismissed the sons of his concubines to the 
lands outside Palestine; they were thus regarded as less 
intimately related to Isaac and his descendants (xxv. 1-4, 
6). The measures taken by the patriarch for the marriage 
of Isaac are circumstantially described.  His head-servant 
was sent to his master's country and kindred to find a 
suitable bride, and the necessary preparation for the story 
is contained in the description of Nahor's family (xxii. 
20-24).  The picturesque account of the meeting with Rebekah 
throws interesting light on oriental custom.  Marriage with 
one's own folk (cf. Gen. xxvii. 46, xxix. 19; Judg. xiv. 3), 
and especially with a cousin, is recommended now even as in the 
past.  For its charm the story is comparable with the account 
of Jacob's experiences in the same land (xxix.).  For the 
completion of the history of Abraham the compiler of Genesis 
has used P's narrative.  Sarah is said to have died at a good 
old age, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah near Hebron, 
which the patriarch had purchased, with the adjoining field, 
from Ephron the Hittite (xxiii.); and here he himself was 
buried.  Centuries later the tomb became a place of pilgrimage 
and the traditional site is marked by a fine mosque.5 

The story of Abraham is of greater value for the study of 
Old Testament theology than for the history of Israel.  He 
became to the Hebrews the embodiment of their ideals, and 
stood at their head as the founder of the nation, the one to 
whom Yahweh had manifested his love by frequent promises and 
covenants.  From the time when he was bidden to leave his 
country to enter the unknown land, Yahweh was ever present to 
encourage him to trust in the future when his posterity should 
possess the land, and so, in its bitterest hours, Israel could 
turn for consolation to the promises of the past which enshrined 
in Abraham its hopes for the future.  Not only is Abraham the 
founder of religion, but he, of all the patriarchal figures, 
stands out most prominently as the recipient of the promises 
(xii. 2 seq. 7, xiii. 14-17, xv., xvii., xviii. 17-19, xxii. 
17 seq.; cf. xxiv. 7), and these the apostle Paul associates 
with the coming of Christ, and, adopting a characteristic 
and artificial style of interpretation prevalent in his time, 
endeavours to force a Messianic interpretation out of them.6 

For the history of the Hebrews the life of Abraham is of the 
same value as other stories of traditional ancestors.  The 
narratives, viewed dispassionately, represent him as an 
idealized sheikh (with one important exception, Gen. xiv., 
see below), about whose person a number of stories have 
gathered.  As the father of Isaac and Ishmael, he is ultimately 
the common ancestor of the Israelites and their nomadic 
fierce neighbours, men roving unrestrainedly like the wild 
ass, troubled by and troubling every one (xvi. 12). As the 
father of Midian, Sheba and other Arabian tribes (xxv. 1-4), 
it is evident that some degree of kinship was felt by the 
Hebrews with the dwellers of the more distant south, and 
it is characteristic of the genealogies that the mothers 
(Sarah, Hagar and Keturah) are in the descending scale as 
regards purity of blood.  This great ancestral figure came, 
it was said, from Ur in Babylonia and Haran and thence to 
Canaan.  Late tradition supposed that the migration was 
to escape Babylonian idolatry (Judith v., Jubilees xii.; 
cf.  Josh. xxiv. 2), and knew of Abraham's miraculous escape 
from death (an obscure reference to some act of deliverance 
in Is. xxix. 22). The route along the banks of the Euphrates 
from south to north was so frequently taken by migrating 
tribes that the tradition has nothing improbable in itself, 
but the prominence given in the older narratives to the view 
that Haran was the home gives this the preference.  It was 
thence that Jacob, the father of the tribes of Israel, came 
and the route to Shechem and Bethel is precisely the same in 
both.  A twofold migration is doubtful, and, from what is 
known of the situation in Palestine in the 15th century 
B.C., is extremely improbable.  Further, there is yet 
another parallel in the story of the conquest by Joshua 
(q.v.), partly implied and partly actually detailed (cf. 
also Josh. viii. 9 with Gen. xii. 8, xiii. 3), whence it would 
appear that too much importance must not be laid upon any 
ethnological interpretation which fails to account for the three 
versions.  That similar traditional elements have influenced 
them is not unlikely; but to recover the true historical 
foundation is difficult.  The invasion or immigration of 
certain tribes from the east of the Jordan; the presence 
of Aramaean blood among the Israelites (see JACOB); the 
origin of the sanctity of venerable sites,---these and other 
considerations may readily be found to account .for the 
traditions.  Noteworthy coincidences in the lives of Abraham 
and Isaac, noticed above, point to the fluctuating state of 
traditions in the oral stage, or suggest that Abraham's life 
has been built up by borrowing from the common stock of popular 
lore.7 More original is the parting of Lot and Abraham at 
Bethel.  The district was the scene of contests between 
Moab and the Hebrews (cf. perhaps Judg. iii.), and if this 
explains part of the story, the physical configuration of 
the Dead Sea may have led to the legend of the destruction of 
inhospitable and vicious cities (see SODOM AND GOMORRAH.) 

Different writers have regarded the life of Abraham differently.  
He has been viewed as a chieftain of the Amorites (q.v.), 
as the head of a great Semitic migration from Mesopotamia; 
or, since Ur and Haran were seats of Moon-worship, he has 
been identified with a moon-god.  From the character of 
the literary evidence and the locale of the stories it 
has been held that Abraham was originally associated with 
Hebron.  The double name AbramAbraham has even suggested 
that two personages have been combined in the Biblical 
narrative; although this does not explain the change from 
Sarai to Sarah.8 But it is important to remember that the 
narratives are not contemporary, and that the interesting 
discovery of the name Abi-ramu (Abram) on Babylonian contracts 
of about 2000 B.C. does not prove the Abram of the Old 
Testament to be an historical person, even as the fact that 
there were ``Amorites'' in Babylonia at the same period 
does not make it certain that the patriarch was one of their 
number.  One remarkable chapter associates Abraham with 
kings of Elam and the east (Gen. xiv.).  No longer a peaceful 
sheikh but a warrior with a small army of 318 followers,9 
he overthrows a combination of powerful monarchs who have 
ravaged the land.  The genuineness of the narrative has been 
strenuously maintained, although upon insufficient grounds. 

``It is generally recognized that this chapter holds quite 
an isolated place in the Pentateuchal history; it is the 
only passage which presents Abraham in the character of a 
warrior, and connects him with historical names and political 
movements, and there are no clear marks by which it can be 
assigned to any one of the documents of which Genesis is made 
up.  Thus, while one school of interpreters finds in the chapter 
the earliest fragment of the political history of western Asia, 
some even holding with Ewald that the narrative is probably 
based on old Canaanite records, other critics, as Noldeke, 
regard the whole as unhistorical and comparatively late in 
origin.  On the latter view, which finds its main support 1n the 
intrinsic difficulties of the narrative, it is scarcely possible 
to avoid the conclusion that the chapter is one of the latest 
additions to the Pentateuch (Wellhausen and many others).'' 

On the assumption that a recollection of some invasion in 
remote days may have been current, considerable interest is 
attached to the names.  Of these, Amraphel, king of Shinar 
(i.e. Babylonia, Gen. x. 10), has been identified with 
Khammurabi, one of the greatest of the Babylonian kings 
(c. 2000 B.C.), and since he claims to have ruled as 
far west as the Mediterranean Sea, the equation has found 
considerable favour.  Apart from chronological difficulties, 
the identification of the king and his country is far from 
certain, and at the most can only be regarded as possible.  
Arioch, king of Ellasar, has been connected with Eriaku of 
Larsa--the reading has been questioned---a contemporary with 
Khammurabi.  Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, bears what is 
doubtless a genuine Elamite name.  Finally, the name of Tid'al, 
king of Goiim, may be identical with a certain Tudhulu the 
son of Gazza, a warrior, but apparently not a king, who is 
mentioned in a Babylonian inscription, and Goiim may stand 
for Gutim, the Guti being a people who lived to the east of 
Kurdistan.  Nevertheless, there is as yet no monumental 
evidence in favour of the genuineness of the story, and at 
the most it can only be said that the author (of whatever 
date) has derived his names from a trustworthy source, 
and in representing an invasion of Palestine by Babylonian 
overlords has given expression to a possible situation.11 
The improbabilities and internal difficulties of the narrative 
remain untouched, only the bare outlines may very well be 
historical.  If, as most critics agree, it is a historical 
romance (cf., e.g., the book of Judith), it is possible 
that a writer, preferably one who lived in the post-exilic 
age and was acquainted with Babylonian history, desired to 
enhance the greatness of Abraham by exhibiting his military 
success against the monarchs of the Tigris and Euphrates, 
the high esteem he enjoyed in Palestine and his lofty 
character as displayed in his interview with Melchizedek. 

See further, Pinches, Old Test. in Light of Hist.  Records, 
pp. 208. 236) Driver, Genesis, p. xlix., and notes on ch. 
xiv.; Addis, Documents of the Hexateuch, ii. pp. 208-213; 
Carpenter and Harford-Battersby, The Hexateuch, i. pp. 
157-159, 168, Bezold, Bab.-Assyr. Keilinschriften, pp. 24 
sqq., 54 sqq.; A. Jeremias, Altes Test. im Lichte d.  Alten 
Orients,2,, pp. 343 seq.; also the literature to the art. 
GENESIS.  Many fanciful legends about Abraham founded on 
Biblical accounts or spun out of the fancy are to be found in 
Josephus, and in post-Biblical and Mahommedan literature; 
for these, reference may be made to Beer, Leben Abrahams 
(1859); Grunbaum, Neue Beitrage z. semit.  Sagenkunde, 
pp. 89 seq. (1893); the apocryphal ``Testament of Abraham'' 
(M. R. James in Texts and Studies, 1892); W. Tisdall, 
Original Sources of the Quran, passim (1905). (S. A. C.) 

1 The name is not spelt with the same guttural as Haran the son of Terah. 

2 Barrenness is a motif which recurs in the stories 
of Rebekah, Rachel, the mother of Samson, and Hannah 
(Gen. xxv. 21, xxix. 31; Judg. xiii. 2; 1 Sam. i. 5). 

3Ebram's connexion with Damascus is supplemented in the traditions 
of Nicolaus of Damascus as cited by Josephus (Antiq. 1. 7. 2). 

4 Abram (or Abiram) is a familiar and old-attested name meaning 
``(my) father is exalted''; the meaning of Abraham is obscure a,nd 
the explanation Gen. xvii. 3 is mere word-play.  It is possible 
that raham was originally only a dialectical form of ram. 

5 See Sir Charles Warren's description, Hasting's Dict.  
Bible, vol. iii. pp. 200 seq.  The so-called Babylonian colouring 
of Gen. xxiii. has been much exaggerated; see S. R. Driver, 
Genesis, ad loc.; S. A, Cook, Laws of Moses, p. 208. 

6 See H. St. J. Thackeray, Relation of St Paul to 
Contemporary Jewish Thought, p. 69 seq. (1900). 

7 On the other hand, the coincidences in xx. xxi. 
are due to E, who is also the author of xxii.  Apart 
from these the narratives of Abraham are from J and P. 

8 According to Breasted (Amer.  Journ. of Sem. Lit., 
1904, p. 56), the ``field of Abram'' occurs among the places 
mentioned in the list of the Egyptian king Shishak (No. 71-2) 
in the 10th century.  See also his History of Egypt, p. 530. 

9 The number is precisely that of the total numerical 
value of the consonants of the name ``Eliezer'' (Gen. 
xv. 2); an astral signification has also been found. 

10 W. R. Smith, Ency.  Brit. (9th ed., 1883), art. ``Melchizedek.'' 

11 That the names may be those of historical personages 
is no proof of historical accuracy: ``We cannot therefore 
conclude that the whole account is accurate history, any more 
than we can argue that Sir Walter Scott's Anne of Geirstein 
is throughout a correct account of actual events because we 
know that Charles the Bold and Margaret of Anjou were real 
people'' (W. H. Bennett, Century Bible: Genesis, p. 186). 

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA (1644-1709), Austrian divine, 
was born at Kreenheinstetten, near Messkirch, in July 
1644.  His real name was Ulrich Megerle.  In 1662 he joined 
the order of Barefooted Augustinians, and assumed the name 
by which he is known.  In this order he rose step by step 
until he became prior provincialis and definitor of his 
province.  Having early gained a great reputation for pulpit 
eloquence, he was appointed court preacher at Vienna in 
1669.  The people flocked to hear him, attracted by the 
force and homeliness of his language, the grotesqueness of 
his humour, and the impartial severity with which he lashed 
the follies of all classes of society and of the court in 
particular.  In general he spoke as a man of the people, the 
predominating quality of his style being an overflowing and 
often coarse wit.  There are, however, many passages in his 
sermons in which he rises to loftier thought and uses more 
dignified language.  He died at Vienna on the 1st of December 
1709.  In his published writings he displayed much the same 
qualities as in the pulpit.  Perhaps the most favourable 
specimen of his style is his didactic novel entitled 
Judas der Erzschelm (4 vols., Salzburg, 1686-1695). 

His works have been several times reproduced in whole or 
in part though with many serious interpolations.  The best 
edition is that published in 21 vols. at Passau and Lindau 
(1835-1854).  See Th. G. von Karaiesn, Abraham a Sancta 
Clara (Vienna, 1867); Wanckenburr, Studien uber die Sprache 
Abrahams al S. C. (Halle, 1897); Sexto, Abraham a S. C. 
(Sigmaringen, 1896); Schnell, Pater A. a S. C. (Munich, 
1895); H. Mareta, Uber Judas d.  Erzschelm (Vienna, 1875). 

ABRAHAM IBN DAUD (c. 1110-1180), Jewish historiographer 
and philosopher of Toledo.  His historical work was the 
Book of Tradition (Sepher Haqabala), a chronicle down 
to the year 1161.  This was a defence of the traditional 
record, and also contains valuable information for the 
medieval period.  It was translated into Latin by Genebrad 
(1519).  His philosophy was expounded in an Arabic work 
better known under its Hebrew title 'Emunah Ramah 
(Sublime Faith.) This was translated into German by Well 
(1882).  Ibn Daud was one of the first Jewish scholastics to 
adopt the Aristotelian system; his predecessors were mostly 
neo-Platonists.  Maimonides owed a good deal to him. 

ABRAHAMITES, a sect of deists in Bohemia in the 18th 
century, who professed to be followers of the pre-circumcised 
Abraham.  Believing in one God, they contented themselves 
with the Decalogue and the Paternoster.  Declining to be 
classed either as Christians or Jews, they were excluded from 
the edict of toleration promulgated by the emperor Joseph 
II. in 1781, and deported to various parts of the country, 
the men being drafted into frontier regiments.  Some became 
Roman Catholics, and those who retained their ``Abrahamite', 
views were not able to hand them on to the next generation. 

ABRAHAM-MEN, the nickname for vagrants who infested England 
in Tudor times.  The phrase is certainly as old as 1561, and 
was due to these beggars pretending that they were patients 
discharged from the Abraham ward at Bedlam.  The genuine 
Bedlamite was allowed to roam the country on his discharge, 
soliciting alms, provided he wore a badge. This humane
privilege was grossly abused, and thus gave 
rise to the slang phrase ``to sham Abraham.'' 

ABRANTES, a town of central Portugal, in the district of 
Santarem, formerly included in the province of Estremadura; 
on the right bank of the river Tagus, at the junction of 
the Madrid-Badajoz--Lisbon railway with the Guarda-Abrantes 
line.  Pop. (1900) 7255.  Abrantes, which occupies the crest 
of a hill covered with olive woods, gardens and vines, is a 
fortified town, with a thriving trade in fruit, olive oil and 
grain.  As it commands the highway down the Tagus valley to 
Lisbon, it has usually been regarded as an important military 
position.  Originally an Iberian settlement, founded about 
300 B.C., it received the name Aurantes from the Romans; 
perhaps owing to the alluvial gold (aurum) found along the 
Tagub.  Roman mosaics, coins, the remains of an aqueduct, and 
other antiquities have been discovered in the neighbourhood.  
Abrantes was captured on the 24th of November 1807 by the 
French under General Junot, who for this achievement was created 
duke of Abrantes.  By the Convention of Cintra (22nd of August 
1808) the town was restored to the British and Portuguese. 

ABRASION (from Lat. ab, off, and radere, to scrape), the 
process of rubbing off or wearing down, as of rock by moving 
ice, or of coins by wear and tear; also used of the results of 
such a process as an abrasion or excoriation of the skin.  In 
machinery, abrasion between moving surfaces has to be prevented as 
much as possible by the use of suitable materials, good fitting and 
lubrication.  Engineers and other craftsmen make extensive use 
of abrasion, effected by the aid of such abrasives as emery and 
carborundum, in shaping, finishing and polishing their work. 

ABRAUM SALTS (from the German Abraum-salze, salts 
to be removed), the name given to a mixed deposit of 
salts, including halite, carnallite, kieserite, &c., found 
in association with rocksalt at Stassfurt in Prussia. 

ABRAXAS, or ABRASAX, a word engraved on certain antique 
stones, called on that account Abraxas stones, which were used 
as amulets or charms.  The Basilidians, a Gnostic sect, attached 
importance to the word, if, indeed, they did not bring it into 
use.  The letters of abraxas, in the Greek notation, make 
up the number 365, and the Basilidians gave the name to the 
365 orders of spirits which, as they conceived, emanated in 
succession from the Supreme Being.  These orders were supposed 
to occupy 365 heavens, each fashioned like, but inferior 
to that above it; and the lowest of the heavens was thought 
to be the abode of the spirits who formed the earth and its 
inhabitants, and to whom was committed the administration of 
its affairs.  Abraxas stones are of very little value.  In 
addition to the word Abraxas and other mystical characters, 
they have often cabalistic figures engraved on them.  The 
commonest of these have the head of a fowl, and the arms and 
bust of a man, and terminate in the body and tail of a serpent. 

ABROGATION (Lat. abrogare, to repeal or annul a law; 
rogare, literally ``to ask,'' to propose a law), the 
annulling or repealing of a law by legislative action.  
Abrogation, which is the total annulling of a law, is to 
be distinguished from the term derogation, which is used 
where a law is only partially abrogated.  Abrogation may be 
either express or implied.  It is express either when the new 
law pronounces the annulment in general terms, as when in a 
concluding section it announces that all laws contrary to the 
provisions of the new one are repealed, or when in particular 
terms it announces specifically the preceding laws which it 
repeals.  It is implied when the new law contains provisions 
which are positively contrary to the former laws without 
expressly abrogating those laws, or when the condition of things 
for which the law had provided has changed and consequently 
the need for the law no longer exists.  The abrogation of 
any statute revives the provisions of the common law which 
had been abrogated by that statute.  See STATUTE; REPEAL. 

ABRUZZI E MOLISE, a group of provinces (compartimento) 
of Southern Italy, bounded N. by the province of Ascoli, N.W. 
and W. by Perueia, S.W. by Rome and Casertz, S. by Benevento.  
E. by Foggia and N.E. by the Adriatic Sea. It comprises the 
provinces of Teramo (population in 1901, 307,444), Aquila 
(396,620), Chieti (370,907) and Campobasso (366,571), which, 
under the kingdom of Naples, respectively bore the names 
Abruzzo Ulteriore I., Abruzzo Ulteriore II., Abruzzo Citeriore 
(the reference being to their distance from the capital) and 
Molise.  The total area is 6567 sq. m. and the population 
(1901) 1,441,551.  The district is mainly mountainous in the 
interior, including as it does the central portion of the 
whole system of the Apennines and their culminating point, 
the Gran Sasso d'Italia. Towards the sea the elevation 
is less considerable, the hills consisting mainly of somewhat 
unstable clay and sand, but the zone of level ground along 
the coast is quite inconsiderable.  The coast line itself, 
though over 100 miles in length, has not a single harbour of 
importance.  The climate varies considerably with the 
altitude, the highest peaks being covered with snow for the 
greater part of the year, while the valleys running N.E. 
towards the sea are fertile and well watered by several small 
rivers, the chief of which are the Tronto, Vomano, Pescara, 
Sangro, Trigno and Biferno.  These are fed by less important 
streams, such as the Aterno and Gizio, which water the valleys 
between the main chains of the Apennines.  They are liable to 
be suddenly swollen by rains, and floods and landslips often 
cause considerable damage.  This danger has been increased, 
as elsewhere in Italy, by indiscriminate timber-felling on 
the higher mountains without provision for re-afforestation, 
though considerable oak, beech, elm and pine forests still 
exist and are the home of wolves, wild boars and even 
bears.  They also afford feeding-ground for large herds of 
swine, and the hams and sausages of the Abruzzi enjoy a high 
reputation.  The rearing of cattle and sheep was at one time 
the chief occupation of the inhabitants, and many of them 
still drive their flocks down to the Campagna di Roma for the 
winter months and back again in the summer, but more attention 
is now devoted to cultivation.  This flourishes especially in 
the valleys and in the now drained bed of the Lago Fucino.  
The industries are various, but none of them is of great 
importance.  Arms and cutlery are produced at Campobasso and 
Agnone.  At the exhibition of Abruzzese art, held at Chieti 
in 1905, fine specimens of goldsmiths' work of the 15th and 
16th centuries, of majolica of the 17th and 18th centuries, 
and of tapestries and laces were brought together; and the 
reproduction of some of these is still carried on, the small 
town of Castelli being the centre of the manufacture.  The river 
Pescara and its tributary the Tirino form an important source 
of power for generating electricity.  The chief towns are (1) 
Teramo, Atri, Campli, Penne, Castellammare Adriatico; (2) 
Aquila, Avezzano, Celano, Tagliacozzo, Sulmona; (3) Chieti, 
Lanciano, Ortona, Vasto; (4) Campobasso, Agnone, Iscrnia.  
Owing to the nature of the country, communications are not 
easy.  Railways are (i) the coast railway (a part of the 
Bologna-Gallipoli line), with branches from Giulianova to 
Teramo and from Termoli to Campobasso; (2) a line diverging 
S.E. from this at Pescara and running via Sulmona (whence 
there are branches via Aquila and Rieti to Terni, and via 
Carpinone to (a) Isernia and Caianello, on the line from 
Rome to Naples, and (b) Campobasso and Benevento), and 
Avezzano (whence there is a branch to Roccasecca) to Rome. 

The name Abruzzi is conjectured to be a medieval corruption of 
Praetuttii.  The district was, in Lombard times, part of the 
duchy of Spoleto, and, under the Normans, a part of that of 
Apulia; it was first formed into a single province in 1240 by 
Frederick II., who placed the Justiciarius Aprutii at Solmona 
and founded the city of Aquila.  After the Hohenstauffen lost 
their Italian dominions, the Abruzzi became a province of the 
Angevin kingdom of Naples, to which it was of great strategic 
importance.  The division into three parts was not made until 
the 17th century.  The Molise, on the other hand, formed part 
of the Lombard duchy of Benevento, and was placed under the 
Justiciarius of Terra di Lavoro by Frederick II.: after various 
changes it became part of the Capitanata, and was only formed 
into an independent province in 1811.  The people are remark. 
ably conservative in beliefs, superstitions and traditions. 

See V. Bindi, Monumenti storici ed artistici degli Abruzzi (Naples, 
1889); A. de Nino, Ulsi e costumi Abruzzesi (Florence, 1879-1883). 

ABSALOM (Hebrew for ``father of [or is] peace''), in the 
Bible, the third son of David, king of Israel.  He was deemed 
the handsomest man in the kingdom.  His sister Tamar having 
been violated by David's eldest son Amnon, Absalom, after 
waiting two years, caused his servants to murder Amnon at 
a feast to which he had invited all the king's sons (2 Sam. 
xiii.).  After this deed he fled to Talmai, ``king'' of Geshur 
(see Josh. xii. 5 or xiii. 2), his maternal grandfather, and 
it was not until five years later that he was fully reinstated 
in his father's favour (see JOAB.) Four years after this he 
raised a revolt at Hebron, the former capital.  Absalom was 
now the eldest surviving son of David, and the present position 
of the narratives (xv.-xx.)--after the birth of Solomon and 
before the struggle between Solomon and Adonijah---may represent 
the view that the suspicion that he was not the destined 
heir of his father's throne excited the impulsive youth to 
rebellion.  All Israel and Judah flocked to his side, and 
David, attended only by the Cherethites and Pelethites 
and some recent recruits from Gath, found it expedient to 
flee.  The priests remained behind in Jerusalem, and their 
sons Jonathan and Ahimaaz served as his spies.  Absalom reached 
the capital and took counsel with the renowned Ahithophel.  
The pursuit was continued and David took refuge beyond the 
Jordan.  A battle was fought in the ``wood of Ephraim'' (the 
name suggests a locality west of the Jordan) and Absalom's 
army was completely routed.  He himself was caught in the 
boughs of an oak-tree, and as David had strictly charged his 
men to deal gently with the young man, Joab was informed.  
What a common soldier refused to do even for a thousand 
shekels of silver, the king's general at once undertook.  
Joab thrust three spears through the heart of Absalom as he 
struggled in the branches, and as though this were not enough, 
his ten armour-bearers came around and slew him.  The king's 
overwhelming grief is well known.  A great heap of stones was 
erected where he fell, whilst another monument near Jerusalem 
(not the modern ``Absalom's Tomb,'' which is of later origin) 
he himself had erected in his lifetime to perpetuate his name 
(2 Sam. xviii. 17 seq.).  But the latter notice does not seem 
to agree with xiv. 27 (cf. 1 Kings xv. 2). On the narratives 
in 2 Sam. xiii.-xix., see further DAVID; SAMUEL, BOOKS OF. 

ABSALON (c. 1128-1201), Danish archbishop and statesman, 
was born about 1128, the son of Asser Rig of Fjenneslev, 
at whose castle he and his brother Esbjorn were brought up 
along with the young prince Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar 
I. The Rigs were as pious and enlightened as they were 
rich.  They founded the monastery of Soro as a civilizing 
centre, and after giving Absalon the rudiments of a sound 
education at home, which included not only book-lore but every 
manly and martial exercise, they sent him to the university of 
Paris.  Absalon first appears in Saxo's Chronicle as a 
fellow-guest at Roskilde, at the banquet given, in 1157, by 
King Sweyn to his rivals Canute and Valdemar.  Both Absalon and 
Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of their 
treacherous host on this occasion, but at length escaped to 
Jutland, whither Sweyn followed them, but was defeated and slain 
at the battle of Grathe Heath.  The same year (1158) which saw 
Valdemar ascend the Danish throne saw Absalon elected bishop of 
Roskilde.  Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of 
Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for 
three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the 
Baltic.  Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to Clear the 
northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion 
of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged 
the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of 
Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and 
depopulated.  The very existence of Denmark demanded the 
suppression and conversion of these stiff-necked pagan 
freebooters, and to this double task Absalon devoted the 
best part of his life.  The first expedition against the 
Wends, conducted by Absalon in person, set out in 1160, 
but it was not till 1168 that the chief Wendish fortress, 
at Arkona in Rugen, containing the sanctuary of their god 
Svantovit, was surrendered, the Wends agreeing to accept 
Danish suzerainty and the Christian religion at the same 
time.  From Arkona Absalon proceeded by sea to Garz, in south 
Rugen, the political capital of the Wends, and an all but 
impregnable stronghold.  But the unexpected fall of Arkona 
had terrified the garrison, which surrendered unconditionally 
at the first appearance of the Danish ships.  Absalon, with 
only Sweyn, bishop of Aarhus, and twelve ``house carls,'' 
thereupon disembarked, passed between a double row of Wendish 
warriors, 6000 strong, along the narrow path winding among the 
morasses, to the gates of the fortress, and, proceeding to the 
temple of the seven-headed god Rugievit, caused the idol to 
be hewn down, dragged forth and burnt.  The whole population 
of Garz was then baptized, and Absalon laid the foundations 
of twelve churches in the isle of Rugen.  The destruction of 
this chief sally-port of the Wendish pirates enabled Absalon 
considerably to reduce the Danish fleet.  But he continued 
to keep a watchful eye over the Baltic, and in 1170 destroyed 
another pirate stronghold, farther eastward, at Dievenow 
on the isle of Wollin.  Absalon's last military exploit was 
the annihilation, off Strela (Stralsund), on Whit-Sunday 
1184, of a Pomeranian fleet which had attacked Denmark's 
vassal, Jaromir of Rugen.  He was now but fifty-seven, but 
his strenuous life had aged him, and he was content to resign 
the command of fleets and armies to younger men, like Duke 
Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar II., and to confine himself 
to the administration of the empire which his genius had 
created.  In this sphere Absalon proved himself equally 
great.  The aim of his policy was to free Denmark from the German 
yoke.  It was contrary to his advice and warnings that Valdemar 
I. rendered fealty to the emperor Frederick Barbarossa at 
Dole in 1162; and when, on the accession of Canute V. in 
1182, an imperial ambassador arrived at Roskilde to receive 
the homage of the new king, Absalon resolutely withstood 
him. ``Return to the emperor,'' cried he, ``and tell him that 
the king of Denmark will in no wise show him obedience or 
do him homage.'' As the archpastor of Denmark Absalon also 
rendered his country inestimable services, building churches 
and monasteries, introducing the religious orders, founding 
schools and doing his utmost to promote civilization and 
enlightenment.  It was he who held the first Danish Synod at 
Lund in 1167.  In 1178 he became archbishop of Lund, but very 
unwillingly, only the threat of excommunication from the 
holy see finally inducing him to accept the pallium.  Absalon 
died on the 21st of March 1201, at the family monastery of 
Soro, which he himself had richly embellished and endowed. 

Absalon remains one of the most striking and picturesque 
figures of the Middle Ages, and was equally great as 
churchman, statesman and warrior.  That he enjoyed warfare 
there can be no doubt; and his splendid physique and early 
training had well fitted him for martial exercises.  He 
was the best rider in the army and the best swimmer in the 
fleet.  Yet he was not like the ordinary fighting bishops 
of the Middle Ages, whose sole concession to their sacred 
calling was to avoid the ``shedding of blood'' by using a mace 
in battle instead of a sword.  Absalon never neglected his 
ecclesiastical duties, and even his wars were of the nature of 
Crusades.  Moreover, all his martial energy notwithstanding, 
his personality must have been singularly winning; for it is 
said of him that he left behind not a single enemy, all his 
opponents having long since been converted by him into friends. 

See Saxo, Gesta Danorum, ed.  Holder (Strassburg, 1886), books 
xvi.; Steinstrup, Danmark's Riges Historic.  Oldtiden og den (eldre 
Middelalder, pp. 570-735 (Copenhagen, 1897-1905). (R. N. B.) 

ABSCESS (from Lat. abscedere, to separate), in pathology, 
a collection of pus among the tissues of the body, the result 
of bacterial inflammation.  Without the presence of septic 
organisms abscess does not occur.  At any rate, every acute 
abscess contains septic germs, and these may have reached the 
inflamed area by direct infection, or may have been carried 
thither by the blood-stream.  Previous to the formation of 
abscess something has occurred to lower the vitality of the 
affected tissue--- some gross injury, perchance, or it may be 
that the power of resistance against bacillary invasion was 
lowered by reason of constitutional weakness.  As the result, 
then, of lowered vitality, a certain area becomes congested and 
effusion takes place into the tissues.  This effusion coagulates 
and a hard, brawny mass is formed which softens towards the 
centre.  If nothing is done the softened area increases in 
size, the skin over it becomes thinned, loses its vitality 
(mortifies) and a small ``slough'' is formed.  When the slough 
gives way the pus escapes and, tension being relieved, pain 
ceases.  A local necrosis or death of tissue takes place at 
that part of the inflammatory swelling farthest from the healthy 
circulation.  When the attack of septic inflammation is very 
acute, death of the tissue occurs en masse, as in the 
core of a boil or carbuncle.  Sometimes, however, no such 
mass of dead tissue is to be observed, and all that escapes 
when the skin is lanced or gives way is the creamy pus.  In 
the latter case the tissue has broken down in a molecular 
form.  After the escape of the core or slough along with a 
certain amount of pus, a space, the abscess-cavily', is left, 
the walls of which are lined with new vascular tissue which 
has itself escaped destruction.  This lowly organized material 
is called granulation tissue, and exactly resembles the 
growth which covers the floor of an ulcer.  These granulations 
eventually fill the contracting cavity and obliterate it by 
forming interstitial scar-tissue.  This is called healing 
by second intention. Pus may accumulate in a normal cavity, 
such as a joint or bursa, or in the cranial, thoracic or 
abdominal cavity.  In all these situations, if the diagnosis 
is clear, the principle of treatment is evacuation and 
drainage.  When evacuating an abscess it is often advisable 
to scrape away the lining of unhealthy granulations and 
to wash out the cavity with an antiseptic lotion.  If the 
after-drainage of the cavity is thorough the formation of 
pus ceases and the watery discharge from the abscess wall 
subsides.  As the cavity contracts the discharge becomes less, 
until at last the drainage tube can be removed and the external 
wound allowed to heal.  The large collections of pus which 
form in connexion with disease of the spinal column in the 
cervical, dorsal and lumbar regions are now treated by free 
evacuation of the tuberculous pus, with careful antiseptic 
measures.  The opening should be in as dependent a position as 
possible in order that the drainage may be thorough.  If tension 
recurs after opening has been made, as by the blocking of the 
tube, or by its imperfect position, or by its being too short, 
there is likely to be a fresh formation of pus, and without 
delay the whole procedure must be gone through again. (E. O.*) 

ABSCISSA (from the Lat. abscissus, cut off), in the 
Cartesian system of co-ordinates, the distance of a point 
from the axis of y measured parallel to the horizontal 
axis (axis of x.) Thus PS (or OR) is the abscissa of 
P. The word appears for the first time in a Latin work 
written by Stefano degli Angeli (1623-1697), a professor 
of mathematics in Rome. (See GEOMETRY, sec.  Analytical.) 

ABSCISSION (from Lat. abscinidere), a tearing away, or 
cutting off; a term used sometimes in prosody for the elision of 
a vowel before another, and in surgery especially for abscission 
of the cornea, or the removal of that portion of the eyeball 
situated in front of the attachments of the recti muscles; in 
botany, the separation of spores by elimination of the connexion. 

ABSCOND (Lat. abscondcre, to hide, put away), to depart in 
a secret manner; in law, to remove from the jurisdiction of the 
courts or so to conceal oneself as to avoid their jurisdiction.  
A person may ``abscond'' either for the purpose of avoiding 
arrest for a crime (see ARREST), or for a fraudulent purpose, 
such as the defrauding of his creditors (see BANKRUPTCY.) 

ABSENCE (Lat. absentia), the fact of being ``away,'' 
either in body or mind; ``absence of mind'' being a 
condition in which the mind is withdrawn from what is 
passing.  The special occasion roll-call at Eton College 
is called ``Absence,'' which the boys attend in their tall 
hats.  A soldier must get permission or ``leave of absence' 
before he can be away from his regiment.  Seven years' 
absence with no sign of life either by letter or message 
is held presumptive evidence of death in the law courts. 

ABSENTEEISM, a term used primarily of landed proprietors who 
absent themselves from their estates, and live and spend their 
incomes elsewhere; in its more extended meaning it includes 
all those (in addition to landlords) who live out of a country 
or locality but derive their income from some source within 
it.  Absenteeism is a question which has been much debated, 
and from both the economic and moral point of view there is 
little doubt that it has a prejudicial effect.  To it has been 
attributed in a great measure the unprosperous condition of the 
rural districts of France before the Revolution, when it was 
unusual for the great nobles to live on their estates unless 
compelled to do so by a sentence involving their ``exile'' from 
Paris.  It has also been an especial evil in Ireland, and 
many attempts were made to combat it.  As early as 1727 a 
tax of four shillings in the pound was imposed on all persons 
holding offices and employments in Ireland and residing in 
England.  This tax was discontinued in 1753, but was re-imposed in 
1769.  In 1774 the tax was reduced to two shillings in the 
pound, but was dropped after some years.  It was revived by the 
Independent Parliament in 1782 and for some ten years brought in 
a substantial amount to the revenue, yielding in 1790 as much as 
63,089 pounds.

AUTHORITIES.--For a discussion of absenteeism from the economic 
point of view see N. W. Senior, Lectures on the Rate of Wages, 
Political Economy; J. S. Mill, Political Economy; J. R. 
Mcculloch, Treatises and Essays on Money, &c., article 
``Absenteeism''; A. T. Hadley, Economics; on absenteeism in 
Ireland see A. Young, Tour in Ireland (1780); T. Prior, List 
of.  Absentees (1729); E. Wakefield, Account of Iteland (1812); 
W. E. H. Lecky, Ireland in the 18th Century (1892): A. E. 
Murray, History of the Commercial and Financial Relations 
between England and Helanid (1903); Parliamentary Papers, 
Ireland, 1830, vii., ditto, 1845, xix.-xxii.; in France, A. 
de Monchretien, Traicte de l'oekonomie politique (1615); 
A. de Tocqueville, L'Ancien Regime (1857); H. Taine, Les 
Origines de la France contemporaine, l'ancien Regime (1876). 

ABSINTHE a liqueur or aromatized spirit, the characteristic 
flavouring matter of which is derived from various species of 
wormwood (Artemisia absinthium.) Among the other substances 
generally employed in its manufacture are angelica root, 
sweet flag, dittany leaves, star-anise fruit, fennel and 
hyssop.  A colourless ``alcoholate'' (see LIQUEURS) is 
first prepared, and to this the well-known green colour of 
the beverage is imparted by maceration with green leaves of 
wormwood, hyssop and mint.  Inferior varieties are made by 
means of essences, the distillation process being omitted.  
There are two varieties of absinthe, the French and the Swiss, 
the latter of which is of a higher alcoholic strength than the 
former.  The best absinthe contains 70 to 80% of alcohol.  It is 
said to improve very materially by storage.  There is a popular 
belief to the effect that absinthe is frequently adulterated 
with copper, indigo or other dye-stuffs (to impart the green 
colour), but, in fact, this is now very rarely the case.  There 
is some reason to believe that excessive absinthe-drinking 
leads to effects which are specifically worse than those 
associated with over-indulgence in other forms of alcohol. 

ABSOLUTE (Lat. absolvere, to loose, set free), a term 
having the general signification of independent, self-existent, 
unconditioned.  Thus we speak of ``absolute'' as opposed to 
``limited'' or ``constitutional'' monarchy, or, in common 
parlance, of an ``absolute failure,'' i.e. unrelieved by 
any satisfactory circumstances.  In philosophy the word has 
several technical uses. (1) In Logic, it has been applied 
to non-connotative terms which do not imply attributes 
(see CONNOTATION), but more commonly, in opposition to 
Relative, to terms which do not imply the existence of some 
other (correlative) term; e.g. ``father'' implies ``son,'' 
``tutor'' ``pupil,'' and therefore each of these terms is 
relative.  In fact, however, the distinction is formal, and, 
though convenient in the terminology of elementary logic, 
cannot be strictly maintained.  The term ``man,'' for example, 
which, as compared with ``father,'' ``son,'' ``tutor,'' seems 
to be absolute, is obviously relative in other connexions; in 
various contexts it implies its various possible opposites, 
e.g. ``woman,'' ``boy,'' ``master'', ``brute.'' In other 
words, every term which is susceptible of definition is ipso 
facto relative, for definition is precisely the segregation 
of the thing defined from all other things which it is not, 
i.e. implies a relation.  Every term which has a meaning 
is, therefore, relative, if only to its contradictory. 

(2) The term is used in the phrase ``absolute knowledge'' to 
imply knowledge per se. It has been held, however, that, 
since all knowledge implies a knowing subject and a known 
object, absolute knowledge is a contradiction in terms (see 
RELATIVITY.) So also Herbert Spencer spoke of ``absolute 
ethics,'' as opposed to systems of conduct based on particular 
local or temporary laws and conventions (see ETHICS.) 

(3) By far the most important use of the word is in the phrase 
``the Absolute'' (see METAPHYSICS.) It is sufficient here 
to indicate the problems involved in their most elementary 
form.  The process of knowledge in the sphere of intellect 
as in that of natural science is one of generalization, 
i.e. the co-ordination of particular facts under general 
statements, or in other words, the explanation of one fact by 
another, and that other by a third, and so on.  In this way 
the particular facts or existences are left behind in the 
search for higher, more inclusive conceptions; as twigs are 
traced to one branch, and branches to one trunk, so, it is 
held, all the plurality of sense-given data is absorbed in 
a unity which is all-inclusive and self-existent, and has no 
``beyond.'' By a metaphor this process has been described as 
the odos ano (as of tracing a river to its source).  Other 
phrases from different points of view have been used to describe 
the idea, e.g. First Cause, Vital Principle (in connexion 
with the origin of life), God (as the author and sum of all 
being), Unity, Truth (i.e. the sum and culmination of all 
knowledge), Causa Causans, &c. The idea in different senses 
appears both in idealistic and realistic systems of thought. 

The theories of the Absolute may be summarized briefly 
as follows. (1) The Absolute does not exist, and is not 
even in any real sense thinkable.  This view is held by 
the empiricists, who hold that nothing is knowable save 
phenomena.  The Absolute could not be conceived, for all 
knowledge is susceptible of definition and, therefore, 
relative.  The Absolute includes the idea of necessity, which 
the mind cannot cognize. (2) The Absolute exists for thought 
only.  In this theory the absolute is the unknown x which 
the human mind is logically compelled to postulate a priori 
as the only coherent explanation and justification of its 
thought. (3) The Absolute exists but is unthinkable, because 
it is an aid to thought which comes into operation, as it 
were, as a final explanation beyond which thought cannot 
go.  Its existence is shown by the fact that without it all 
demonstration would be a mere circulus in probando or verbal 
exercise, because the existence of separate things implies some 
one thing which includes and explains them. (4) The Absolute 
both exists and is conceivable.  It is argued that we do in 
fact conceive it in as much as we do conceive Unity, Being, 
Truth.  The conception is so clear that its inexplicability 
(admitted) is of no account.  Further, since the unity of 
our thought implies the absolute, and since the existence 
of things is known only to thought, it appears absurd that 
the absolute itself should be regarded as non-existent.  
The Absolute is substance in itself, the ultimate basis and 
matter of existence.  All things are merely manifestations of 
it, exist in virtue of it, but are not identical with it. 
(5) Metaphysical idealists pursue this line of argument in a 
different way.  For them nothing exists save thought; the only 
existence 1hat can be predicated of any thing and, therefore, 
of the Absolute, is that it is thought.  Thought creates 
God, things, the Absolute. (6) Finally, it has been held that 
we can conceive the Absolute, though our conception is only 
partial, just as our concepuon of all things is limited by 
the imperfect powers of human intellect.  Thus the Absolute 
exists for us only in our thought of it (4 above).  But 
thought itself comes from the Absolute which, being itself 
the pure thought of thoughts, separates from itself individual 
minds.  It is, therefore, perfectly natural that human thought, 
being essentially homogeneous with the Absolute, should be 
able by.the consideration of the universe to arrive at some 
imperfect conception of the source from which all is derived. 

The whole controversy is obscured by inevitable difficulties in 
terminology.  The fundamental problem is whether a thing which 
is by hypothesis infinite can in any sense be defined, and if 
it is not defined, whether it can be said to be cognized or 
thought.  It would appear to be almost an axiom that anything 
which by hypothesis transcends the intellect (i.e. by including 
subject and object, knowing and known) is ipso facto beyond the 
limits of the knower.  Only an Absolute can cognize an absolute. 

ABSOLUTION (Lat. absolutio from absolvo, loosen, acquit), 
a term used in civil and ecclesiastical law, denoting the 
act of setting free or acquitting.  In a criminal process it 
signifies the acquittal of an accused person on the ground 
that the evidence has either disproved or failed to prove the 
charge brought against him.  In this sense it is now little 
used, except in Scottish law in the forms assoilzie and 
absolvitor. The ecclesiastical use of the word is essentially 
different from the civil.  It refers not to an accusation, 
but to sin actually committed (after baptism); and it denotes 
the setting of the sinner free from the guilt of the sin, or 
from its ecclesiastical penalty (excommunication), or from 
both.  The authority of the church or minister to pronounce 
absolution is based on John xx. 23; Matt. xviii. 18; James v. 
16, &c. In primitive times, when confession of sins was made 
before the congregation, the absolution was deferred till 
the penance was completed; and there is no record of the use 
of any special formula.  Men were also encouraged, e.g. by 
Chrysostom, to confess their secret sins secretly to God. In 
course of time changes grew up. (1) From the 3rd century onwards, 
secret (auricular) confession before a bishop or priest was 
practised.  For various reasons it became more and more common, 
until the fourth Lateran council (1215) ordered all Christians 
of the Roman obedience to make a confession once a year at 
least.  In the Greek church also private confession has become 
obligatory. (2) In primitive times the penitent was reconciled 
by imposition of hands by the bishop with or without the clergy: 
gradually the office was left to be discharged by priests, 
and the outward action more and more disused. (3) It became 
the custom to give the absolution to penitents immediately 
after their confession and before the penance was performed. 
(4) Until the Middle Ages the form of absolution after private 
confession was of the nature of a prayer, such as ``May the 
Lord absolve thee''; and this is still the practice of the Greek 
church.  But about the 13th century the Roman formula was 
altered, and the council of Trent (1551) declared that the 
``form'' and power of the sacrament of penance lay in the 
words Ego te absolvo, &c., and that the accompanying prayers 
are not essential to it.  Of the three forms of absolution 
in the Anglican Prayer Book, that in the Visitation of the 
Sick (disused in the church of Ireland by decision of the 
Synods of 1871 and 1877) runs ``I absolve thee,'' tracing 
the authority so to act through the church up to Christ: 
the form in the Communion Service is precative, while that 
in Morning and Evening Prayer is indicative indeed, but so 
general as not to imply anything like a judicial decree of 
absolution.  In the Lutheran church also the practice of 
private confession survived the Reformation, together with 
both the exhibitive (I forgive, &c.) and declaratory (I declare 
and pronounce) forms of absolution.  In granting absolution, 
even after general confession, it is in some places still 
the custom for the minister, where the numbers permit of 
it, to lay his hands on the head of each penitent. (W. O. B.) 

ABSOLUTISM, in aesthetics, a term applied to the theory 
that beauty is an objective attribute of things, not merely 
a subjective feeling of pleasure in him who perceives.  It 
follows that there is an absolute standard of the beautiful by 
which all objects can be judged.  The fact that, in practice, 
the judgments even of connoisseurs are perpetually at variance, 
and that the so-called criteria of one place or period are 
more or less opposed to those of all others, is explained away 
by the hypothesis that individuals are differently gifted in 
respect of the capacity to appreciate. (See AESTHETICS.) 

In political philosophy absolutism, as opposed to constitutional 
government, is the despotic rule of a sovereign unrestrained by 
laws and based directly upon force.  In the strict sense such 
governments are rare. but it is customary to apply the term to a 
state at a relatively backward stage of constitutional development. 

ABSORPTION OF LIGHT. The term ``absorption'' (from Lat. 
absorbere) means literally ``sucking up'' or ``swallowing,'' and 
thus a total incorporation in something, literally or figuratively; 
it is technically used in animal physiology for the function of 
certain vessels which suck up fluids; and in light and optics 
absorption spectrum and absorption band are terms used in 
the discussion of the transformation of rays in various media. 

If a luminous body is surrounded by empty space, the light 
which it emits suffers no loss of energy as it travels 
outwards.  The intensity of the light diminishes merely 
because the total energy, though unaltered, is distributed 
over a wider and wider surface as the rays diverge from the 
source.  To prove this, it will be sufficient to mention that 
an exceedingly small deficiency in the transparency of the free 
aether would be sufficient to prevent the light of the fixed 
stars from reaching the earth, since their distances are so 
immense.  But when light is transmitted through a material 
medium, it always suffers some loss, the light energy being 
absorbed by the medium, that is, converted partially or 
wholly into other forms of energy such as heat, a portion of 
which transformed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy 
of a lower frequency.  Even the most transparent bodies known 
absorb an appreciable portion of the light transmitted through 
them.  Thus the atmosphere absorbs a part of the sun's 
rays, and the greater the distance which the rays have to 
traverse the greater is the proportion which is absorbed, 
so that on this account the sun appears less bright towards 
sunset.  On the other hand, light can penetrate some distance 
into all substances, even the most opaque, the absorption 
being, however, extremely rapid in the latter case. 

The nature of the surface of a body has considerable 
influence on its power of absorbing light.  Platinum 
black, for instance, in which the metal is in a state of 
fine division, absorbs nearly all the light incident on 
it, while polished platinum reflects the greater part.  In 
the former case the light penetrating between the particles 
is unable to escape by reflexion, and is finally absorbed. 

The question of absorption may be considered from either of 
two points of view.  We may treat it as a superficial effect, 
especially in the case of bodies which are opaque enough or 
thick enough to prevent all transmission of light, and we 
may investigate how much is reflected at the surface and how 
much is absorbed; or, on the other hand, we may confine our 
attention to the light which enters the body and inquire into 
the relation between the decay of intensity and the depth of 
penetration.  We shall take these two cases separately. 

Absorptive Power.--When none of the radiations which fall 
on a body penetrates through its substance, then the ratio 
of the amount of radiation of a given wave-length which 
is absorbed to the total amount received is called the 
``absorptive power'' of the body for that wave-length.  
Thus if the body absorbed half the incident radiation its 
absorptive power would be  1/2, and if it absorbed all the 
incident radiation its absorptive power would be 1. A body 
which absorbs all radiations of all wavelengths would be 
called a ``perfectly black body.'' No such body actually 
exists, but such substances as lamp-black and platinum-black 
approximately fulfil the condition.  The fraction of the 
incident radiation which is not absorbed by a body gives a 
measure of its reflecting power, with which we are not here 
concerned.  Most bodies exhibit a selective action on light, 
that is to say, they readily absorb light of particular 
wave-lengths, light of other wave-lengths not being largely 
absorbed.  All bodies when heated emit the same kind of 
radiations which they absorb---an important principle known 
as the principle of the equality of radiating and absorbing 
powers.  Thus black substances such as charcoal are very 
luminous when heated.  A tile of white porcelain with a black 
pattern on it mill, if heated red-hot, show the pattern bright 
on a darker ground.  On the other hand, those substances 
which either are good reflectors or good transmitters, are 
not so luminous at the same temperature; for instance, melted 
silver, which reflects well, is not so luminous as carbon 
at the same temperature, and common salt, which is very 
transparent for most kinds of radiation, when poured in a 
fused condition out of a bright red-hot crucible, looks almost 
like water, showing only a faint red glow for a moment or 
two.  But all such bodies appear to lose their distinctive 
properties when heated in a vessel which nearly encloses them, 
for in that case those radiations which they do not emit are 
either transmitted through them from the walls of the vessel 
behind, or else reflected from their surface.  This fact may 
be expressed by saying that the radiation within a heated 
enclosure is the same as that of a perfectly black body. 

Coefficient of Absorption, and Law of Absorption.---The law 
which governs the rate of decay of light intensity in passing 
through any medium may be readily obtained.  If I0 represents 
the intensity of the light which enters the surface, I1 the 
intensity after passing through 1 centimetre, I2 the intensity 
after passing through 2 centimetres, and so on; then we should 
expect that whatever fraction of I0 is absorbed in the first 
centimetre, the same fraction of I1 will be absorbed in the 
second.  That is, if an amount jI0 is absorbed in the first 
centimetre, JI1 is absorbed in the second, and so on.  We have then 
               I1 = I0(1--j)
               I2 = I1(1--j) = I0(1--j)2
               I3 = I2(1--j) = I0(1--j)3
and so on, so that if I is the intensity after 
passing through a thickness t in centimetres 
                   I = I0(1--j)t                    (1).
We might call j, which is the proportion absorbed in one 
centimetre, the ``coefficient of absorption'' of the medium. 
 1/2t would, however, not then apply to the case of a body 
for which the whole light is absorbed in less than one 
centimetre.  It is better then to define the coefficient of 
absorption as a quantity k such that k/n of the light is 
absorbed in 1/nth part of a centimetre, where n may be 
taken to be a very large number.  The formula (1) then becomes 
                    I=I0e-kt                    (2)
where e is the base of Napierian logarithms, and 
k is a constant which is practically the same 
as for bodies which do not absorb very rapidly. 

There is another coefficient of absorption (k) which occurs 
in Helmholtz's theory of dispersion (see DISPERSION.) 
It is closely related to the coefficient k which we have 
just defined, the equation connecting the two being k=4
pk/l, l being the wavelength of the incident light. 

The law of absorption expressed by the formula (2) has been 
verified by experiments for various solids, liquids and 
gases.  The method consists in comparing the intensity after 
transmission through a layer of known thickness of the absorbent 
with the intensity of light from the same source which has 
not passed through the medium, k being thus obtained for 
various thicknesses and found to be constant.  In the case of 
solutions, if the absorption of the solvent is negligible, the 
eflect of increasing the concentration of the absorbing solute 
is the same as that of increasing the thickness in the same 
ratio.  In a similar way the absorption of light in the 
coloured gas chlorine is found to be unaltered if the thickness 
is reduced by compression, because the density is increased 
in the same ratio that the thickness is reduced.  This is 
not strictly the case, however, for such gases and vapours 
as exhibit well-defined bands of absorption in the spectrum, 
as these bands are altered in character by compression. 

If white light is allowed to fall on some coloured 
solutions, the transmitted light is of one colour when the 
thickness of the solution is small, and of quite another 
colour if the thickness is great.  This curious phenomenon 
is known as dichromatism (from di-, two, and chroma, 
colour).  Thus, when a strong light is viewed through a 
solution of chlorophyll, the light seen is a brilliant green 
if the thickness is small, but a deep blood-red for thicker 
layers.  This effect can be explained as follows.  The solution 
is moderately transparent for a large number of rays in the 
neighborhoodood of the green part of the spectrum; it is, 
on the whole, much more opaque for red rays, but is readily 
penetrated by certain red rays belonging to a narrow region 
of the spectrum.  The small amount of red transmitted is at 
first quite overpowered by the green, but having a smaller 
coefficient of absorption, it becomes finally predominant.  
The effect is complicated, in the case of chlorophyll and 
many other bodies, by selective reflexion and fluorescence. 

For the molecular theory of absorption, see SPECTROSCOPY. 
REFERENCES.---A.  Schuster's Theory of Optics (1904); P. K. L. 
Drude's Theory of Optics (Eng. trans., 1902); F. H. Wullner's 
Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Bd. iv. (1899). (J. R. C.) 

ABSTEMII (a Latin word. from abs. away from. temetum. 
intoxicating liquor, from which is derived the English 
``abstemious'' or temperate), a name formerly given to such 
persons as could not partake of the cup of the Eucharist 
on account of their natural aversion to wine.  Calvinists 
allowed these to communicate in the species of bread only, 
touching the cup with their lip; a course which was deemed a 
profanation by the Lutherans.  Among several Protestant sects, 
both in Great Britain and America, abstemii on a somewhat 
different principle have appeared in modern times.  These are 
total abstainers, who maintain that the use of stimulants is 
essentially sinful, and allege that the wine used by Christ and 
his disciples at the supper was unfermented.  They accordingly 
communicate in the unfermented ``juice of the grape.'' 

ABSTINENCE (from Lat. abstinere, to abstain), the fact 
or habit of refraining from anything, but usually from the 
indulgence of the appetite and especially from strong drink. 
``Total abstinence'' and ``total abstainer'' are associated 
with taking the pledge to abstain from alcoholic liquor (see 
TEMPERANCE.) In the discipline of the Christian Church 
abstinence is the term for a less severe form of Fasting (q.v..) 

ABSTRACTION (Lat. abs and trahere), the process or 
result of drawing away; that which is drawn away, separated or 
derived.  Thus the noun is used for a summary, compendium 
or epitome of a larger work, the gist of which is given in 
a concentrated form.  Similarly an absent-minded man is said 
to be ``abstracted,'' as paying no attention to the matter in 
hand.  In philosophy the word has several closely related 
technical senses. (1) In formal logic it is applied to those 
terms which denote qualities, attributes, circumstances, 
as opposed to concrete terms, the names of things; thus 
``friend'' is concrete, ``friendship'' abstract.  The term 
which expresses the connotation of a word is therefore an 
abstract term, though it is probably not itself connotative; 
adjectives are concrete, not abstract, e.g. ``equal'' is 
concrete, ``equality'' abstract (cf. Aristotle's aphaeresis 
and prosthesis.) (2) The process of abstraction takes 
an important place both in psychological and metaphysical 
speculation.  The psychologist finds among the earliest 
of his problems the question as to the process from the 
perception of things seen and heard to mental conceptions, 
which are ultimately distinct from immediate perception 
(see PSYCHOLOGY.) When the mind, beginning with isolated 
individuals, groups them together in virtue of perceived 
resemblances and arrives at a unity in plurality, the process 
by which attention is diverted from individuals and concentrated 
on a single inclusive concept (i.e. classification) is one of 
abstraction.  All orderly thought and all increase of knowledge 
depend partly on establishing a clear and accurate connexion 
between particular things and general ideas, rules and 
principles.  The nature of the resultant concepts belongs 
to the great controversy between Nominalism, Realism and 
Conceptualism.  Metaphysics, again, is concerned with the 
ultimate problems of matter and spirit; it endeavours to go 
behind the phenomena of sense and focus its attention on the 
fundamental truths which are the only logical bases of natural 
science.  This, again, is a process of abstraction, the 
attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete 
individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence.  
The final step in the process is the conception of the Absolute 
(q.v.), which is abstract in the most complete sense. 

Abstraction differs from Analysis, inasmuch as its object is to 
select a particular quality for consideration in itself as it is 
found in all the ob)ects to which it belongs, whereas analysis 
considers all the qualities which belong to a single object. 

ABSTRACT OF TITLE, in English law, an epitome of the 
various instruments and events under and in consequence 
of which the vendor of an estate derives his title 
thereto.  Such an abstract is, upon the sale or mortgage 
of an estate, prepared by some competent person for the 
purchaser or mortgagee, and verified by his solicitor by a 
comparison with the original deeds. (See CONVEYANCING.) 

ABT, FRANZ (1819-1885), German composer, was born on the 
22nd of December 1819 at Eilenburg, Saxony, and died at 
Wiesbaden on the 31st of March 1885.  The best of his popular 
songs have become part of the recognized art-folk-music of 
Germany; his vocal works, solos, part-songs, &c., enjoyed 
an extraordinary vogue all over Europe in the middle of the 
19th century, but in spite of their facile tunefulness have 
few qualities of lasting beauty.  Abt was kapellmeister 
at Bernburg in 1841, at Zurich in the same year and at 
Brunswick from 1852 to 1882, when he retired to Wiesbaden. 

ABU, a mountain of Central India, situated in 24 deg.  36' N. 
lat. and 72 deg.  43' E. long., within the Rajputana state of 
Sirohi.  It is an isolated spur of the Aravalli range, being 
completely detached from that chain by a narrow valley 7 
miles across, in which flows the western Banas.  It rises 
from the surrounding plains of Marwar like a precipitous 
granite island, its various peaks ranging from 4000 to 5653 
feet.  The elevations and platforms of the mountain are 
covered with elaborately sculptured shrines, temples and 
tombs.  On the top of the hill is a small round platform 
containing a cavern, with a block of granite, bearing the 
impression of the feet of Data-Bhrigu, an incarnation of 
Vishnu.  This is the chief place of pilgrimage for the 
Jains, Shrawaks and Banians.  The two principal temples are 
situated at Deulwara, about the middle of the mountain, and 
five miles south-west of Guru Sikra, the highest summit.  
They are built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for 
their beauty and as typical specimens of Jain architecture in 
India.  The more modern of the two was built by two brothers, 
rich merchants, between the years 1197 and 1247, and for 
delicacy of carving and minute beauty of detail stands 
almost unrivalled, even in this land of patient and lavish 
labour.  The other was built by another merchant prince, Vimala 
Shah, apparently about A.D. 1032, and, although simpler and 
bolder in style, is as elaborate as good taste would allow 
in a purely architectural object.  It is one of the oldest as 
well as one of the most complete examples of Jain architecture 
known.  The principal object within the temple is a cell 
lighted only from the door, containing a cross-legged seated 
figure of the god Parswanath.  The portico is composed of 
forty-eight pillars, the whole enclosed in an oblong courtyard 
about 140 feet by 90 feet, surrounded by a double colonnade 
of smaller pillars, forming porticos to a range of fifty-five 
cells, which enclose it on all sides, exactly as they do in 
a Buddhist monastery (vihara.) In this temple, however, 
each cell, instead of being the residence of R monk, is 
occupied by an image of Parswanath, and over the door, or on 
the jambs of each, are sculptured scenes from the life. of the 
deity.  The whole interior is magnificently ornamented. 

Abu is now the summer residence of the governor-general's agent 
for Rajputana, and a place of resort for Europeans in the hot 
weather.  It is 16 miles from the Abu road station of the Rajputana 
railway.  The annual mean temperature is about 70 deg. , rising to 
90 deg.  in April; but the heat is never oppressive.  The annual 
rainfall is about 68 inches.  The hills are laid out with 
driving-roads and bridle-paths, and there is a beautiful little 
lake.  The chief buildings are a church, club, hospital and a 
Lawrence asylum school for the children of British soldiers. 

ABU-BEKR (573-634), the name (``Father of the virgin'') of 
the first of the Mahommedan caliphs (see CALIPH.) He was 
originally called Abd-el-Ka'ba (``servant of the temple''), 
and received the name by which he is known historically in 
consequence of the marriage of his virgin daughter Ayesha to 
Mahomet.  He was born at Mecca in the year A.D. 573, a 
Koreishite of the tribe of Beni-Taim.  Possessed of immense 
wealth, which he had himself acquired in commerce, and 
held in high esteem as a judge, an interpreter of dreams 
and a depositary of the traditions of his race, his early 
accession to Islamism was a fact of great importance.  On 
his conversion he assumed the name of Abd-Alla (servant of 
God).  His own belief in Mahomet and his doctrines was 
so thorough as to procure for him the title El Siddik 
(the faithful), and his success in gaining converts was 
correspondingly great.  In his personal relationship to the 
prophet he showed the deepest veneration and most unswerving 
devotion.  When Mahomet fled from Mecca, Abu-Bekr was 
his sole companion, and shared both his hardships and his 
triumphs, remaining constantly with him until the day of his 
death.  During his last illness the prophet indicated Abu-Bekr 
as his successor by desiring him to offer up prayer for the 
people.  The choice was ratified by the chiefs of the army, 
and ultimately confirmed, though Ali, Mahomet's son-in-law, 
disputed it, asserting his own title to the dignity.  After 
a time Ali submitted, but the difference of opinion as to his 
claims gave rise to the controversy which still divides the 
followers of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and 
Shiites.  Abu-Bekr had scarcely assumed his new position 
(632), under the title Califet-Resul-Allah (successor of the 
prophet of God), when he was called to suppress the revolt 
of the tribes Hejaz and Nejd, of which the former rejected 
Islamism and the latter refused to pay tribute.  He encountered 
formidable opposition from different quarters, but in every 
case he was successful, the severest struggle being that with 
the impostor Mosailima, who was finally defeated by Khalid 
at the battle of Akraba.  Abu-Bekr's zeal for the spread of 
the new faith was as conspicuous as that of its founder had 
been.  When the internal disorders had been repressed and 
Arabia completely subdued, he directed his generals to foreign 
conquest.  The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single 
campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into 
Syria.  After the hard-won victory over Mosailima, Omar, fearing 
that the sayings of the prophet would be entirely forgotten 
when those who had listened to them had all been removed by 
death, induced Abu-Bekr to see to their preservation in a written 
form.  The record, when completed, was deposited with Hafsa, 
daughter of Omar, and one of the wives of Mahomet.  It was held 
in great reverence by all Moslems, though it did not possess 
canonical authority, and furnished most of the materials out 
of which the Koran, as it now exists, was prepared.  When 
the authoritative version was completed all copies of Hafsa's 
record were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and 
divisions.  Abu-Bekr died on the 23rd of August 634. Shortly 
before his death, which one tradition ascribes to poison, 
another to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor, 
after the manner Mahomet had observed in his own case. 

ABU HAMED, a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan on the right 
bank of the Nile, 345 m. by rail N. of Khartum.  It stands 
a4 the centre of the great S-shaped bend of the Nile, and 
from it the railway to Wadi Halfa strikes straight across 
the Nubian desert, a little west of the old caravan route to 
Korosko.  A branch railway, 138 m. long, from Abu Hamed 
goes down the right bank of the Nile to Kareima in the 
Dongola mudiria.  The town is named after a celebrated 
sheikh buried here, by whose tomb travellers crossing the 
desert used formerly to deposit all superfluous goods, 
the sanctity of the saint's tomb ensuring their safety. 

ABU HANIFA AN-NU`MAN IBN THABIT, Mahommedan canon 
lawyer, was born at Kufa in A.H. 80 (A.D. 699) of non-Arab 
and probably Persian parentage.  Few events of his life are 
known to us with any certainty.  He was a silk-dealer and a 
man of considerable means, so that he was able to give his 
time to legal studies.  He lectured at Kufa upon canon law 
(fiqh) and was a consulting lawyer (mufti), but refused 
steadily to take any public post.  When al-Mansur, however, 
was building Bagdad (145--140) Abu Hanifa was one of the 
four overseers whom he appointed over the craftsmen (G. Le 
Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, p. 17). In 
A.H. 150 (A.D. 767) he died there under circumstances which 
are very differently reported.  A persistent but apparently 
later tradition asserts that he died in prison after severe 
beating, because he refused to obey al-Mansur's command to act 
as a judge (cadi, qadi.) This was to avoid a responsibility 
for which he felt unfit ---a frequent attitude of more pious 
Moslems.  Others say that al-Mahdi, son of al-Mansur, actually 
constrained him to be a judge and that he died a few days 
after.  It seems certain that he did suffer imprisonment and 
beating for this reason, at the hands of an earlier governor 
of Kufa under the Omayyads (Ibn Qutaiba, Ma`arif, p. 
248).  Also that al-Mansur desired to make him judge, but 
compromised upon his inspectorship of buildings (so in Tabari).  
A late story is that the judgeship was only a pretext with 
al-Mansur, who considered him a partisan of the `Alids and 
a helper with his wealth of Ibrahim ibn'Abd Allah in his 
insurrection at Kufa in 145 (Weil, Geschichte, ii. 53 ff.). 

For many personal anecdotes see de Slane's transl. of 
Ibn Khalhkan iii. 555 ff., iv. 272 ff.  For his place 
as a speculative jurist in the history of canon law, see 
MAHOMMEDAN LAW.  He was buried in eastern Bagdad, where 
his tomb still exists, one of the few surviving sites from 
the time of ahmansur, the founder. (Le Strange 191 ff.) 

See C. Brockelmann, Geschichte, i. 169 ff.; Nawawi's Biogr.  
Dict. pp. 698-770: Ibn Hajar al-Haitami's Biography, publ.  Cairo, 
A.H. 1304; legal bibliography under MAHOMMEDAN LAW) (D. B. MA.) 

ABU KLEA, a halting-place for caravans in the Bayuda 
Desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.  It is on the road from Merawi 
to Metemma and 20 m.  N. of the Nile at the last-mentioned 
place.  Near this spot, on the 17th of January 1885, a British 
force marching to the relief of General Gordon at Khartum 
was attacked by the Mahdists, who were repulsed.  On the 
19th, when the British force was nearer Metemma, the Mahdists 
renewed the attack, again unsuccessfully.  Sir Herbert 
Stewart, the commander of the British force, was mortally 
wounded on the 19th, and among the killed on the 17th was 
Col. F. G. Burnaby (see EGYPT, Military Operations.) 

ABU-L-`ALA UL-MA.ARRI [Abu-l-`Alaa Ahmad ibn `Abdallah 
ibn Sulaiman] (973-1057), Arabian poet and letter-writer, 
belonged to the South Arabian tribe Tanukh, a part of which 
had migrated to Syria before the time of Islam.  He was born 
in 973 at Ma'arrat un-Nu`man, a Syrian town nineteen hours' 
journey south of Aleppo, to the governor of which it was 
subject at that time.  He lost his father while he was still 
an infant, and at the age of four lost his eyesight owing to 
smallpox.  This, however, did not prevent him from attending 
the lectures of the best teachers at Aleppo, Antioch and 
Tripoli.  These teachers were men of the first rank, who 
had been attracted to the court of Saif-ud-Daula, and their 
teaching was well stored in the remarkable memory of the 
pupil.  At the age of twenty-one Abu-l-'Ala returned to 
Ma`arra, where he received a pension of thirty dinars 
yearly.  In 1007 he visited Bagdad, where he was admitted 
to the literary circles, recited in the salons, academies 
and mosques, and made the acquaintance of men to whom he 
addressed some of his letters later.  In 1009 he returned to 
Ma`arra, where he spent the rest of his life in teaching and 
writing.  During this period of scholarly quiet he developed 
his characteristic advanced views on vegetarianism, cremation 
of the dead and the desire for extinction after death. 

Of his works the chief are two collections of his poetry and 
two of his letters.  The earlier poems up to 1029 are of the 
kind usual at the time.  Under the title of Saqt uz-Zand they 
have been published in Bulaq (1869), Beirut (1884) and Cairo 
(1886).  The poems of the second collection, known as the 
Luzum ma lam ralzann, or the Luzumiy'yat, are written 
with the difficult rhyme in two consonants instead of one, 
and contain the more original, mature and somewhat pessimistic 
thoughts of the author on mutability, virtue, death, &c. 
They have been published in Bombay (1886) and Cairo (1889) 
. The letters on various literary and social subjects were 
published with commentary by Shain Effendi in Beirut (1894), 
and with English translation, &c., by prof.  D. S. Margoliouth 
in Oxford (1898).  A second collection of letters, known 
as the Risalat ul-Ghufran, was summarized and partially 
translated by R. A. Nicholson in the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society (1900, pp. 637 ff.; 1902, pp. 75 ff., 337 
ff., 813 ff.). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.---C.  Rieu, De Abu-l-`Alae 
Poetae Arabici vita et carminibus (Bonn, 1843); A. von 
Kremer, Uber die philosophischen Gedichte des Abu-l-.Ala 
(Vienna, 1888); cf. also the same writer's articles in the 
Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft 
(vols. xxix., xxx., xxxi. and xxxviii.).  For his life see the 
introduction to D. S. Margoliouth's edition of the letters, 
supplemented by the same writer's articles ``Abu-l-`Ala 
al-Ma`arri's Correspondence on Vegetarianism'' in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society (1902, pp. 289 ff.). (G. W. T.) 

ABU-L-`ATAHIYA [Abu Ishaq Isma`il ibn Qasim 
al-`Anazi] (748-828), Arabian poet, was born at Ain ut-Tamar 
in the Hijaz near Medina.  His ancestors were of the tribe of 
Anaza.  His youth was spent in Kufa, where he was engaged 
for some time in selling pottery.  Removing to Bagdad, he 
continued his business there, but became famous for his 
verses, especially for those addressed to Utba, a slave of 
the caliph al-Mahdi.  His affection was unrequited, although 
al-Mahdi, and after him Harun al-Rashid, interceded for 
him.  Having offended the caliph, he was in prison for a short 
time.  The latter part of his life was more ascetic.  He died in 
828 in the reign of al-Ma`mun.  The poetry of Abu-l-'Atahiya 
is notable for its avoidance of the artificiality almost 
universal in his days.  The older poetry of the desert had 
been constantly imitated up to this time, although it was 
not natural to town life.  Abu-l-'Atahiya was one of the 
first to drop the old qasida (elegy) form.  He was very 
fluent and used many metres.  He is also regarded as one of 
the earliest philosophic poets of the Arabs.  Much of his 
Poetry is concerned with the observation of common life and 
morality, and at times is pessimistic.  Naturally, under 
the circumstances, he was strongly suspected of heresy. 

His poems (Diwan) with life from Arabian sources have 
been published at the Jesuit Press in Beirut (1887, 
2nd ed. 1888).  On his position in Arabic literature 
see W. Ahlwardt, Diwan des Abu Nowas (Greifswald, 
1861), pp. 21 ff.; A. von Kremer, Culturgeschichte des 
Orients (Wien, 1877), vol. ii. pp. 372 ff. (G. W. T.) 

ABULPARAJ [Abu-l-Faraj,Ah ibn ul-Husain ul-Isbahani] 
(897--967), Arabian scholar, was a member of the tribe of the 
Quraish (Koreish) and a direct descendant of Marwan, the last 
of the Omayyad caliphs.  He was thus connected with the Omayyad 
rulers in Spain, and seems to have kept up a correspondence with 
them and to have sent them some of his works.  He was born in 
Ispahan, but spent his youth and made his early studies in 
Bagdad.  He became famous for his knowledge of early Arabian 
antiquities.  His later life was spent in various parts of 
the Moslem world, in Aleppo with Saif-ud-Daula (to whom he 
dedicated the Book of Songs), in Rai with the Buyid vizier 
Ibn'Abbad and elsewhere.  In his last years he lost his 
reason.  In religion he was a Shiite.  Although he wrote 
poetry, also an anthology of verses on the monasteries of 
Mesopotamia and Egypt, and a genealogical work, his fame rests 
upon his Book of Songs (Kitab ul-Aghani), which gives 
an account of the chief Arabian songs, ancient and modern, 
with the stories of the composers and singers.  It contains 
a mass of information as to the life and customs of the early 
Arabs, and is the most Valuable authority we have for their 
pre-Islamic and early Moslem days.  A part of it was published 
by J. G. L. Rosegarten with Latin translation (Greifswald, 
1840).  The text was published in 20 vols. at Bulaq in 
1868.  Vol. xxi. was edited by R. E. Brunnow (Leyden, 
1888).  A volume of elaborate indices was edited by I. Guidi 
(Leyden, 1900), and a missing fragment of the text was 
published by J. Wellhausen in the Zeitschrift der deutschen 
morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol; 50, pp. 146 ff. 
Biographical Dictionary, vol. ii. pp. 249 ff. (G. W. T.) 

ABUL PAZL, wazir and historiographer of the great Mogul 
emperor, Akbar, was born in the year A.D. 1551.  His 
career as a minister of state, brilliant though it was, 
would probably have been by this time forgotten but for the 
record he himself has left of it in his celebrated history.  
The Akbar Nameh, or Book of Akbar, as Abul Fazl's chief 
literary work, written in Persian, is called, consists of two 
parts--the first being a complete history of Akbar's reign 
and the second, entitled Ain-i-Akbari, or Institutes of 
Akbar, being an account of the religious and political 
constitution and administration of the empire.  The style is 
singularly elegant, and the contents of the second part possess 
a unique and lasting interest.  An excellent translation 
of the Ain by Francis Gladwin was published in Calcutta, 
1783-1786.  It was reprinted in London very inaccurately, 
and copies of the original edition are now exceedingly rare 
and correspondingly valuable.  It was also translated by 
Professor Blockmann in 1848.  Abul Fazl died by the hand of 
an assassin, while returning from a mission to the Deccan in 
1602.  The murderer was instigated by Prince Sehm, afterwards 
Jahangir, who had become jealous of the minister's influence. 

ABULFEDA [Abud-Fida' Isma'Il ibn'Ah,Imad-ud-Dni] 
(1273-1331), Arabian historian and geographer, was born at 
Damascus, whither his father Malik ul-Afdal, brother of 
the prince of Hamah, had fled from the Mongols.  He was a 
descendant of Ayyub, the father of Saladin.  In his boyhood 
he devoted himself to the study of the Koran and the sciences, 
hut from his twelfth year was almost constantly engaged in 
military expeditions, chiefly against the crusaders.  In 1285 
he was present at the assault of a stronghold of the knights 
of St John, and he took part in the sieges of Tripoli, Acre 
and Qal'at ar-Rum.  In 1298 he entered the service of the 
Mameluke Sultan Malik al-Nasir and after twelve years was 
invested by him with the governorship of Hamah.  In 1312 he 
became prince with the title Malik us-Salhn, and in 1320 
received the hereditary rank of sultan with the title Malik 
ul-Mu'ayyad.  For more than twenty years altogether he reigned 
in tranquillity and splendour, devoting himself to the duties 
of government and to the composition of the works to which 
he is chiefly indebted for his fame.  He was a munificent 
patron of men of letters, who came in large numbers to his 
court.  He died in 1331.  His chief historical work in 
An Abridgment of the History at the Human Race, in the 
form of annals extending from the creation of the world 
to the year 1329 (Constantinople, 2 vols. 1869).  Various 
translations of parts of it exist, the earliest being a Latin 
rendering of the section relating to the Arabian conquests in 
Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic professor at Palermo, in 1610 
(preserved in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol. 
i.).  The section dealing with the pre-Islamitic period 
was edited with Latin translation by H. O. Fleischer under 
the title Abulfedae Historia Ante-Islamica (Leipzig, 
1831).  The part dealing with the Mahommedan period was 
edited, also with Latin translation, by J. J. Reiske as 
Annales Muslemici (5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789--1794) . His 
Geography is, like much of the history, founded on the 
works of his predecessors, and so ultimately on the work of 
Ptolemy.  A long introduction on various geographical matters 
is followed by twenty-eight sections dealing in tabular 
form with the chief towns of the world.  After each name 
are given the longitude, latitude, ``climate,'' spelling, 
and then observations generally taken from earlier authors.  
Parts of the work were published and translated as early 
as 1650 (cf. Carl Brockelmann's Geschichte der Arabischen 
Litteratur, Berlin, 1902, vol. ii. pp. 44-46).  The text 
of the whole was published by M`G. de Slane and M. Reinaud 
(Paris, 1840), and a French translation with introduction by 
M. Reinaud and Stanislas Guyard (Paris, 1848-1883). (G. W. T.) 

ABU-L-QASIM [Khalaf ibn'Abbas uz-Zahrawi], Arabian 
physician and surgeon, generally known in Europe as 
ABULCASIS, flourished in the tenth century at Cordova as 
physician to the caliph 'Abdur-Rahman III. (912--961).  No 
details of his life are known.  A part of his compendium 
of medicine was published in Latin in the 16th century as 
Liber theoricae nec non practicae Alsaharavii (Augsburg, 
1519).  His manual of surgery was published at Venice in 
1497, at Basel in 1541, and at Oxford Abulcasis de Chirurgia 
arabice et latine cura Johannis Channing (2 vols. 1778). 

For his other works see Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen 
Litteratur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 239-240. (G. W. T.) 

ABUNDANTIA (``Abundance''), a Roman goddess, the personification 
of prosperity and good fortune.  Modelled after the Greek Demeter, 
she is practically identical with Copia, Annona and similar 
goddesses.  On the coins of the later Roman emperors she is 
frequently represented holding a cornucopia, from which she 
shakes her gifts, thereby at the same time in- dicating the 
liberality of the emperor or empress.  She may be compared 
with Domina Abundia (Old Fr. Dame Habonde, Notre Dame 
d'Abondance), whose name often occurs in poems of the Middle 
Ages, a beneficent fairy, who brought plenty to those whom she 
visited (Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, tr. 1880, i. 286-287). 

ABU NUWAS [Abu,Ah Hal-asan ibn Hani'al-Hakami] (c. 
756-810), known as Abu Nuwas, Arabian poet, was born in al 
Ahwaz, probably about 756. His mother was a Persian, his 
father a soldier, a native of Damascus.  His studies were made 
in Basra under Abu Zaid and Abu'Ubaida (q.v.), and in 
Kufa under Khalaf al-Ahmar.  He is also said to have spent a 
year with the Arabs in the desert to gain purity of language.  
Settling in Bagdad he enjoyed the favour of Harun al-Rashid 
and al-Amin, and died there probably about 810. The greater 
part of his life was characterized by great licentiousness 
and disregard of religion, but in his later days he became 
ascetic.  Abu Nuwas is recognized as the greatest poet of his 
time.  His mastery of language has led to extensive quotation 
of his verses by Arabian scholars.  Genial, cynical, immoral, he 
drew on all the varied life of his time for the material of his 
poems.  In his wine-songs especially the manners of the upper 
classes of Bagdad are revealed.  He was one of the first to 
ridicule the set form of the qasida (elegy) as unnatural, 
and has satirized this form in several poems.  See I. Goldziher, 
Abhandlungen zur Arabischen Philologie (Leyden, 1896), 
i. pp. 145 ff.  His poems were collected by several Arabian 
editors.  One such collection (the MS. of which is now in 
Vienna) contains nearly 5000 verses grouped under the ten 
headings: wine, hunting, praise, satire, love of youths, love 
of women, obscenities, blame, elegies, renunciation of the 
world.  His collected poems (Diwan) have been published 
in Cairo (1860) and in Beirut (1884).  The wine-songs 
were edited by W. Ahlwardt under the title Diwan des Abu 
Nowas. 1. Die lveinlieder (Greifswald, 1861). (G. W. T.) 

ABU SIMBEL, or IPSAMBUL, the name of a group of temples 
of Rameses II. (c. 1250 B.C.) in Nubia, on the left 
bank of the Nile, 56 m. by river S. of Korosko.  They are 
hewn in the cliffs at the riverside, at a point where the 
sandstone hills on the west reach the Nile and form the 
southern boundary of a wider portion of the generally barren 
valley.  The temples are three in number.  The principal 
temple, probably the greatest and most imposing of all rock-hewn 
monuments, was discovered by Burckhardt in 1812 and opened by 
Belzoni in 1817. (The front has been cleared several times, 
most recently in 1892, but the sand is always pressing forward 
from the north end.) The hillside was recessed to form the 
facade, backed against which four immense seated colossi of 
the king, in pairs on either side of the entrance, rise from 
a platform or forecourt reached from the river by a flight of 
steps.  The colossi are no less than 65 ft. in height, of 
nobly placid design, and are accompanied by smaller figures 
of Rameses' queen and their sons and daughters; behind and 
over them is the cornice, with the dedication below in a 
line of huge hieroglyphs, and a long row of apes, standing in 
adoration of the rising sun above.  The temple is dedicated 
primarily to the solar gods Amenre of Thebes and Raharakht of 
Heliopolis, the true sun god; it is oriented to the east so 
that the rays of the sun in the early morning penetrate the 
whole length of two great halls to the innermost sanctuary and 
fall upon the central figures of Amenre and Rameses, which are 
there enthroned with Ptah of Memphis and Raharakht on either 
side.  The interior of the temple is decorated with coloured 
sculpture of fine workmanship and in good preservation; the 
scenes are more than usually interesting; some are of religious 
import (amongst them Rameses as king making offerings to 
himself as god), others illustrate war in Syria, Libya and 
Ethiopia: another series depicts the events of the famous 
battle with the Hittites and their allies at Kadesh, in which 
Rameses saved the Egyptian camp and army by his personal 
valour.  Historical stelae of the same reign are engraved 
inside and outside the temple; the most interesting is that 
recording the marriage with a Hittite princess in the 34th 
year.  Not the least important feature of the temple belongs 
to a later age, when some Greek, Carian and Phoenician 
soldiers of one of the kings named Psammetichus (apparently 
Psammetichus II., 594-589 B.C.) inscribed their names upon 
the two southern colossi, doubtless the only ones then clear of 
sand.  These graffiti are of the highest value for the early 
history of the alphabet, and as proving the presence of Greek 
mercenaries in the Egyptian armies of the period.  The upper 
part of the second colossus (from the south) has fallen; 
the third was repaired by Sethos II. not many years after 
the completion of the temple.  This great temple was wholly 
rock-cut, and is now threatened by gradual ruin by sliding 
on the planes of stratification.  A small temple, immediately 
to the south of the first, is believed to have had a built 
antechamber: it is the earliest known example of a ``birth 
chapel,'' such as was usually attached to Ptolemaic temples 
for the accommodation of the divine mother-consort and her 
son.  The third and northernmost temple, separated from 
the others by a ravine, is on a large scale; the colossi of 
the facade are six in number and 53 ft. high, representing 
Rameses and his queen Nefrere, who dedicated the temple 
to the goddess Hathor.  The whole group forms a singular 
monument of Rameses' unbounded pride and self-glorification. 

See EGYPT; J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records, Egypt, 
vol. iii. pp. 124 et seq., esp. 212; ``The Temples 
of Lower Nubia,'' in the American Journal of Semitic 
Languages and Literatures, October 1906. (F. LL. G.) 

ABU TAMMAM [Habib ibn Aus] (807-846), Arabian poet, 
was, like Buhturi, of the tribe of Tai (though some say 
he was the son of a Christian apothecary named Thaddeus, 
and that his genealogy was forged).  He was born in Jasim 
(Josem), a place to the north-east of the Sea of Tiberias or 
near Manbij (Hierapolis).  He seems to have spent his youth 
in Homs, though, according to one story, he was employed 
during his boyhood in selling water in a mosque in Cairo.  
His first appearance as a poet was in Egypt, but as he failed 
to make a living there he went to Damascus and thence to 
Mosul.  From this place he made a visit to the governor of 
Armenia, who awarded him richly.  After 833 he lived mostly in 
Bagdad, at the court of the caliph Mo,tasim.  From Bagdad he 
visited Khorassan, where he enjoyed the favour of Abdallah ibn 
Tahir.  About 845 he was in Ma'arrat un Nu`man, where he met 
Buhturi.  He died in Mosul.  Abu Tammam is best known in 
literature as the compiler of the collection of early poems 
known as the Hamasa (q.v..) Two other h collections of 
a similar nature are ascribed to him.  His own poems I 
have been somewhat neglected owing to the success of his 
compilations, but they enjoyed great repute in his lifetime, 
and were distinguished for the purity of their style, the merit 
of the verse and the excellent manner of treating subjects.  
His poems (Diwan) were published in Cairo (A.D. 1875). 

See Life in Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, 
trans. by M`G. de Slane (Paris and London, 1842), vol. i. 
pp. 348 ff.; and in the Kitab ul-Aghani (Book of Songs) 
of Abulfaraj (Bulaq, 1869), vol. xv. pp. 100-108. (G.W.  T.) 

ABUTILON (from the Arabic aubutilun, a name given by 
Avicenna to this or an allied genus), in botany, a genus of 
plants, natural order Malvaceae (Mallows), containing about 
eighty species, and widely distributed in the tropics.  They 
are free-growing shrubs with showy bell-shaped flowers, and 
are favorite greenhouse plants.  They may be grown outside 
in England during the summer months, but a few degrees of 
frost is fatal to them.  They are readily propagated from 
cuttings taken in the spring or at the end of the summer.  A 
large number of horticultural varieties have been developed 
by hybridization, some of which have a variegated foliage. 

ABUTMENT, a construction in stone or brickwork designed to 
receive and resist the lateral pressure of an arch, vault or 
strut.  When built outside a wall it is termed a buttress. 

ABU UBAIDA [Ma,mar ibn ul-Muthanna] (728-825), Arabian 
scholar, was born a slave of Jewish Persian parents in Basra, 
and in his youth was a pupil of Abu,Amr ibn ul-,Ala.  In 
803 he was called to Bagdad by Harun al-Rashjd.  He died in 
Basra.  He was one of the most learned and authoritative 
scholars of his time in all matters pertaining to the Arabic 
language, antiquities and stories, and is constantly cited by 
later authors and compilers.  Juhiz held him to be the most 
learned scholar in all branches of human knowledge, and Ibn 
Hisbam accepted his interpretation even of passages in the 
Koran.  The titles of 105 of his works are mentioned in the 
Fihrist, and his Book of Days is the basis of parts of 
the history of Ibn al-Athir and of the Book of Songs 
(see ABULFARAJ), but nothing of his (except a song) seems to 
exist now in an independent form.  He is often described as a 
Kharijite.  This, however, is true only in so far as he 
denied the privileged position of the Arab people before 
God. He was, however, a strong supporter of the Shu'ubite 
movement, i.e. the movement which protested against the 
idea of the superiority of the Arab race over all others.  
This is especially seen in his satires on Arabs (which made 
him so hated that no man followed his bier when he died).  He 
delighted in showing that words, fables, customs, &c., which 
the Arabs believed to be peculiarly their own, were derived 
from the Persians.  In these matters he was the great rival 
of Asma'i (q.v..) M`G. de Slane (Paris and London, 1842), 
vol. iii. pp. 388-398; also I. Goldziher's Muhammedanische 
Studien (Halle, 1888), vol. i. pp. 194-206. (G. W. T.) 

ABYDOS, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at 
Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile 
broad.  It probably was originally a Thracian town, but was 
afterwards colonized by Milesians.  Here Xerxes crossed the 
strait on his bridge of boats when he invaded Greece.  Abydos 
is celebrated for the vigorous resistance it made against Philip 
V. of Macedon (200 B.C.), and is famed in story for the loves 
of Hero and Leander.  The town remained till late Byzantine 
times the toll station of the Hellespont, its importance being 
transferred to the Dardanelles (q.v.), after the building 
of the ``Old Castles'' by Sultan Mahommed II. (c. 1456). 

See Choiseul-Gouffier, Voyage dans l'empire ottoman (Paris, 1842). 

ABYDOS, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, 
about 7 m.  W. of the Nile in lat. 26 deg.  10' N. The Egyptian 
name was Abdu, ``the hill of the symbol or reliquary,'' 
in which the sacred head of Osiris was preserved.  Thence 
the Greeks named it Abydos, like the city on the Hellespont; 
the modern Arabic name is Arabet el Madfuneh. The history 
of the city begins in the late prehistoric age, it having 
been founded by the pre-Menite kings (Petrie, Abydos, 
ii. 64), whose town, temple and tombs have been found 
there.  The kings of the Ist dynasty, and some of the IInd 
dynasty, were also buried here, and the temple was renewed 
and enlarged by them.  Great forts were built on the desert 
behind the town by three kings of the IInd dynasty.  The 
temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down 
to the times of the XXXth dynasty, and the cemetery was used 
continuously.  In the XIIth dynasty a gigantic tomb was 
cut in the rock by Senwosri (or Senusert) III. Seti I. in 
the XIXth dynasty founded a great new temple to the south 
of the town in honour of the ancestral kings of the early 
dynasties; this was finished by Rameses (or Ramessu) II., who 
also built a lesser temple of his own.  Mineptah (Merenptah) 
added a great Hypogeum of Osiris to the temple of Seti.  The 
latest building was a new temple of Nekhtnebf in the XXXth 
dynasty.  From the Ptolemaic times the place continued to decay 
and no later works are known (Petrie, Abydos, i. and ii.). 

The worship here was of the jackal god Upuaut (Ophols, 
Wepwoi), who ``opened the way'' to the realm of the dead, 
increasing from the Ist dynasty to the time of the XIIth 
dynasty and then disappearing after the XVIIIth.  Anher 
appears in the XIth dynasty; and Khentamenti, the god of the 
western Hades, rises to importance in the middle kingdom and 
then vanishes in the XVIIIth.  The worship here of Osiris 
in his various forms begins in the XIIth dynasty and becomes 
more important in later times, so that at last the whole 
place was considered as sacred to him (Abydos, ii. 47). 

The temples successively built here on one site were nine 
or ten in number, from the Ist dynasty, 5500 B.C. to the 
XXVIth dynasty, 500 B.C..  The first was an enclosure, 
about 30X 50 ft., surrounded by a thin wall of unbaked 
bricks.  Covering one wall of this came the second temple of 
about 40 ft. square in a wall about 10 ft. thick.  An outer 
temenos (enclosure) wall surrounded the ground.  This outer 
wall was thickened about the IInd or IIIrd dynasty.  The old 
temple entirely vanished in the IVth dynasty, and a smaller 
building was erected behind it, enclosing a wide hearth of black 
ashes.  Pottery models of offerings are found in the ashes, 
and these were probably the substitutes for sacrifices decreed 
by Cheops (Khufu) in his temple reforms.  A great clearance of 
temple offerings was made now, or earlier, and a chamber full 
of them has yielded the fine ivory carvings and the glazed 
figures and tiles which show the splendid work of the Ist 
dynasty.  A vase of Menes with purple inlaid hieroglyphs 
in green glaze and the tiles with relief figures are the 
most important pieces.  The noble statuette of Cheops in 
ivory, found in the stone chamber of the temple, gives 
the only portrait of this greatest ruler.  The temple was 
rebuilt entirely on a larger scale by Pepi I. in the VIth 
dynasty.  He placed a great stone gateway to the temenos, an 
outer temenos wall and gateway, with a colonnade between the 
gates.  His temple was about 40X50 ft. inside, with stone 
gateways front and back, showing that it was of the processional 
type.  In the XIth dynasty Menthotp (Mentuhotep) III. added 
a colonnade and altars.  Soon after, Sankhkere entirely 
rebuilt the temple, laying a stone pavement over the area, 
about 45 ft. square, besides subsidiary chambers.  Soon after 
Senwosri (Senusert) I. in the XIIth dynasty laid massive 
foundations of stone over the pavement of his predecessor.  A 
great temenos was laid out enclosing a much larger area, and 
the temple itself was about three times the earlier size. . 

The XVIIIth dynasty began with a large chapel of Amasis 
(Ahmosi, Aahmes) I., and then Tethmosis (Thothmes, Tahutmes) 
III. built a far larger temple, about 130X200 ft.  He made 
also a processional way past the side of the temple to the 
cemetery beyond, with a great gateway of granite.  Rameses III. 
added a large building; and Amasis II. in the XXVIth dynasty 
rebuilt the temple again, and placed in it a large monolith 
shrine of red granite, finely wrought.  The foundations of 
the successive temples were comprised within about 18 ft. 
depth of ruins; these needed the closest examination to 
discriminate the various buildings, and were recorded by over 
4000 measurements and 1000 levellings (Petrie, Abydos, ii.). 

The temple of Seti I. was built on entirely new ground 
half a mile to the south of the long series of temples just 
described.  This is the building best known as the Great 
Temple of Abydos, being nearly complete and an impressive 
sight.  A principal object of it was the adoration of the early 
kings, whose cemetery, to which it forms a great funerary 
chapel, lies behind it.  The long list of the kings of the 
principal dynasties carved on a wall is known as the ``Table 
of Abydos.'' There were also seven chapels for the worship of 
the king and principal gods.  At the back were large chambers 
connected with the Osiris worship (Caulfield, Temple of the 
Kings); and probably from these led out the great Hypogeum 
for the celebration of the Osiris mysteries, built by Mineptah 
(Murray, Osireion.) The temple was originally 550 ft. long, 
but the forecourts are scarcely recognizable, and the part in 
good state is about 250 ft. long and 350 ft. wide, including 
the wing at the side.  Excepting the list of kings and a 
panegyric on Rameses II., the subjects are not historical but 
mythological.  The work is celebrated for its delicacy and 
refinement, but lacks the life and character of that in earlier 
ages.  The sculptures have been mostly published in hand copy, 
not facsimile, by Mariette in his Abydos, i.  The adjacent 
temple of Rameses II. was much smaller and simpler in plan; but 
it had a fine historical series of scenes around the outside, 
of which the lower parts remain.  A list of kings, similar 
to that of Seti, formerly stood here; but the fragments were 
removed by the French consul and sold to the British Museum. 

The Royal Tombs of the earliest dynasties were placed about 
a mile back on the great desert plain.  The earliest is about 
10X20ft. inside, a pit lined with brick walls, and originally 
roofed with timber and matting.  Others also before Menes 
are 15X25 ft.  The tomb probably of Menes is of the latter 
size.  After this the tombs increase 111 size and complexity.  
The tomb-pit is surrounded by chambers to hold the offerings, 
the actual sepulchre being a great wooden chamber in the 
midst of the brick-lined pit.  Rows of small tomb-pits for the 
servants of the king surround the royal chamber, many dozens 
of such burials being usual.  By the end of the IInd dynasty 
the type changed to a long passage bordered with chambers 
on either hand, the royal burial heing in the middle of the 
length.  The greatest of these tombs with its dependencies 
covered a space of over 3000 square yards.  The contents of 
the tombs have been nearly destroyed by successive plunderers; 
enough remained to show that rich jewellery was placed on the 
mummies, a profusion of vases of hard and valuable stones 
from the royal table service stood about the body, the 
store-rooms were filled with great jars of wine, perfumed 
ointment and other supplies, and tablets of ivory and of 
ebony were engraved with a record of the yearly annals of the 
reigns.  The sealings of the various officials, of which 
over 200 varieties have been found, give an insight into 
the public arrangements (Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. and ii.). 

The cemetery of private persons begins in the Ist dynasty with 
some pit tombs in the town.  It was extensive in the XIIth 
and XIIIth dynasties and contained many rich tombs.  In the 
XVIIIth-XXth dynasties a large number of fine tombs were made, 
and later ages continued to bury here till Roman times.  Many 
hundred funeral steles were removed by Mariette's workmen, 
without any record of the burials (Mariette, Abydos, ii. and 
iii.).  Later excavations have been recorded by Ayrton, Abydos, 
iii.; Maclver, El Amrah and Abydos; and Garstang, El Arabah. 

The forts lay behind the town.  That known as Shunet ez 
Zebib is about 450X250 ft. over all, and still stands 30 ft. 
high.  It was built by Rhasekhemui, the last king of the IInd 
dynasty.  Another fort nearly as large adjoined it, and 
is probably rather older.  A third fort of a squarer form 
is now occupied by the Coptic convent; its age cannot 
be ascertained (Ayrton, Abydos, iii.). (W. M. F. P.) 

ABYSS (Gr. a-, privative, bussos, bottom), a bottomless 
depth; hence any deep place.  From the late popular abyssimus 
(superlative of Lon Latin abyssus) through the French abisme 
(i.e. abime) is derived the poetic form abysm, pronounced 
as late as 1616 to rhyme with time. The adjective ``abyssal'' 
or ``abysmal'' has been used by zoologists to describe deep 
regions of the sea; hence abysmal zone, abysmal flora and 
fauna, abysmal accumulations, the deposit on the abysmal 
bed of the ocean.  In heraldry, the abyss is the middle of an 
escutcheon.  In the Greek version of the Old Testament the 
word represents (1) the,-original chaos (Gen. i. 2), (2) 
the Hebrew tehom (``a surging water-deep''), which is used 
also in apocalyptic and kabbalistic literature and in the New 
Testament for hell; the place of punishment (cf. Eurip. Phoen. 
for the ``yawning chasm of Tartarus''); in the Revised (not 
the Authorized) version abyss is generally used for this 
idea.  Primarily in the Septuagint cosmography the word is 
applied (a) to the waters under the earth which originally 
covered it, and from which the springs and rivers are supplied, 
(b) to the waters of the firmament which were regarded as 
closely connected with those below.  Derivatively, from the 
general idea of depth, it acquired the meaning of the place 
of the dead, though apparently never quite the same as Sheol.  
In Revelation it is the prison of evil spirits whence they 
may occasionally be let loose, and where Satan is doomed to 
spend 1000 years.  Beneath the altar in the temple of Jerusalem 
there was believed to be a passage which led down to the abyss 
of the world, where the foundation-stone of the earth was 
laid.  In rabbinical cosmography the abyss is a region of 
Gehenna situated below the ocean bed and divided into three or 
seven parts imposed one above the other.  In the Kabbalah the 
abyss as the opening into the lower world is the abode of evil 
spirits, and corresponds to the opening of the abyss to the 
world above.  In general the abyss is regarded vaguely as a 
place of indefinite extent, the abode of mystery and sorrow. 

See G. Schiaparelli, Astronomy in tha Old 
Testament (Eng. trans., Oxford, 1905). 

ABYSSINIA (officially ETHIOPIA), an inland country and 
empire of N.E. Africa lying, chiefly, between 5 deg.  and 15 deg.  N. 
and 35 deg.  and 42 deg.  E. It is bounded N. by Eritrea (Italian).  
W. by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, S. by British East Africa, 
S.E. and E. by' the British.  Ita!ian and French possessions 
in Somaliland and on the Red Sea. The coast lands held by 
European powers, which cut off Abyssinia from access to the 
sea, vary in width from 40 to 250 miles.  The country approaches 
nearest to the ocean on its N.E. border, where the frontier is 
drawn about 40 m. from the coast of the Red Sea. Abyssinia is 
narrowest in the north, being here 230 n1. across from east to 
west.  It broadens out southward to a width of 900 m. along 
the line of 9 deg.  N., and resembles in shape a triangle with 
its apex to the north.  It is divided into Abyssinia proper 
(i.e. Tigre, Amhara, Gojam, &c.), Shoa, Kaffa and Galla 
land----all these form a geographical unit---and central 
Somaliland with Harrar.  To the S.W. Abyssinia also includes 
part of the low country of the Sobat tributary of the 
Nile.  The area of the whole state is about 350,000 sq. 
m., of which Abyssinian Somaliland covers fully a third. 

(1) Physical Features.-- Between the valley of the Upper Nile 
and the low lands which skirt the south-western shores of the 
Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden is a region of elevated plateaus 
from which rise various mountain ranges.  These tablelands 
and mountains constitute Abyssinia, Shoa, Kaffa and Galla 
land.  On nearly every side the walls of the plateaus rise 
with considerable abruptness from the plains, constituting 
outer mountain chains.  The Abyssinian highlands are thus 
a clearly marked orographic division.  From Ras Kasar (18 deg.  
N.) to Annesley Bay (15 deg.  N.) the eastern wall of the plateau 
runs parallel to the Red Sea. It then turns due S. and follows 
closely the line of 40 deg.  E. for some 400 m.  About 9 deg.  N. there 
is a break in the wall, through which the river.  Hawash flows 
eastward.  The main range at this point trends S.W., while 
south of the Hawash valley, which is some 3000 ft. below the 
level of the mountains, another massif rises in a direct line 
south.  This second range sends a chain (the Harrar hills) 
eastward to the Gulf of Aden.  The two chief eastern ranges 
maintain a parallel course S. by W., with a broad upland 
valley between---in which valley are a series of lakes---to 
about 3 deg.  N., the outer (eastern) spurs of the plateau still 
keeping along the line of 40 deg.  E. The southern escarpment of 
the plateau is highly irregular, but has a general direction 
N.W. and S.E. from 6 deg.  N. to 3 deg.  N. It overlooks the depression 
in which is Lake Rudolf and---east of that lake--southern 
Somaliland.  The western wall of the plateau from 6 deg.  N. 
to 11 deg.  N. is well marked and precipitous.  North of 11 deg.  
N. the hills turn more to the east and fall more gradually 
to the plains at their base.  On its northern face also 
the plateau falls in terraces to the level of the eastern 
Sudan.  The eastern escarpment is the best defined of these 
outer ranges.  It has a mean height of from 7000 to 8000 
ft., and in many places rises almost perpendicularly from the 
plain.  Narrow and deep clefts, through which descend mountain 
torrents to lose themselves in the sandy soil of the coast 
land, afford means of reaching the plateau, or the easier 
route through the Hawash valley may be chosen.  On surmounting 
this rocky barrier the traveller finds that the encircling 
rampart rises little above the normal level of the plateau. 

(2) The aspect of the highlands is most impressive.  The 
northern portion, lying mainly between 10 deg.  and 15 deg.  N., 
consists of a huge mass of Archaean rocks with a mean height 
of from 7000 to 7500 ft. above the sea, and is fl00ded in a 
deep central depression by the waters of Lake Tsana.  Above 
the plateau rise several irregular and generally ill-defined 
mountain ranges which attain altitudes of from 12,000 to over 
15,000 ft.  Many of the mountains are of weird and fantastic 
shape.  Characteristic of the country are the enormous 
fissures which divide it, formed in the course of ages by 
the erosive action of water.  They are in fact the valleys 
of the rivers which, rising on the uplands or mountain 
sides, have cut their way to the surrounding lowlands.  Some 
of the valleys are of considerable width; in other cases the 
opposite walls of the gorges are but two or three hundred 
yards apart, and fall almost vertically thousands of feet, 
representing an erosion of hard rock of many millions of cubic 
feet.  One result of the action of the water has been the 
formation of numerous isolated flat-topped hills or small 
plateaus, known as ambas, with nearly perpendicular sides.  
The highest peaks are found in the Simen (or Semien) and Gojam 
ranges.  The Simen Mountains he N.E. of Lake Tsana and 
culminate in the snow-covered peak of Daschan (Dajan), which 
has an altitude of 15,160 ft.  A few miles east and north 
respectively of Dajan are Mounts Biuat and Abba Jared, whose 
summits are a few feet only below that of Dajan.  In the Chok 
Mountains in Gojam Agsias Fatra attains a height of 13,600 ft. 

Parallel with the eastern escarpment are the heights of Baila 
(12,500 ft.), Abuna Josef (13,780 ft.), and Kollo (14,100 
ft.), the last-named being S.W. of Magdala.  The valley 
between these hills and the eastern escarpment is one of 
the longest and most profound chasms in Abyssinia.  Between 
Lake Tsana and the eastern hills are Mounts Guna (13,800 
ft.) and Uara Sahia (13,000 ft.).  The figures given are, 
however, approximate only.  The southern portion of the 
highlands---the 10 deg.  N. roughly marks the division between 
north and south---has more open tableland than the northern 
portion and fewer lofty peaks.  Though there are a few heights 
between 10,000 and 12,000 ft., the majority do not exceed 8000 
ft.  But the general character of the southern regions is 
the same as in the north---a much-broken hilly plateau. 

Most of the Abyssinian uplands have a decided slope to the 
north-west, so that nearly all the large rivers find their way 
in that direction to the Nile.  Such are the Takazze in the 
north, the Abai in the centre, and the Sobat in the south, and 
through these three arteries is discharged about four-fifths 
of the entire drainage.  The rest is carried off, almost due 
north by the Khor Baraka, which occasionally reaches the Red 
Sea south of Suakin; by the Hawash, which runs out in the 
saline lacustrine district near the head of Taiura Bay; by the 
Webi Shebeli (Wabi Shebeyli) and Juba, which flow S.E. through 
Somaliland, though the Shebeli fails to reach the Indian Ocean; 
and by the Omo. the main feeder of the closed basin of Lake Rudolf. 

The Takazze, which is the true upper course of the Atbara, 
has its head-waters in the central tableland; and falls from 
about 7000 to 2500 ft. in the tremendous crevasse through 
which it sweeps round west, north and west again down to the 
western terraces, where it passes from Abyssinian to Sudan 
territory.  During the rains the Takazze (i.e. the 
``Terrible'') rises some 18 ft. above its normal level, and 
at this time forms an impassable barrier between the northern 
and central provinces.  In its lower course the river is 
known by the Arab name Setit.  The Setit is joined (14 deg.  10' 
N., 36 deg.  E.) by the Atbara, a river formed by several streams 
which rise in the mountains W. and N.W. of Lake Tsana.  
The Gash or Mareb is the most northerly of the Abyssinian 
rivers which flow towards the Nile valley.  Its head-waters 
rise on the landward side of the eastern escarpment within 
50 miles of Annesley Bay on the Red Sea. It reaches the 
Sudan plains near Kassala, beyond which place its waters are 
dissipated in the sandy soil.  The Mareb is dry for a great 
part of the year, but like the Takazze is subject to sudden 
freshets during the rains.  Only the left bank of the upper 
course of the river is in Abyssinian territory, the Mareb 
here forming the boundary between Eritrea and Abyssinia. 

(3) The Abai---that is, the upper course of the Blue Nile--has 
its source near Mount Denguiza in the Goiam highlands (about 
11 deg.  N. and 37 deg.  E.), and first flows for 70 m. nearly due 
north to the south side of Lake Tsana.  Tsana (q.v.), which 
stands from 2500 to 3000 ft. below the normal level of the 
plateau, has somewhat the aspect of a flooded crater.  It has 
an area of about 1100 sq. m., and a depth in some parts of 250 
ft.  At the south-east corner the rim of the crater is, as 
it were. breached by a deep crevasse through which the Abai 
escapes, and here dovelb. ps a great semicircular bend like that 
of the Takazzo, but in the reverse direction---east, south 
and north-west---down to the plains of Sennar, where it takes 
the name of Bahr-el-Azrak or Blue Nile.  The Abai has many 
tributaries.  Of these the Bashilo rises near Magdala and 
drains eastern Amhara; the Jamma rises near Ankober and drains 
northern Shoa; the Muger rises near Adis Ababa and drains 
south-western Shoa; the Didessa, the largest of the Abai's 
affluents, rises in the Kaffa hills and has a generally S. to 
N. course; the Yabus runs near the western edge of the plateau 
escarpment.  All these are perennial rivers.  The right-hand 
tributaries, rising mostly on the western sides of the 
plateau, have steep slopes and are generally torrential in 
character.  The Bolassa, however, is perennial, and the 
Rahad and Dinder are important rivers in flood-time. 

In the mountains and plateaus of Kaffa and Galla in the 
south-west of Abyssinia rise the Baro, Gelo, Akobo and 
other of the chief affluents of the Sobat tributary of the 
Nile.  The Akobo, in about 7 deg.  50' N. and 33 deg.  E., joins the 
Pibor, which in about 8 1/2 deg.  N. and 33 deg.  20' E. unites with 
the Baro, the river below the confluence taking the name of 
Sobat.  These rivers descend from the mountains in great 
falls, and like the other Abyssinian streams are unnavigable in 
their upper courses.  The Baro on reaching the plain becomes, 
however, a navigable stream affording an open waterway to the 
Nile.  The Baro, Pibor and Akobo form for 250 m. the W. and 
S.W. frontiers of Abyssinia (see NILE, SOBAT and SUDAN.) 

The chief river of Abyssinia flowing east is the Hawash 
(Awash, Awasi), which rises in the Shoan uplands and makes 
a semicircular bend first S.E. and then N.E. It reaches the 
Afar (Danakil) lowlands through a broad breach in the eastern 
escarpment of the plateau, beyond which it is joined on its 
left bank by its chief affluent, the Germama (Kasam), and 
then trends round in the direction of Tajura Bay. Here the 
Hawash is a copious stream nearly 200 ft. wide and 4 ft. 
deep, even in the dry season, and during the floods rising 
50 or 60 ft. above low-water mark, thus inundating the plains 
for many miles along both its banks.  Yet it fails to reach 
the coast, and after . a winding course of about 500 m. 
passes (in its lower reaches) through a series of badds 
(lagoons) to Lake Aussa, some 60 or 70 m. from the head.of 
Tajura Bay. In this lake the river is lost.  This remarkable 
phenomenon is explained by the position of Aussa in the 
centre of a saline lacustrine depression several hundred 
feet below sea-level.  While most of the other lagoons are 
highly saline, with thick incrustations of salt round their 
margins, Aussa remains fresh throughout the year, owing to 
the great body of water discharged into it by the Hawash. 

Another lacustrine region extends from the Shoa heights 
south-west to the Samburu (Lake Rudolf) depression.  
In this chain of lovely upland lakes, some fresh, some 
brackish, some completely closed, others connected by short 
channels, the chief links in their order from north to south 
are:---Zwai, communicating southwards with Hara and Lamina, 
all in the Arusi Galla territory; then Abai with an outlet 
to a smaller tarn in the romantic Baroda and Gamo districts, 
skirted on the west sides by grassy slopes and wooded ranges 
from 6000 to nearly 9000 ft. high; lastly, in the Asille 
country, Lake Stefanie, the Chuwaha of the natives, completely 
closed and falling to a level of about 1800 ft. above the 
sea.  To the same system obviously belongs the neighbouring 
Lake Rudolf (q.v.), which is larger than all the rest put 
together.  This lake receives at its northern end the waters 
of the ()mo, which rises in the Shoa highlands and is a 
perennial river with many affluents.  In its course of some 
370 m. it has a total fall of about 6000 ft. (from 7600 
at its source to 1600 at lake-level), and is consequently 
a very rapid stream, being broken by the Kokobi and other 
falls, and navigable only for a short distance above its 
mouth.  The chief rivers of Somaliland (q.v.), the Webi 
Shebeli and the Juba (q.v.), have their rise on the 
south-eastenn slopes of the Abyssinian escarpment, and the 
greater part of their course is through territory belonging to 
Abyssinia.  There are numerous hot springs in Abyssinia, and 
earthquakes, though of no great severity, are not uncommon. 

(4) Geology.----The East African tableland is continued 
into Abyssinia.  Since the visit of W. T. Blanford in 
1870 the geology has received little attention from 
travellers.  The following formations are represented:-- 


 
                    Sedimentary and Metamorphic.
 Recent.                        Coral, alluvium, sand.
 Tertiary.                      (?) Limestones of Harrar.
 Jurassic.                      Antalo Limestones.
 Triassic (?).                  Adigrat Sandstones.
 Archaean.                      Gneisses, schists, slaty rocks.
 
                            Igneous.
 Recent.                        Aden Volcanic Series.
 Tertiary, Cretaceous (?).      Magdala group.
 Jurassic.                      Ashangi group.
 

Archaean.--The metamorphic rocks compose the main mass 
of the tableland, and are exposed in every deep valley 
in Tigre and along the valley of the Blue Nile.  Mica 
schists form the prevalent rocks.  Hornblende schist 
also occur and a compact felspathic rock in the Suris 
defile.  The foliae of the schists strike north and south. 

Triassic (?).---In the region of Adigrat the metamorphic 
rocks are invariably overlain by white and brown sandstones, 
unfossiliferous, and attaining a maximum thickness of 1000 
feet.  They are overlain by the fossiliferous limestones of 
the Antalo group.  Around Chelga and Adigrat coal-bearing beds 
occur, which Blanford suggests may be of the same age as the 
coal-bearing strata of India.  The Adigrat Sandstone possibly 
represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa. 

Jurassic.---The fossiliferous limestones of Antalo are 
generally horizontal, but are in places much disturbed 
when interstratified with trap rocks.  The fossils are 
all characteristic Oolite forms and include species of 
Hemicidaris, Pholadomya, Ceromya, Trigonia and Alaria. 

Igneous Rocks.---Above a height of 8000 ft. the country consists 
of bedded traps belonging to two distinct and unconformable 
groups.  The lower (Ashangi group) consists of basalts and 
dolerites often amygdaloidal.  Their relation to the Antalo 
limestones is uncertain, but Blanford considers them to be 
not later in age than the Oolite.  The upper (Magdala group) 
contains much trachytic rock of considerable thickness, 
lying perfectly horizontally, and giving rise to a series of 
terraced ridges characteristic of central Abyssinia.  They are 
interbedded with unfossiliferous sandstones and shales.  Of 
more recent date (probably Tertiary) are some igneous rocks, 
rich in alkalis, occurring in certain localities in southern 
Abyssinia.  Of still more recent date are the basalts and 
ashes west of Massawa and around Annesley Bay and known as 
the Aden Volcanic Series.  With regard to the older igneous 
rocks, the enormous amount they have suffered from denudation 
is a prominent feature.  They have been worn into deep and 
narrow ravines, sometimes to a depth of 3000 to 4000 ft. 

(5) Climate.---The climate of Abyssinia and its dependent 
territories varies greatly.  Somaliland and the Danakil lowlands 
have a hot, dry climate producing semi-desert conditions; the 
country in the lower basin of the Sobat is hot, swampy and 
malarious.  But over the greater part of Abyssinia as well 
as the Galla highlands the climate is very healthy and 
temperate.  The country lies wholly within the tropics, but 
its nearness to the equator is counterbalanced by the elevation 
of the land.  In the deep valleys of the Takazze and Abai, 
and generally in places below 4000 ft., the conditions are 
tropical and fevers are prevalent.  On the uplands, however, 
the air is cool and bracing in summer, and in winter very 
bleak.  The mean range of temperature is between 60 deg.  and 
80 deg.  F. On the higher mountains the climate is Alpine in 
character.  The atmosphere on the plateaus is exceedingly 
clear, so that objects are easily recognizable at great 
distances.  In addition to the variation in climate dependent 
on elevation, the year may be divided into three seasons.  
Winter, or the cold season, lasts from October to February, 
and is followed by a dry hot period, which about the middle of 
June gives place to the rainy season.  The rain is heaviest in 
the Takazze basin in July and August.  In the more southern 
districts of Gojam and Wallega heavy rains continue till 
the middle of September, and occasionally October is a wet 
month.  There are also spring and winter rains; indeed rain 
often falls in every month of the year.  But the rainy season 
proper, caused by the south-west monsoon, lasts from June to 
mid-September, and commencing in the north moves southward.  
In the region of the Sobat sources the rains begin earlier 
and last longer.  The rainfall varies from about 30 in. a 
year in Tigre and Amhara to over 40 in. in parts of Galla 
land.  The rainy season is of great importance not only to 
Abyssinia but to the countries of the Nile valley, as the 
prosperity of the eastern Sudan and Egypt is largely dependent 
upon the rainfall.  A season of light rain may be sufficient 
for the needs of Abyssinia, but there is little surplus water 
to find its way to the Nile; and a shortness of rain means 
a low Nile, as practically all the flood water of that river 
is derived from the Abyssinian tributaries (see NILE.) 

(6) Flora and Fauna.--As in a day's journey the traveller 
may pass from tropical to almost Alpine conditions of 
climate, so great also is the range of the flora and fauna.  
In the valleys and lowlands the vegetation is dense, but 
the general appearance of the plateaus is of a comparatively 
bare country with trees and bushes thinly scattered over 
it.  The glens and ravines on the hillside are often thickly 
wooded, and offer a delightful contrast to the open downs.  
These conditions are particularly characteristic of the northern 
regions; in the south the vegetation on the uplands is more 
luxuriant.  Among the many varieties of trees and plants 
found are the date palm, mimosa, wild olive, giant sycamores, 
junipers and laurels, the myrrh and Other gum trees (gnarled 
and stunted, these flourish most on the eastern foothills), 
a magnificent pine (the Natal yellow pine, which resists the 
attacks of the white ant), the fig, orange, lime, pomegranate, 
peach, apricot, banana and other fruit trees; the grape vine 
(rare), blackberry and raspberry; the cotton and indigo 
Plants, and occasionally the sugar cane.  There are in the 
south large forests of valuable timber trees; and the coffee 
plant is indigenous in the Kaffa country, whence it takes its 
name.  Many kinds of grasses and flowers abound.  Large areas 
are covered by the kussa, a hardy member of the rose family, 
which grows from 8 to 10 ft. high and has abundant pendent red 
blossoms.  The flowers and the leaves of this plant are 
highly prized for medicinal purposes.  The fruit of the 
hurarina, a tree found almost exclusively in Shoa, yields 
a black grain highly esteemed as a spice.  On the tableland 
a great variety of grains and vegetables are cultivated.  
A fibrous plant, known as the sanseviera, grows in a wild 
state in the semi-desert regions of the north and south-east. 

In addition to the domestic animals enumerated below (sec.  8) the 
fauna is very varied.  Elephant and rhinoceros are numerous in 
certain low-lying districts, especially in the Sobat valley.  
The Abyssinian rhinoceros has two horns and its skin has no 
folds.  The hippopotamus and crocodile inhabit the larger 
rivers flowing west, but are not found in the Hawash, in which, 
however, otters of large size are plentiful.  Lions abound 
in the low countries and in Somaliland.  In central Abyssinia 
the lion is no longer found except occasionally in the river 
valleys.  Leopards, both spotted and black, are numerous and 
often of great size; hyaenas are found everywhere and are 
hardy and fierce; the lynx, wolf, wild dog and jackal are also 
common.  Boars and badgers are more rarely seen.  The giraffe 
is found in the western districts, the zebra and wild ass 
frequent the lower plateaus and the rocky hills of the 
north.  There are large herds of buffalo and antelope, and 
gazelles of many varieties and in great numbers are met 
with in most parts of the country.  Among the varieties are 
the greater and lesser kudu (both rather rare); the duiker, 
gemsbuck, hartebeest, gerenuk (the most common--it has 
long thin legs and a camel-like neck); klipspringer, found 
on the high plateaus as well as in the lower districts; 
and the dik-dik, the smallest of the antelopes, its weight 
rarely exceeding 10 lb. , common in the low countries and the 
foothills.  The civet is found in many parts of Abyssinia, 
but chiefly in the Galla regions.  Squirrels and hares 
are numerous, as are several kinds of monkeys, notably 
the guereza, gelada, guenon and dog-faced baboon.  They 
range from the tropical lowlands to heights of 10,000 ft. 

Birds are very numerous, and many of them remarkable for the 
beauty of their plumage.  Great numbers of eagles, vultures, hawks, 
bustards and other birds of prey are met with; and partridges, 
duck, teal, guinea-fowl, sand-grouse, curlews, woodcock, snipe, 
pigeons, thrushes and swallows are very plentiful.  A fine 
variety of ostrich is commonly found.  Among the birds prized 
for their plumage are the marabout, crane, heron, blacks bird, 
parrot, jay and humming-birds of extraordinary brilliance, 
Among insects the most numerous and useful is the bee, honey 
everywhere constituting an important part of the food of the 
inhabitants.  Of an opposite class is the locust.  Serpents 
are not numerous, but several species are poisonous.  There 
are thousands of varieties of butterflies and other insects. 

(7) Provinces and Towns.--Politically, Abyssinia is divided 
into provinces or kingdoms and dependent territories.  The 
chief provinces are Tigro, which occupies the N.E. of the 
country; Amhara or Gondar, in the centre; Gojam, the district 
enclosed by the great semicircular sweep of the Abai; and Shoa 
(q.v.), which lies east of the Abai and south of Amhara.  
Besides these ancient provinces and several others of smaller 
size, the empire includes the Wallega region, lying S.W. of 
Gojam; the Harrar province in the east; Kaffa (q.v.) and Galla 
land, S.W. and S. of Shoa; and the central part of Somaliland. 

With the exception of Harrar (q.v.), a city of Arab 
foundation, there are no large towns in Abyssinia.  Harrar 
is some 30 m.  S.E. of Dire Dawa, whence there is a railway 
(188 m. long) to Jibuti on the Gulf of Aden.  The absence 
of large towns in Abyssinia proper is due to the provinces 
into which the country is divided having been for centuries 
in a state of almost continual warfare, and to the frequent 
change of the royal residences on the exhaustion of fuel 
supplies.  The earliest capital appears to have been Axum 
(q.v.) in Tigre, where there are extensive ruins.  In 
the middle ages Gondar in Amhara became the capital of the 
country and was so regarded up to the middle of the 19th 
century. Since 1892 the capital has been Adis Ababa in the
kingdom of Shoa. 

The other towns of Abyssinia worthy of mention may be grouped 
according to their geographical position.  None of them has 
a permanent population exceeding 6000, but at several large 
markets are held periodically.  In Tigre there are Adowa 
or Adua ( 17 m.  E. by N. of Axum), Adigrat, Macalle and 
Antalo The three last-named places are on the high plateau 
near its eastern escarpment and on the direct road south 
from Massawa to Shoa.  West of Adigrat is the monastery of 
Debra-Domo, one of the most celebrated sanctuaries in Abyssinia. 

In Amhara there are:---Magdala (q.v.), formerly the residence 
of King Theodore, and the place of imprisonment of the British 
captives in 1866.  Debra-Tabor (``Mount Tabor''), the chief 
royal residence during the reign of King John, occupies a strong 
strategic position overlooking the fertile plains east of Lake 
Tsana, at a height of about 8,620 ft. above the sea; it has 
a population of 3000, including the neighbouring station of 
Samara, headquarters of the Protestant missionaries in the 
time of King Theodore.  Ambra-Mariam, a fortified station 
midway between Gondar and Debra-Tabor near the north-east 
side of Lake Tsana, with a population of 3000; here is the 
famous shrine and church dedicated to St Mary, whence the 
name of the place, ``Fort St Mary.'' Mahdera-Mariam (``Mary's 
Rest''), for some time a royal residence, and an important 
market and great place of pilgrimage, a few miles south-west 
of Debra-Tabor; its two churches of the ``Mother'' and the 
``Son'' are held in great veneration by all Abyssinians; it 
has a permanent population estimated at over 4000, Gallas and 
Amharas, the former mostly Mahommedan.  Sokota, one of the 
great central markets, and capital of the province of Waag in 
Amhara, at the converging point of several main trade routes; 
the market is numerously attended, especially by dealers in the 
salt blocks which come from Lake Alalbed.  The following towns 
are in Shoa:---Ankober, formerly the capital of the kingdom; 
Aliu-Amba, east of Ankober on the trade route to the Gulf of 
Aden; Debra-Berhan (Debra-Bernam) (``Mountain of Light''), 
once a royal residence; Liche (Litche), one of the largest 
market towns in southern Abyssinia.  Licka, the largest market 
in Galla land, has direct communications with Gojam, Shoa and 
other parts of the empire.  Bonga, the commercial centre of 
Kaffa, and Jiren, capital of the neighbouring province of 
Jimma, are frequented by traders from all the surrounding 
provinces, and also by foreign merchants from the seaports 
on the Gulf of Aden.  Apart from these market-places there 
are no settlements of any size in southern Abyssinia. 

Communications.--The J'buti-Dire Dawa railway has been mentioned 
above.  The continuation of this railway to the capital was 
begun in 1906 from the Adis Ababa end.  There are few roads 
in Abyssinia suitable for wheeled traffic.  Transport is 
usually carried on by mules, donkeys, pack-horses and (in the 
lower regions) camels.  From Dire Dawa to Harrar there is a 
well-made carriage road, and from Harrar to Adis Ababa the 
caravan track is kept in good order, the river Hawash being 
spanned by an iron bridge.  There is also a direct trade 
route from Dire Dawa to the capital.  Telegraph lines connect 
Adis Ababa and several important towns in northern Abyssinia 
with Massawa, Harrar and Jibuti.  There is also a telephonic 
service, the longest line being from Harrar to the capital. 

(8) Agriculture.--The soil is exceedingly fertile, as is 
evident from the fact that Egypt owes practically all its 
fertility to the sediment carried into the Nile by its Abyssinian 
tributaries.  Agriculture is extensively followed, chiefly 
by the Gallas, the indolence of the Abyssinians preventing 
them from being good farmers.  In the lower regions a wide 
variety of crops are grown --among them maize, durra, wheat, 
barley, rye, teff, pease, cotton and sugar-cane---and many 
kinds of fruit trees are cultivated. Teff is a kind of 
millet with grains about the size of an ordinary pin-head, 
of which is made the bread commonly eaten.  The low grounds 
also produce a grain, tocussa, from which black bread is 
made.  Besides these, certain oleaginous plants, the 
suf, nuc and selite (there are no European equivalents 
for the native names), and the ground-nut are largely 
grown.  The castor bean grows wild, the green castor in the 
low, damp regions, the red castor at medium altitudes.  The 
kat plant, a medicinal herb which has a tonic quality, is 
largely grown in the Harrar province.  On the higher plateaus 
the hardier cereals only are cultivated.  Here the chief 
crops are wheat, barley, teff, peppers, vegetables of all 
kinds and coffee.  Above 10,000 ft. the crops are confined 
practically to barley, oats, beans and occasionally wheat. 

Coffee is one of the most important products of the country, 
and its original home is believed to be the Kaffa highlands.  
It is cultivated in the S., S.E. and S.W. provinces, and to 
a less extent in the central districts.  Two qualities of 
coffee are cultivated, one known as Abyssinian, the other as 
Harrar-Mocha.  The ``Abyssinian'' coffee is grown very extensively 
throughout the southern highlands.  Little attention is paid 
to the crop, the berries being frequently gathered from the 
ground, and consequently the coffee is of comparatively low 
grade. ``Harrar-Mocha'' is of first-class quality.  It is 
grown in the highlands of Harrar, and cultivated with extreme 
care.  The raising of cotton received a considerable impetus 
in the early years of the 20th century.  The soil of the 
Hawash valley proved particularly suitable for raising this 
crop.  In the high plateaus the planting of seeds begins in 
May, in the lower plateaus and the plains in June, but in 
certain parts where the summer is long and rain abundant 
sowing and reaping are going on at the same time.  Most 
regions yield two, many three crops a year.  The methods 
of culture are primitive, the plough commonly used being a 
long pole with two vertical iron teeth and a smaller pole 
at right angles to which oxen are attached.  This implement 
costs about four shillings.  The ploughing is done by the 
men, but women and girls do the reaping.  The grain is usually 
trodden out by cattle and is often stored in clay-lined 
pits.  Land comparatively poor yields crops eight to tenfold 
the quantity sown; the major part of the land yields twenty to 
thirtyfold.  In the northern parts of the empire very little 
land is left uncultivated.  The hillsides are laid out in 
terraces and carefully irrigated in the dry season, the 
channels being often two miles or more long.  Of all the 
cereals barley is the most widely grown.  The average rate 
of pay to an agricultural labourer is about threepence a 
day in addition to food, which may cost another penny a day. 

The Abyssinians keep a large number of domestic animals.  Among 
cattle the Sanga or Galla ox is the most common.  The bulls 
are usually kept for ploughing, the cow being preferred for 
meat.  Most of the cattle are of the zebu or hump-backed 
variety, hut there are also two breeds----one large, the other 
resembling the Jersey cattle---which are straight-backed.  
The horns of the zebu variety are sometimes four feet long.  
Sheep, of which there are very large flocks, belong to the short 
and fat-tailed variety.  The majority are not wool-bearing, 
but in one district a very small black sheep is raised for 
wool.  The small mountain breed of sheep weigh no more than 20 
to 30 lb. apiece.  Goats are of both the long and short-haired 
varieties.  The horns of the large goats are often thirty 
inches in length and stand up straight from the head.  The 
goats from the Arusi Galla country have fine silky hair which 
is sometimes sixteen inches long.  The meat of both sheep and 
goats is excellent; that of the latter is preferred by the 
natives.  In 1904 the estimated number of sheep and goats 
in the country was 20,000,000.  Large quantities of butter, 
generally rancid, are made from the milk of cows, goats and 
sheep.  In the Leka province small black pigs are bred in 
considerable numbers.  The horses (very numerous) are small hut 
strong; they are generally about 14 hands in height.  The best 
breeds come from the Shoa uplands.  The ass is also small and 
strong; and the mule, bred in large numbers, is of excellent 
quality, and both as a transport animal and as a mount is 
preferred to the horse.  The mule thrives in every condition 
of climate, is fever-proof, travels over the most difficult 
mountain passes with absolute security, and can carry with 
ease a load of 200 lb.  The average height of a mule is 124 
hands.  The country is admirably adapted for stock-raising. 

(9) Minerals.---In the south and south-west provinces 
placer gold mines by the banks of watercourses are worked by 
Gallas as an industry subsidiary to tending their flocks and 
fields.  In the Wallega district are veins of gold-bearing 
quartz, mined to a certain extent.  There are also gold 
mines in southern Shoa The annual output of gold is worth not 
less than L. 500,000.  Only a small proportion is exported.  
Besides gold, silver, iron, coal and other minerals are 
found.  Rock-salt is obtained from the province of Tigre. 

Trade and Currency.---Abyssinia being without seaports, 
the external trade is through Massawa (Italian) in the 
north, Jibuti (French), Zaila and Berbera (British) in the 
south, and for all these ports Aden is a distributing 
centre.  For Tigre and Amhara products Massawa is the best 
port, for the rest of the empire, Jibuti.  For southern 
Abyssinia, Kaffa and Galla lands, Harrar is the great 
entrepot, goods being forwarded thence to Jibuti and the other 
Somaliland ports.  There is also a considerable trade with the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan through the frontier towns of Rosaires and 
Gallabat.  At the French and British ports thore is freedom 
of trade, but on goods for Abyssinia entering Massawa a 
discriminating tax is levied if they are not imported from Italy. 

The chief articles of export are coffee, skins, ivory, civet, 
ostrich feathers, gum, pepper, kat plant (used by Moslems for 
its stimulating properties), gold (in small quantities) and 
live stock.  The trade in skins is mainly with the L 1ited 
States through Aden; America also takes a large proportion 
of the coffee exported.  For live stock there is a good 
trade with Madagascar.  The chief imports are cotton goods, 
the yearly value of this trade being fully L. 250,000; the 
sheetings are largely American; the remainder English and 
Indian.  No other article of import approaches cotton in 
importance, but a considerable trade is done in arms and 
ammunition, rice, sugar, flour and other foods, and a still 
larger trade in candles and matches (from Sweden), oil, 
carpets (oriental and European), hats and umbrellas.  Commerce 
long remained in a backward condition; but under the Emperor 
Menelek II. efforts were made to develop the resources of 
the country, and in 1905 the total volume of trade exceeded 

Until the end of the 19th century the usual currency was the 
Maria Theresa dollar, bars of rock-salt and cartridges.  In 
1894 a new coinage was introduced, with the Menelek dollar 
or talari, worth about two shillings, as the standard.  
This new coinage gradually superseded the older currency.  
In 1905 the Bank of Abyssinia, the first banking house in the 
country, was founded, with its headquarters at Adis Ababa.  
The bank, which was granted a monopoly of banking business in 
the empire for fifty years, has a capital of L. 500,000, has 
the power to issue notes, to mint the Abyssinian coinage, 
and to engage in commercial operations.  It was founded under 
Egyptian law by the National Bank of Egypt, which institution 
had previously obtained a concession from the emperor Menelek. 

(10) Government.---The political institutions are of a feudal 
character.  Within their provinces the rases (princes) 
exercise large powers.  The emperor, styled negus negusti 
(king of kings), is occasionally assisted by a council of 
rases.  In October 1907 an imperial decree announced the 
constitution of a cabinet on European lines, ministers 
being appointed to the portfolios of foreign affairs, war, 
commerce, justice and finance.  The legal system is said to 
be based on the Justinian code.  From the decisions of the 
judges there is a right of appeal to the emperor.  The chief 
judicial official is known as the affh-negus (breath of the 
king).  The Abyssinian church (q.v.) is presided over 
by an abuna, or archbishop.  The land is not held in fee 
simple, but is subject to the control of the emperor or the 
church.  Revenue is derived from an ad valorem tax on all 
imports; the purchase and sale of animals; from royalties on 
trading concessions, and in other ways, including fees for 
the administration of justice.  Education, of a rudimentary 
character, is given by the clergy.  In 1907 a system of compulsory 
education ``of all male children over the age of 12'' was 
decreed.  The education was to be state provided, Coptic teachers 
were brought from Egypt and school buildings were erected. 

The Abyssinian calendar is as follows:---The Abyssinian year 
of 365 days (366 in leap-year) begins on the 1st of Maskarram, 
which corresponds to about the 10th of September.  The 
months have thirty days each, and are thus named: Maskarram, 
Tekemt, Hadar, Tahsas, Tarr, Yekatit, Magawit, Miaziah, 
Genbot, Sanni, Hamle, Nas'hi.  The remaining five days in 
the year, termed Pagmen or Quaggimi (six in leap-year, the 
extra day being named Kadis Yohannis), are put in at the 
end and treated as holidays.  Abyssinian reckoning is about 
seven years eight months behind the Gregorian.  Festivals, 
such as Easter, fall a week later than in western Europe. 

Army.--A small standing army is maintained in each province 
of Abyssinia proper.  Every able-bodied Abyssinian is expected 
to join the army in case of need, and a force, well armed with 
modern weapons, approaching 250,000 can be placed in the field.  
The cavalry is chiefly composed of Galla horsemen. (F. R. C.) 

ETHNOLOGY (i1) The population of the empire is estimated 
at from 3,500,000 to 5,000,000.  The inhabitants consist 
mainly of the Abyssinians, the Galla and the Somali (the two 
last-named peoples are separately noticed).  Of non-African 
races the most numerous are Armenians, Indians, Jews and 
Greeks.  There is a small colony of British, French, Italians and 
Russians.  The following remarks apply solely to Abyssinia 
proper and its inhabitants.  It should be remembered that the 
term ``Abyssinian'' is purely geographical, and has little 
or no ethnical significance; it is derived from the Arabic 
Habesh, ``mixed,'' and was a derisive name applied by the 
Arabs to the heterogeneous inhabitants of the Abyssinian plateau. 

Abyssinia appears to have been originally peopled by the eastern 
branch of the Hamitic family, which has occupied this region 
from the remotest times, and still constitutes the great bulk 
of its inhabitants, though the higher classes are now strongly 
Semitized.  The prevailing colour in the central provinces 
(Amhara, Gojam) is a deep brown, northwards (Tigre, Lasta) 
it is a pale olive, and here even fair complexions are 
seen.  Southwards (Shoa, Kobbo, Amuru) a decided chocolate 
and almost sooty black is the rule.  Many of the people 
are distinctly negroid, with big lips, small nose, broad 
at the base, and frizzly or curly black hair.  The negroid 
element in the population is due chiefly to the number of 
negro women who have been imported into the harems of the 
Abyssinians.  The majority, however, may be described as a 
mixed Hamito-Semitic people, who are in general well formed and 
handsome, with straight and regular features, lively eyes, 
hair long and straight or somewhat curled and in colour dark 
olive, approaching to black.  The Galla, who came originally 
from the south, are not found in many parts of the country, 
but predominate in the Wollo district, between Shoa and 
Amhara.  It is from the Galla that the Abyssinian army is 
largely recruited, and, indeed, there are few of the chiefs 
who have not an admixture of Galla blood in their veins. 

As regards language, several of the indigenous groups, such as 
the Khamtas of Lasta, the Agau or Agaos of Agaumeder (``Agao 
land'') and the Falashas (q.v.), the so-called ``Jews'' 
of Abyssinia, still speak rude dialects of the old Hamitic 
tongue.  But the official language and that of all the 
upper classes is of Semitic origin, derived from the ancient 
Himyaritic, which is the most archaic member of the Semitic 
linguistic family.  Geez, as it is called, was introduced 
with the first immigrants from Yemen, and although no longer 
spoken is still studied as the liturgical language of the 
Abyssinian Christians.  Its literature consists of numerous 
translations of Jewish, Greek and Arabic works, besides a 
valuable version of the Bible. (See ETHIOPIA.) The best 
modern representative of Geez is the Tigrina of Tigre and 
Lasta, which is much purer but less cultivated than the Amharic 
dialect, which is used in state documents, is current in the 
central and southern provinces and is much affected by Hamitic 
elements.  All are written in a peculiar syllabic script 
which, un- like all other Semitic forms, runs from left to 
right, and is derived from that of the Sabaeans and Minaeans, 
still extant in the very old rock-inscriptions of south Arabia. 

The hybridism of the Abyssinians is reflected in their 
political and social institutions, and especially in their 
religious beliefs and practices.  On a seething mass of African 
heathendom, already in early times affected by primitive 
Semitic ideas, was suddenly imposed a form of Christianity 
which became the state religion.  While the various ethnical 
elements have been merged in the composite Abyssinian nation, 
the primitive and more advanced religious ideas have nowhere 
been fused in a uniform Christian system.  Foreigners are 
often surprised at the strange mixture of savagery and lofty 
notions in a Christian community which, for instance, accounts 
accidental manslaughter as wilful murder.  Recourse is still 
had to dreams as a means of detecting crime.  A priest is 
summoned, and, if his prayers and curses fail, a small boy is 
drugged, and ``whatever person he dreams of is fixed on as 
the criminal. . . . If the boy does not dream of the person 
whom the priest has determined on as the criminal, he is kept 
under drugs until he does what is required of him'' (Count 
Gleichen, With the Mission to Menelik, chap. xvi., 1898). 

The Abyssinian character reflects the country's history.  
Murders and executions are frequent, yet cruelty is not a marked 
feature of their character; and in war they seldom kill their 
prisoners.  When a man is convicted of murder, he is handed 
over to the relatives of the deceased, who may either put him 
to death or accept a ransom.  When the murdered person has no 
relatives, the priests take upon themselves the office of 
avengers.  The natural indolence of the people has been 
fostered by the constant wars, which have discouraged peaceful 
occupations.  The soldiers live by plunder, the monks by alms.  
The haughtiest Abyssinian is not above begging, excusing himself 
with the remark, ``God has given us speech for the purpose of 
begging.'' The Abyssinians are vain and selfish, irritable but 
easily appeased; and are an intelligent bright people, fond of 
gaiety.  On every festive occasion, as a saint's day, birth, 
marriage, &c., it is customary for a rich man to collect 
his friends and neighbours, and kill a cow and one or two 
sheep.  The principal parts of the cow are eaten raw while yet 
warm and quivering, the remainder being cut into small pieces 
and cooked with the favourite sauce of butter and red pepper 
paste.  The raw meat eaten in this way is considered to 
be very superior in taste and much more tender than when 
cold.  The statement by James Bruce respecting the cutting 
of steaks from a live cow has frequently been called in 
question, but there can be no doubt that Bruce actually saw 
what he narrates.  Mutton and goat's flesh are the meats 
most eaten: pork is avoided on religious grounds, and the 
hare is never touched, possibly, as in other countries, from 
superstition.  Many forms of game are forbidden; for 
example, all water-fowl.  The principal drinks are me'mse, 
a kind of mead, and bousa, a sort of beer made from 
fermented cakes.  The Abyssinians are heavy eaters and 
drinkers, and any occasion is seized as an excuse for a 
carouse.  Old and young, of both sexes, pass days and nights 
in these symposia, at which special customs and rules 
prevail.  Little bread is eaten, the Abyssinian preferring 
a thin cake of durra meal or teE, kneaded with water and 
exposed to the sun till the dough begins to rise, when it is 
baked.  Salt is a luxury; ``he eats salt'' being said of a 
spendthrift.  Bars of rock-salt, after serving as coins, are, 
when broken up, used as food.  There is a general looseness of 
morals: marriage is a very slight tie, which can be dissolved 
at any time by either husband or wife.  Polygamy is by no means 
uncommon.  Hence there is little family affection, and what 
exists is only between children of the same father and mother.  
Children of the same father, but of different mothers, are 
said to be ``always enemies to each other.'' (Samuel Gobat's 
Journal of a Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia, 1834.) 

The dress of the Abyssinians is much like that of the 
Arabs.  It consists of close-fitting drawers reaching below the 
knees, with a sash to hold them, and a large white robe.  The 
Abyssinian, however, is beginning to adopt European clothes 
on the upper part of the body, and European hats are becoming 
common.  The Christian Abyssinians usually go barehead and barefoot, 
in contrast to the Mahommedans, who wear turbans and leather 
sandals.  The women's dress is a smock with sleeves loose to the 
wrist, where they fit tightly.  The priests wear a white jacket 
with loose sleeves, a head-cloth like a turban and a special 
type of shoe with turned-up toes and soles projecting at the 
heel.  In the Woldeba district hermits dress in ochre-yellow 
cloths, while the priests of some sects wear hides dyed 
red.  Clothes are made of cotton, though the nobles and great 
people wear silk robes presented by the emperor as a mark of 
honour.  The possessor of one of these is allowed to appear in 
the royal presence wearing it instead of having one shoulder 
bared, as is the usual Abyssinian method of showing respect.  
A high-born man covers himself to the mouth in the presence of 
inferiors.  The men either cut their hair short or plait it; 
married women plait their hair and wind round the head a black 
or parti-coloured silk handkerchief; girls wear their hair 
short.  In the hot season no Abyssinian goes without a 
flag-shaped fan of plaited rushes.  The Christian Abyssinians, 
men and women, wear a blue silk cord round the neck, to 
which is often attached a crucifix.  For ornament women wear 
silver ankle-rings with bells, silver necklaces and silver 
or gold rosettes in the ears.  Silver rings on fingers and 
also on toes are common.  The women are very fond of strong 
scents, which are generally oils imported from India and 
Ceylon.  The men scarcely ever appear without a long curved 
knife, generally they carry shield and spear as well.  Although 
the army has been equipped with modern rifles, the common 
weapon of the people is the matchlock, and slings are still in 
use.  The original arms were a sickle-shaped sword, spear and 
shield.  The Abyssinians are great hunters and are also 
clever at taming wild beasts.  The nobles hunt antelopes with 
leopards, and giraffes and ostriches with horse and greyhound.  
In elephant-hunting iron bullets weighing a quarter of a pound 
are used; throwing-clubs are employed for small game, and 
lions are hunted with the spear.  Lion skins belong to the 
emperor, but the slayer keeps a strip to decorate his shield. 

Stone and mortar are used in building, but the Abyssinian 
houses are of the roughest kind, being usually circular huts, 
ill made and thatched with grass.  These huts are sometimes 
made simply of straw and are surrounded by high thorn hedges, 
but, in the north, square houses, built in stories, flat-roofed, 
the roof sometimes laid at the same slope as the hillside, 
and some with pitched thatched roofs, are common.  The inside 
walls are plastered with cow-dung, clay and finely chopped 
straw.  None of the houses have chimneys, and smoke soon 
colours the interior a dark brown.  Generally the houses are 
filthy and ill ventilated and swarm with vermin.  Drainage 
and sanitary arrangements do not exist.  The caves of the 
highlands are often used as dwellings.  The most remarkable 
buildings in Abyssinia are certain churches hewn out of the 
solid rock.  The chief native industries are leather-work, 
embroidery and filigree metal-work; and the weaving of straw 
mats and baskets is extensively practised.  The baskets are 
particularly well made, and are frequently used to contain milk. 

Abyssinian art is crude and is mainly reserved for rough 
frescoes in the churches.  These frescoes, however, often 
exhibit considerable skill, and are indicative of the lively 
imagination of their painters.  They are in the Byzantine style 
and the colouring is gaudy.  Saints and good people are always 
depicted full face, the devil and all bad folk are shown in 
profile.  Among the finest frescoes are those in the church 
of the Holy Trinity at Adowa and those in the church at 
Kwarata, on the shores of Lake Tsana.  The churches are usually 
circular in form, the walls of stone, the roof thatched. 

The chief musical instruments are rough types of trumpets and 
flutes, drums, tambourines and cymbals, and quadrangular harps. 

HISTORY 

(12) Abyssiania, or at least the northern portion of it, was 
included in the tract of country known to the ancients as 
Ethiopia, the northern limits of which reached at one time to 
about Syene.  The connexion between Egypt and Ethiopia was in 
early times very intimate, and occasionally the two countries 
were under the same ruler, so that the arts and civilization 
of the one naturally found their way into the other.  In early 
times, too, the Hebrews had commercial intercourse with the 
Ethiopians; and according to Abyssinian tradition the queen 
of Sheba who visited Solomon was a monarch of their country, 
and from their son Menelek the kings of Abyssinia claim 
descent.  During the Captivity many of the Jews settled here 
and brought with them a knowledge of the Jewish religion.  
Under the Ptolemies, the arts as well as the enterprise of the 
Greeks entered Ethiopia, and led to the establishment of Greek 
colonies.  A Greek inscription at Adulis, no longer extant, 
but copied by Cosmas of Alexandria, and preserved in his 
Topographia Christiana, records that Ptolemy Euergetes, the 
third of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, invaded the countries 
on both sides of the Red Sea, and having reduced most of the 
provinces of Tigre to subjection, returned to the port of 
Adulis, and there offered sacrifices to Jupiter, Mars and 
Neptune.  Another inscription, not so ancient, found at Axum, 
states that Aizanas, king of the Axumites, the Homerites, 
&c., conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned thanks 
to his father, the god Mars, for his victory.  Out of these 
Greek colonies appears to have arisen the kingdom of Auxume 
which flourished from the ist to the 7th century A.D. 
and was at one time nearly coextensive with Abyssinia 
proper.  The capital Auxume and the seaport Adulis were then 
the chief centres of the trade with the interior of Africa 
in gold dust, ivory, leather, aromatics, &c. At Axum, the 
site of the ancient capital, many vestiges of its former 
greatness still exist; and the ruins of Adulis, which was 
once a seaport on the bay of Annesley, are now about 4 m. 
from the shore (see ETHIOPIA, The Axumite Kingdom.) 

Introduction of Christianity. 

(13) Christianity was introduced into the country by Frumentius 
(q.v.), who was consecrated first bishop of Ethiopia by St 
Athanasius of Alexandria about A.D. 330. From the scanty 
evidence available it would appear that the new religion 
at first made little progress, and the Axumite kings seem 
to have been among the latest converts.  Towards the close 
of the 5th century a great company of monks are believed to 
have established themselves in the country.  Since that time 
monachism has been a power among the people and not without 
its influence on the course of events.  In the early part of 
the 6th century the king of the Homerites, on the opposite 
coast of the Red Sea, having persecuted the Christians, the 
emperor Justinian I. requested the king of Auxume, Caleh or 
El-Esbaha, to avenge their cause.  He accordingly collected 
an army, crossed over into Arabia, and conquered Yemen (c. 
525), which remained subject to Ethiopia for about fifty 
years.  This was the most flourishing period in the annals 
of the country.  The Ethiopians possessed the richest part of 
Arabia, carried on a large trade, which extended as far as 
India and Ceylon, and were in constant communication with 
the Greek empire.  Their expulsion from Arabia, followed 
by the conquest of Egypt by the Mahommedans in the middle 
of the 7th century, changed this state of affairs, and the 
continued advances of the followers of the Prophet at length 
cut them off from almost every means of communication with 
the civilized world; so that, as Gibbon says, ``encompassed 
by the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for 
near a thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they 
were forgotten.'' About A.D. 1000, a Jewish princess, 
Judith, conceived the design of murdering all the members 
of the royal family, and of establishing herself in their 
stead.  During the execution of this project, the infant king 
was carded off by some faithful adherents, and conveyed to 
Shoa, where his authority was acknowledged, while Judith 
reigned for forty years over the rest of the kingdom, and 
transmitted the crown to her descendants.  In 1268 the kingdom 
was restored to the royal house in the person of Yekunu Amlak. 

Portuguese Influence. 

(14) Towards the close of the 15th century the Portuguese 
missions into Abyssinia began.  A belief had long prevailed 
in Europe of the existence of a Christian kingdom in the far 
east, whose monarch was known as Prester John, and various 
expeditions had been sent in quest of it.  Among others who 
had engaged in this search was Pedro de Covilham, who arrived 
in Abyssinia in 1490, and, believing that he had at length 
reached the far-famed kingdom, presented to the negus, or 
emperor of the country, a letter from his master the king of 
Portugal, addressed to Prester John.  Covilham remained in the 
country, but in 1507 an Armenian named Matthew was sent by the 
negus to the king of Portugal to request his aid against the 
Mahommedans.  In 1520 a Portuguese fleet, with Matthew on 
board, entered the Red Sea in compliance with this request, 
and an embassy from the fleet visited the negus, Lebna Dengel 
Dawit (David) II., and remained in Abyssinia for about six 
years.  One of this embassy was Father Francisco Alvarez, 
from whom we have the earliest and not the least interesting 
account of the country.  Between 1528 and 1540 armies of 
Mahommedans, under the renowned general Mahommed Gran (or 
Granye, probably a Somali or a Galla), entered Abyssinia 
from the low country to the south-east, and overran the 
kingdom, obliging the emperor to take refuge in the mountain 
fastnesses.  In this extremity recourse was again had to the 
Portuguese.  John Bermudez, a subordinate member of the 
mission of 1520, who had remained in the country after the 
departure of the embassy, was, according to his own statement 
(which is untrustworthy), ordained successor to the abuna 
(archbishop), and sent to Lisbon.  Bermudez certainly came to 
Europe, but with what credentials is not known.  Be that as 
it may, a Portuguese fleet, under the command of Stephen da 
Gama, was sent from India and arrived at Massawa in February 
1541.  Here he received an ambassador from the negus beseeching 
him to send help against the Moslems, and in the July following 
a force of 450 musqueteers, under the command of Christopher 
da Gama, younger brother of the admiral, marched into the 
interior, and being joined by native troops were at first 
successful against the enemy; but they were subsequently 
defeated, and their commander taken prisoner and put to death 
(August 1542).  On the 21st of February 1543, however, Mahommed 
Granye was shot in an engagement and his forces totally 
routed.  After this, quarrels arose between the negus and 
Bermudez, who had returned to Abyssinia with Christopher 
da Gama and who now wished the emperor publicly to profess 
himself a convert to Rome.  This the negus refused to do, 
and at length Bermudez was obliged to make his way out of the 
country.  The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed the da 
Gama expedition into Abyssinia, and fixed their headquarters 
at Fremona (near Adowa), were oppressed and neglected, but 
not actually expelled.  In the beginning of the 17th century 
Father Pedro Paez arrived at Fremona, a man of great tact and 
judgment, who soon rose into high favour at court, and gained 
over the emperor to his faith.  He directed the erection of 
churches, palaces and bridges in different parts of the 
country, and carried out many useful works.  His successor 
Mendez was a man of much less conciliatory manners, and 
the feelings of the people became strongly excited against 
the intruders, till at length, on the death of the negus 
Sysenius, Socinius or Seged I., and the accession of his son 
Fasilidas in 1633, they were all sent out of the country, after 
having had a footing there for nearly a century and a half. 

Visits of Poncet and Bruce. 

The French physician C. J. Poncet, who went there in 1698, 
via Sennar and the Blue Nile, was the only European 
that afterwards visited the country before Bruce in 
1769.  James Bruce's main object was to discover the sources 
of the Nile, which he was convinced lay in Abyssinia.  
Accordingly, leaving Massawa in September 1769, he travelled 
via Axum to Gondar, where he was well received by King 
Tekla Haimanot II. He accompanied the king on a warlike 
expedition round Lake Tsana, moving S. round the eastern 
shore, crossing the genuine Blue Nile (Abai) close to its 
point of issue from the lake and returning via the western 
shore.  On a second expedition of his own he proved to his 
own satisfaction that the river originated some 4o miles 
S.W. of the lake at a place called Geesh (4th of November 
1770).  He showed that this river flowed into the lake, and 
left it by its now well-known outlet.  Bruce subsequently 
returned to Egypt (end of 1772) via Gondar, the upper Atbara, 
Sennar, the Nile, and the Korosko desert (see BRUCE, JAMES). 

(15) In order to attain a clear view of native Abyssinian 
history, as distinct from the visits and influence of 
Europeans, it must be borne in mind that during the last 
three hundred years, and indeed for a longer period, for 
the old chroniclers may be trusted to have given a somewhat 
distorted view of the importance of the particular chieftains 
with whom they came in contact, the country has been merely 
a conglomeration of provinces and districts, ill defined, 
loosely connected and generally at war with each other.  Of 
these the chief provinces have been Tigre (northern), Amhara 
(central) and Shoa (southern).  The seat of government, or 
rather of overlordship, has usually been in Amhara, the ruler 
of which, calling himself negus negusti (king of kings, or 
emperor), has exacted tribute, when he could, from the other 
provinces.  The title of negus negusti has been to a 
considerable extent based on the blood in the veins of the 
claimant.  All the emperors have based their claims on their 
direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba; but it 
is needless to say that in many, if not in most, cases their 
success has been due more to the force of their arms than 
to the purity of their lineage.  Some of the rulers of the 
larger provinces have at times been given, or have given 
themselves, the title of negus or king, so that on occasion 
as many as three, or even more, neguses have been reigning 
at the same time; and this must be borne in mind by the 
student of Abyssinian history in order to avoid confusion of 
rulers.  The whole history of the country is in fact one 
gloomy record of internecine wars, barbaric deeds and unstable 
governments, of adventurers usurping thrones, only to be 
themselves unseated, and of raids, rapine and pillage.  Into 
this chaos enter from time to time broad rays of sunshine, 
the efforts of a few enlightened monarchs to evolve order from 
disorder, and to supply to their people the blessings of peace and 
civilization.  Bearing these matters in mind, we find that during 
the 18th century the most prominent and beneficent rulers were 
the emperor Yesu of Gondar, who died about 1720, Sebastie, 
negus of Shoa (1703-1718), Amada Yesus of Shoa, who extended 
his kingdom and founded Ankober (1743-1774), Tekla Giorgis 
of Amhara (1770-1798?) and Asfa Nassen of Shoa (1774-1807), 
the latter being especially renowned as a wise and benevolent 
monarch.  The first years of the 19th century were disturbed 
by fierce campaigns between Guxa, ras of Gondar, and Wolda 
Selassie, ras of Tigre, who were both striving for the 
crown of Guxa's master, the emperor Eguala Izeion.  Wolda 
Selassie was eventually the victor, and practically ruled 
the whole country till his death in 1816 at the age of eighty. 

British mission and missionary enterprise. 

(16) Mention must here be made of the first British mission, 
under Lord Valentia and Mr Henry Salt, which was sent in 1805 
to conclude an alliance with Abyssinia, and obtain a port on 
the Red Sea in case France secured Egypt by dividing up the 
Turkish empire with Russia.  This mission was succeeded by many 
travellers, missionaries and merchants of all countries, and 
the stream of Europeans continued until well into Theodore's 
reign.  For convenience' sake we insert at this point a 
partial list of missionaries and others who visited the country 
during the second third of the 19th century---merely calling 
attention to the fact that their visits were distributed 
over widely different parts of the country, ruled by distinct 
lines of monarchs or governors.  In 1830 Protestant missionary 
enterprise was begun by Samuel Gobat and Christian Kugler, 
who were sent out by the Church Missionary Society, and were 
well received by the ras of Tigre.  Mr Kugler died soon 
after his arrival, and his place was subsequently supplied 
by Mr C. W. Isenberg, who was followed by Dr Ludwig Krapf, 
the discoverer of Mount Kenya, and others.  Mr (afterwards 
Bishop) Gobat proceeded to Gondar, where he also met with 
a favourable reception.  In 1833 he returned to Europe, and 
published a journal of his residence in Abyssinia.  In 1834 
Gobat went back to Tigre, but in 1836 ill health compelled 
him to leave.  In 1838 other missionaries were obliged to 
leave the country, owing to the opposition of the native 
priests.  Messrs Isenberg and Krapf went south, and established 
themselves at Shoa.  The former soon after returned to England, 
but Mr Krapf remained in Shoa till March 1842, when he 
removed to Mombasa.  Dr E. Ruppell, the German naturalist, 
visited the country in 1831, and remained nearly two years. 
M. E. Combes and M. Tamisier arrived at Massawa in 1835, and 
visited districts which had not been traversed by Europeans 
since the time of the Portuguese.  One who did much at the 
time to extend our geographical knowledge of the country was 
Dr C. T. Boke (q.v.), who was there from 1840 to 1843.  
Mr Mansfield Parkyns was there from 1843 to 1846, and wrote 
the most interesting book on the country since the time of 
Bruce.  Bishop Gobat having conceived the idea of sending lay 
missionaries into the country, who would engage in secular 
occupations as well as carry on missionary work, Dr Krapf 
returned to Abyssinia in 1855 with Mr Flad as pioneers of that 
mission; Krapf, however, was not permitted to remain in the 
country.  Six lay workers came out at first, and they were 
subsequently joined by others.  Their secular work, however, 
appears to have been more valuable to Theodore than their 
preaching, so that he employed them as workmen to himself, 
and established them at Gaffat, near his capital.  Mr Stern 
arrived in Abyssinia in 1860, and after a visit to Europe 
returned in 1863, accompanied by Mr and Mrs Rosenthal.1 

Rivalry of British and French factions 

(17) Wolda Selassie of Tigre was succeeded in 1817, through 
force of arms, by Sabagadis of Agame, and the latter, as 
ras of Tigre, introduced various Englishmen, whom he much 
admired, into the country.  He increased the prosperity of 
his land considerably. but by so doing roused the jealousy 
of Ras Marie of Amhara--to whom he had refused tribute--and 
Ubie, son of Hailo Mariam, a governor of Simen.  In an 
ensuing battle (in January 1831), both Sabagadis and Marie 
were killed, and Ubie retired to watch events from his own 
province.  Marie was shortly succeeded in the ras-ship 
of Amhara by Ali, a nephew of Guxa and a Mahommedan.  But 
Ubie, who was aiming at the crown, soon attacked Ras Ali, 
and after several indecisive campaigns proclaimed himself 
negus of Tigre.  To him came many French missionaries and 
travellers, chief of whom were Lieut.  Lefebvre, charged 
(1839) with political and geographical missions, and 
Captains Galinier and Ferret, who completed for him a useful 
triangulation and survey of Tigre and Simen (1840-1842).  
The brothers Antoine and Arnaud d'Abbadie (q.v.) spent 
ten years (1838-1848) in the country, making scientific 
investigations of great value, and also involving themselves 
in the stormy politics of the country.  Northern Abyssinia 
was now divided into two camps, the one, Amhara and Ras 
Ali, under Protestant British, and the other, Tigre and 
Ubie, under Roman Catholic French, influence.  The latent 
hostility between the two factions threatened at one time to 
develop into a religious war, but no serious campaigns took 
place until Kassa (later Theodore) appeared on the scene. 

Rise of the emperor Theodore. 

(18) Lij (= Mr) Kassa was born in Kwara, a small district 
of Western Amhara, in 1818.  His father was a small local 
chief, and his uncle was governor of the districts of Dembea, 
Kwara and Chelga between Lake Tsana and the undefined N.W. 
frontier.  He was educated in a monastery, but preferred a 
more active life, and by his talents and energy came rapidly 
to the front.  On the death of his uncle he was made chief of 
Kwara, but in consequence of the arrest of his brother Bilawa 
by Ras Ali, he raised the standard of revolt against the 
latter, and, collecting a large force, repeatedly beat the 
troops that were sent against him by the ras (1841-1847).  
On one occasion peace was restored by his receiving Tavavich, 
daughter of Ras Ali, in marriage; and this lady is said to 
have been a good and wise counsellor during her lifetime. He 
next turned his arms against the Turks, in the direction of 
Massawa, but was defeated; and the mother of Ras Ali having 
insulted him in his fallen condition, he proclaimed his 
independence.  As his power was increasing, to the detriment 
of both Ras Ali and Ubie, these two princes combined against 
him, but were heavily defeated by him at Gorgora (on the 
southern shore of Lake Tsana) in 1853.  Ubie retreated to 
Tigre, and Ras Ali fled to Begemeder, where he eventually 
died.  Kassa now ruled in Amhara, but his ambition was to 
attain to supreme power, and he turned his attention to 
conquering the remaining chief divisions of the country, 
Gojam, Tigre and Shoa, which still remained unsubdued.  
Berro, ras of Gojam, in order to save himself, attempted 
to combine with Tigre, but his army was intercepted by 
Kassa and totally destroyed, himself being taken prisoner 
and executed (May 1854). Shortly afterwards Kassa moved 
against Tigre, defeated Ubie's forces at Deragie, 
in Simen (February 1855), took their chief prisoner and 
proclaimed himself negus negusti of Ethiopia under the 
name of Theodore III. He now turned his attention to Shoa. 

Growing power of Shoa 

(19) Retracing our steps for a moment in that direction, we 
find that in 1813 Sahela (or Sella) Selassie, younger son 
of the preceding ras, Wassen Seged, had proclaimed himself 
negus or king.  His reign was long and beneficent.  He 
restored the towns of Debra-Berhan and Angolala, and founded 
Entotto, the strong stone-built town whose ruins overlook 
the modern capital, Adis Ababa.  In the terrible ``famine of 
St Luke'' in 1835, Selassie still further won the hearts of 
his subjects by his wise measures and personal generosity; 
and by extending his hospitality to Europeans, he brought 
his country within the closer ken of civilized European 
powers.  During his reign he received the missions of Major 
W. Cornwallis Harris, sent by the governor-general of India 
(1841), and M. Rochet d'Hericourt, sent by Louis Philippe 
(1843), with both of whom he concluded friendly treaties on 
behalf of their respective governments.  He also wrote to Pope 
Pius IX., asking that a Roman Catholic bishop should be sent to 
him.  This request was acceded to, and the pope despatched 
Monsigneur Massaja to Shoa.  But before the prelate could 
reach the country, Selassie was dead (1847), leaving his 
eldest son, Haeli Melicoth, to succeed him. Melicoth at once 
proclaimed himself negus, and by sending for Massaja, who 
had arrived at Gondar, gave rise to the suspicion that he 
wished to have himself crowned as emperor.  By increasing 
his dominions at the expense of the Gallas, he still further 
roused the jealousy of the northerners, and a treaty which 
he concluded with Ras Ali against Kassa in 1850 determined 
the latter to crush him at the earliest opportunity. 

Thus it was that in 1855 Kassa, under the name of the emperor 
Theodore, advanced against Shoa with a large army. Dissensions 
broke out among the Shoans, and after a desperate and futile 
attack on Theodore at Debra-Berhan, Haeli Melicoth died of 
exhaustion and fever, nominating with his last breath his 
eleven-year-old son Menelek2 as successor (November 1855). 
Darge, Haeli's brother, took charge of the young prince, but 
after a hard fight with Angeda, one of Theodore's rases, was 
obliged to capitulate.  Menelek was handed over to the negus, 
taken to Gondar, and there trained in Theodore's service. 

(20) Theodore was now in the zenith of his career.  He is 
described as being generous to excess, free from cupidity, 
merciful to his vanquished enemies, and strictly continent, 
but subject to violent bursts of anger and possessed of 
unyielding pride and fanatical religious zeal.  He was also 
a man of education and intelligence, superior to those among 
whom he lived, with natural talents for governing and gaining 
the esteem of others. He had, further, a noble bearing and 
majestic walk, a frame capable of enduring any amount of 
fatigue, and is said to have been ``the best shot, the best 
spearman, the best runner, and the best horseman in Abyssinia.'' 
Had he contented himself with the sovereignty of Amhara and 
Tigre, he might have maintained his position; but he was led 
to exhaust his strength against the Wollo Gallas, which was 
probably one of the chief causes of his ruin.  He obtained 
several victories over that people, ravaged their country, 
took possession of Magdala, which he afterwards made his 
principal stronghold, and enlisted many of the chiefs and 
their followers in his own ranks.  As has been shown, he also 
reduced the kingdom of Shoa, and took Ankober, the capital; 
but in the meantime his own people were groaning under his 
heavy exactions, rebellions were breaking out in various parts 
of his provinces, and his good queen Tavavich was now dead. 

Theodore's quarrel with great Britain 

The British consul, Walter C. Plowden, who was strongly 
attached to Theodore, having been ordered by his government 
in 1860 to return to Massawa, was attacked on his way by a 
rebel named Garred, mortally wounded, and taken prisoner.  
Theodore attacked the rebels, and in the action the murderer 
of Mr Plowden was slain by his friend and companion Mr J. T. 
Bell, an engineer, but the latter lost his life in preserving 
that of Theodore.  The deaths of the two Englishmen were 
terribly avenged by the slaughter or mutilation of nearly 
2000 rebels. Theodore soon after married his second wite 
Terunish, the proud daughter of the late governor of Tigre, 
who felt neither affection nor respect for the upstart who had 
dethroned her father, and the union was by no means a happy 
one.  In 1862 he made a second expedition against the Gallas, 
which was stained with atrocious cruelties.  Theodore had 
now given himself up to intoxication and lust.  When the 
news of Mr Plowden's death reached England, Captain C. D. 
Cameron was appointed to succeed him as consul, and arrived 
at Massawa in February 1862.  He proceeded to the camp of the 
king, to whom he presented a rifle, a pair of pistols and a 
letter in the queen's name. In October Captain Cameron was 
sent home by Theodore, with a letter to the queen of England, 
which reached the Foreign Office on the 12th of February 
1863.  This letter was put aside and no answer returned, 
and to this in no small degree are to be attributed the 
difficulties that subsequently arose with that country. In 
November despatches were received from England, but no answer 
to the emperor's letter, and this, together with a visit paid 
by Captain Cameron to the Egyptian frontier town of Kassala, 
greatly offended him; accordingly in January 1864 Captain 
Cameron and his suite, with Messrs Stern and Rosenthal, were 
cast into prison.  When the news of this reached England, the 
government resolved, when too late, to send an answer to the 
emperor's letter, and selected Mr Hormuzd Rassam to be its 
bearer.  He arrived at Massawa in July 1864, and immediately 
despatched a messenger requesting permission to present 
himself before the emperor.  Neither to this nor a subsequent 
application was any answer returned till August 1865, when 
a curt note was received, stating that Consul Cameron had 
been released, and if Mr Rassam still desired to visit the 
king, he was to proceed by the route of Gallabat.  Later 
in the year Theodore became more civil, and the British 
party on arrival at the king's camp in Damot, on the 25th 
of January 1866, were received with all honour, and were 
afterwards sent to Kwarata, on Lake Tsana, there to await 
the arrival of the captives.  The latter reached Kwarata 
on the 12th of March, and everything appeared to proceed 
favourably.  A month later they started for the coast, but had 
not proceeded far when they were ail brought back and put into 
confinement.  Theodore then wrote a letter to the queen, 
requesting European workmen and machinery to be sent to 
him, and despatched it by Mr Flad.  The Europeans, although 
detained as prisoners, were not at first unkindly treated; 
but in the end of June they were sent to Magdala, where they 
were soon afterwards put in chains.  They suffered hunger, 
cold and misery, and were in constant fear of death, till the 
spring of 1869 when they were relieved by the British troops. 

Sir Robert Napier's expedition. (21) In the meantime 
the power of Theodore in the country was rapidly waning.  
Shoa had already shaken off his yoke; Gojam was virtually 
independent; Walkeit and Simen were under a rebel chief; 
and Lasta, Waag and the country about Lake Ashangi had 
submitted to Wagshum Gobassie, who had also overrun 
Tigre and appointed Dejaj Kassai his governor. The latter, 
however, in 1867 rebelled against his master and assumed 
the supreme power of that province.  This was the state of 
matters when the English troops made their appearance in the 
country.  With a view if possible to effect the release of 
the prisoners by conciliatory measures, Mr Flad was sent 
back, with some artisans and machinery, and a letter from 
the queen, stating that these would be handed over to his 
majesty on the release of the prisoners and their return to 
Massawa.  This, however, failed to influence the emperor, 
and the English government at length saw that they must have 
recourse to arms. In July 1867, therefore, it was resolved 
to send an army into Abyssinia to enforce the release of 
the captives, under Sir Robert Napier (1st Baron Napier of 
Magdala).  The landingplace selected was Mulkutto (Zula), 
on Annesley Bay, the point of the coast nearest to the site 
of the ancient Adulis, and we are told that ``the pioneers 
of the English expedition followed to some extent in the 
footsteps of the adventurous soldiers of Ptolemy. and met 
with a few faint traces of this old-world enterprise'' (C. R. 
Markham).  The force amounted to upwards of 16,000 men, 
besides 12,640 belonging to the transport service, and 
followers, making in all upwards of 32,000 men.  The task to 
be accomplished was to march over 400 miles of a mountainous 
and little-known country, inhabited by savage tribes, to 
the camp or fortress of Theodore, and compel him to deliver 
up his captives.  The commander-in-chief landed on the 7th 
of January 1868, and soon after the troops began to move 
forward through the pass of Senafe, and southward through 
the districts of Agame, Tera, Endarta, Wojerat, Lasta and 
Wadela.  In the meantime Theodore had been reduced to great 
straits.  His army, which at one time numbered over 100,000 
men, was rapidly deserting him, and he could hardly obtain 
food for his followers.  He resolved to quit his captial 
Debra-Tabor, which he burned, and set out with the remains 
of his army for Magdala.  During this march he displayed an 
amount of engineering skill in the construction of roads, of 
military talent and fertility of resource, that excited the 
admiration and astonishment of his enemies.  On the afternoon 
of the 10th of April a force of about 3000 men suddenly poured 
down upon the English in the plain of Arogie, a few miles from 
Magdala.  They advanced again and again to the charge, but 
were each time driven back, and finally retired in good 
order.  Early next morning Theodore sent Lieut.  Prideaux, one 
of the captives, and Mr Flad, accompanied by a native chief, 
to the English camp to sue for peace.  Answer was returned, 
that if he would deliver up all the Europeans in his hands, and 
submit to the queen of England, he would receive honourable 
treatment.  The captives were liberated and sent away, and 
accompanying a letter to the English general was a present 
of 1000 cows and 500 sheep, the acceptance of which would, 
according to Eastern custom, imply that peace was granted. 
Through some misunderstanding, word was sent to Theodore 
that the present would be accepted, and he felt that he was 
now safe; but in the evening he learned that it had not been 
received, and despair again seized him.  Early next morning 
he attempted to escape with a few of his followers, but 
subsequently returned. The same day (13th April) Magdala was 
stormed and taken, practically without loss, and within they 
found the dead body of the emperor, who had fallen by his own 
hand.  The inhabitants and troops were subsequently sent 
away, the fortifications destroyed and the town burned.  The 
queen Terunish having expressed her wish to go back to her own 
country, accompanied the British army, but died during the 
march, and her son Alamayahu, the only legitimate son of the 
emperor, was brought to England, as this was the desire of 
his father.3 The success of the expedition was in no small 
degree owing to the aid afforded by the several native chiefs 
through whose country it passed, and no one did more in this 
way than Dejaj Kassa or Kassai of Tigre.  In acknowledgment of 
this, several pieces of ordnance, small arms and ammunition, 
with much of the surplus stores, were handed over to 
him, and the English troops left the country in May 1868. 

Menelek II., king of Shoa (22) It is now time to return 
to the story of the young prince Menelek, who, as we have 
seen, had been nominated by his late father as ruler of Shoa, 
but was in Theodore's power in Tigre.  The following table 
shows his descent since the beginning of the 19th century:-- 


 
            Asfa Nassen, d. 1807
                   |
              Wassan Seged = Woizero Zenebe Work
                  d. 1811  |
                           |
             ---------------------------------
             |                               |
        Becurraye                    Sella Selassie = Woizero Betsabesh
                                        (1795-1847)    |
                                                       |
              ---------------------------------------------------
              |                              |                  |
      Haeli Melicoth = Ejigayu             Siefu             Darge
      (1825-1855)    |                   (1826-1860)         b. 1827
                     |                        |
               Menelek II. = Taitu       Mashasha
                  b. 1844  |
                           |
          ----------------------------------------
          |                |                     |
        1 son          Zauditu             Tanina Work
        (dead)         (Judith)             (daughter)
 

On the retirement of Theodore's forces from Shoa in 1855, 
Siefu, brother of Haeli Melicoth, proclaimed himself negus 
of Shoa at Ankober, and beat the local representatives of 
the northern government.  The emperor returned, however, 
in 1858, and after several repulses succeeded in entering 
Ankober, where he behaved with great cruelty, murdering or 
mutilating all the inhabitants.  Siefu kept up a gallant 
defence for two more years, but was then killed by Kebret, 
one of his own chiefs. Thus chaos again reigned supreme in 
Shoa.  In 1865, Menelek, now a desjazmach 4 of Tigre, 
took advantage of Theodore's difficulties with the British 
government and escaped to Workitu, queen of the Wollo Galla 
country.  The emperor, who held as hostage a son of Workitu, 
threatened to kill the boy unless Menelek were given up; 
but the gallant queen refused, and lost both her son and her 
throne.  The fugitive meanwhile arrived safely in Shoa, and 
was there acclaimed as negus.  For the next three years 
Menelek devoted himself to strengthening and disciplining 
his army, to legislation, to building towns, such as Liche 
(near Debra-Berhan), Worra Hailu (Wollo Galla country), 
&c., and to repelling the incursions of the Gallas. 

King John attains supreme power. 

On the death of Theodore (13th April 1868) many Shoans, 
including Ras Darge, were released, and Menelek began to 
feel himself strong enough, after a few preliminary minor 
campaigns, to undertake offensive operations against the 
northern princes.  But these projects were of little avail, 
for Kassai of Tigre, as above mentioned, had by this time 
(1872) risen to supreme power in the north.  With the help 
of the rifles and guns presented to him by the British, 
he had beaten Ras Bareya of Tigre, Wagshum Gobassie of 
Amhara and Tekla Giorgis of Condar, and after proclaiming 
himself negus negusti under the name of Johannes or John, 
was now preparing to march on Shoa.  Here, however, Menelek 
was saved from probable destruction through the action of 
Egypt.  This power had, by the advice of Werner Munzinger 
(q.v.), their Swiss governor of Massawa, seized and 
occupied in 1872 the northern province of Bogos; and, later 
on, insisted on occupying Hamasen also, for fear Bogos 
should be attacked.  John, after futile protests, collected 
an army, and with the assistance of Ras Walad Michael, 
hereditary chief of Bogos, advanced against the Egyptian 
forces, who were under the command of one Arendrup, a 
Dane.  Meeting near the Mareb, the Egyptians were beaten in 
detail, and almost annihilated at Gundet (13th November 
1875).  An avenging expedition was prepared in the spring 
of the following year, and, numbering 14,000 men under Ratib 
Pasha, Loring (American), and Prince Hassan, advanced to 
Gura and fortified a position in the neighbouthood.  Although 
reinforced by Walad Michael, who had now quarrelled with 
John, the Egyptians were a second time (25th March 1876) 
heavily beaten by the Abyssinians, and retired, losing an 
enormous quantity of both men and rifies. Colonel C. G. 
Gordon, governor-general of the Sudan, was now ordered to 
go and make peace with John, but the king had moved south 
with his army, intending to punish Menelek for having raided 
Gondar whilst he, John, was engaged with the Egyptians. 

(23) Menelek's kingdom was meanwhile torn in twain by serious 
dissensions, which had been instigated by his concubine 
Bafana.  This lady, to whom he was much attached, had been 
endeavouring to secure the succession of one of her own sons 
to the throne of Shoa, and had almost succeeded in getting 
rid of Mashasha, son of Siefu and cousin of Menelek, who 
was the apparent heir.  On the approach of John, the Shoans 
united for a time against their common enemy.  But after a 
few skirmishes they melted away, and Menelek was obliged to 
submit and do obeisance to John.  The latter behaved with 
much generosity, but at the same time imposed terms which 
effectually deprived Shoa of her independence (March 1878).  
In 1879 Gordon was sent on a fresh mission to John on behalf of 
Egypt; but he was treated with scant courtesy, and was obllgcd 
to leave the country without achieving anything permanent. 

Beginning of Italian influence. 

The Italians now come on the scene.  Assab, a port near the 
southern entrance of the Red Sea, had been bought from the 
focal sultan in March 1870 by an Italian company, which, 
after acquiring more land in 1879 and 1880, was bought 
out by the Italian government in 1882. In this year Count 
Pietro Antonelli was despatched to Shoa in order to improve 
the prospects of the colony by treaties with Menelek and 
the sultan of Aussa.  Several missions followed upon this 
one, with more or less successful results; but both John and 
Menelek became uneasy when Beilul, a port to the north of 
Assab Bay, was occupied by the Italians in January 1885, and 
Massawa taken over by them from Egypt in the following month. 
This latter act was greatly resented by the Abyssinians, for 
by a treaty concluded with a British and Egyptian mission 
under Admiral Hewett and Mason Pasha 5 in the previous 
year, free transit of goods was to be allowed through this 
port.  Matters came to a head in January 1887, when the 
Abyssinians, in consequence of a refusal from General Gene 
to withdraw his troops, surrounded and attacked a detachment 
of 500 Italian troops at Dogali, killing more than 400 of 
them.  Reinforcements were sent from Italy, whilst in the 
autumn the British government stepped in and tried to mediate 
by means of a mission under Mr (afterwards Sir Gerald) 
Portal.  His mission, however proved abortive, and after many 
difficulties and dangers he returned to Egypt at the end of the 
year.  In April 1888 the Italian forces, numbering over 20,000 
men, came into touch with the Abyssinian army; but negotiations 
took the place of fighting, with the result that both forces 
retired, the Italians only leaving some 5000 troops in 
Eritrea, as their colony was now called. Meanwhile John had 
not been idle with regard to the dervishes, who had in the 
meantime become masters of the Egyptian Sudan.  Although he 
had set his troops in motion too late to relieve Kassala, 
Ras Alula, his chief general, had succeeded in inflicting 
a handsome defeat on Osman Digna at Kufit in September 
1885.  Fighting between the dervishes and the Abyssinians 
continued, and in August 1887 the dervishes entered and 
sacked Gondar.  After some delay, King John took the field 
in force against the enemy, who were still harassing the 
north-west of his territory.  A great battle ensued at 
Gallabat, in which the dervishes, under Zeki Tumal, were 
beaten.  But a stray bullet struck the king, and the Abyssinians 
decided to retire. The king died during the night, and his 
body fell into the hands of the enemy (9th March 1889). 

Menelek emperor. 

(24) Immediately the news of John's death reached Menelek, 
he proclaimed himself emperor, and received the submission 
of Gondar, Gojam and several other provinces.  In common 
with other northern princes, Mangasha, reputed son and heir 
of King John, with the yellow-eyed Ras Alula,6 refused to 
acknowledge the sovereignty of Menelek; but, on the latter 
marching against them in the following January with a large 
army, they submitted.  As it happened, Count Antonelli 
was with Menelek when he claimed the throne, and promptly 
concluded (2nd of May 1889) with him on behalf of Italy a 
friendly treaty, to be known hereafter as the famous Uccialli 
treaty.  In consequence of this the Italians occupied Asmara, 
made friends with Mangasha and received Ras Makonnen7, 
Menelek's nephew, as his plenipotentiary in Italy.  Thus it 
seemed as though hostilities between the two countries had 
come to a definite end, and that peace was assured in the 
land.  For the next three years the land was fairly quiet, 
the chief political events being the convention (6th February 
1891) between Italy and Abyssinia, protocols between Italy 
and Great Britain (24th March and 15th April 1891) and a 
proclamation by Menelek (10th April 1891), all on the subject of 
boundaries.  As, however, the Italians became more and more 
friendly with Mangasha and Tigre the apprehensions of Menelek 
increased, till at last, in February 1893, he wrote denouncing 
the Uccialli treaty, which differed in the Italian and Amharic 
versions.  According to the former, the negus was bound 
to make use of Italy as a channel for communicating with 
other powers, whereas the Amharic version left it optional. 
Meanwhile the dervishes were threatening Eritrea.  A fine 
action by Colonel Arimondi gained Agordat for Italy (21st 
December 1893), and a brilliant march by Colonel Baratieri 
resulted in the acquisition of Kassala (17th July 1894). 

On his return Baratieri found that Mangasha was intriguing 
with the dervishes, and had actually crossed the frontier 
with a large army.  At Koatit and Senafe (13th to 15th 
January 1895) Mangasha was met and heavily defeated by 
Baratieri, who occupied Adrigat in March.  But as the year 
wore on the Italian commander pushed his forces unsupported 
too far to the south. Menelek was advancing with a large 
army in national support of Mangasha, and the subsequent 
reverses at Amba Alagi (7th December 1895) and Macalle 
(23rd January 1896) forced the Italians to fall back. 

Battle of Adowa. Reinforcements of many thousands were 
meanwhile arriving at Massawa, and in February Baratieri took 
the field at the head of over 13,000 men.  Menelek's army, 
amounting to about 90,000, had during this time advanced, 
and was occupying a strong position at Abba Garima, near 
Adua (or Adowa).  Here Baratieri attacked him on the 1st 
of March, but the difficulties of the country were great, 
and one of the four Italian brigades had pushed too far 
forward.  This brigade was attacked by overwhelming numbers, 
and on the remaining brigades advancing in support, they were 
successively cut to pieces by the encircling masses of the 
enemy.  The Italians lost over 4500 white and 2000 native 
troops killed and wounded, and over 2500 prisoners, of which 
1600 were white, whilst the Abyssinians owned to a loss of over 
3000.  General Baldissera advanced with a large body of 
reinforcements to avenge this defeat, but the Abyssinians, 
desperately short of supplies, had already retired, and beyond 
the peaceful relief of Adrigat no further operations took 
place.  It may here be remarked that the white prisoners 
taken by Menelek were exceedingly well treated by him, and 
that he behaved throughout the struggle with Italy with 
the greatest humanity and dignity.  On the 26th of October 
following a provisional treaty of peace was concluded at 
Adis Ababa, annulling the treaty of Uccialli and recognizing 
the absolute independence of Abyssinia.  This treaty was 
ratified, and followed by other treaties and agreements 
defining the Eritrean-Abyssinian and the Abyssinian-Italian 
Somaliland frontiers (see ITALY, History, and SOMALILAND, Italian 

Menelek as independent monarch. 

(25) The war, so disastrous to Italy, attracted the attention of 
all Europe to Abyssinia and its monarch, and numerous 
missions, two Russian, three French and one British, were 
despatched to the country, and hospitably received by 
Menelek.  The British one, under Mr (afterwards Sir) Rennell 
Rodd, concluded a friendly treaty with Abyssinia (15th 
of May 1897), but did not, except in the direction of 
Somaliland, touch on frontier questions, which for several 
years continued a subject of discussion.  During the same 
year (1897) a small French expedition under Messrs Clochette 
and de Bonchamps endeavoured to reach the Nile, but, after 
surmounting many difficulties, stuck in the marshes of the 
Upper Sobat, and was obliged to return.  Another expedition 
of Abyssinians, under Dejaj Tasamma and accompanied by three 
Europeans---Faivre (French), Potter (Swiss) and Artomonov 
(Russian)--started early in 1898, and reached the Nile at the 
Sobat mouth in June, a few days only before Major Marchand 
and his gallant companions arrived on the scene. But no 
contact was made, and the expedition returned to Abyssinia. 

In the same year Menelek proceeded northwards with a large 
army for the purpose of chastising Mangasha, who was again 
rebelling against his authority.  After some trifling fighting 
Mangasha submitted, and Ras Makonnen despatched a force 
to subdue Beni Shangul, the chief of which gold country, 
Wad Tur el Guri, was showing signs of disaffection.  This 
effected, the Abyssinians almost came into contact with the 
Egyptian troops sent up the Blue Nile (after the occupation 
of Khartum) to Famaka and towards Gallabat; but as both 
sides were anxious to avoid a collision over this latter 
town, no hostile results ensued.  An excellent understanding 
was, in fact, established between these two contiguous 
countries, in spite of occasional disturbances by bandits 
on the frontier.  On this frontier question, a treaty 
was concluded on the 15th of May 1902 between England and 
Abyssinia for the delimitation of the Sudan-Abyssinian 
frontier.  Menelek, in addition, agreed not to obstruct the 
waters of Lake Tsana, the Blue Nile or the Sobat, so as not 
to interfere with the Nile irrigation question, and he also 
agreed to give a concession, if such should be required, 
for the construction of a British railway through his 
dominions, to connect the Sudan with Uganda.  A combined 
British-Abyssinian expedition (Mr A. E. Butter's) was despatched 
in 1901 to propose and survey a boundary between Abyssinia 
on the one side and British East Africa and Uganda on the 
other; and the report of the expedition was made public by 
the British government in November 1904.  It was followed 
in 1908 by an agreement defining the frontiers concerned. 

Co-operation with Britain against the Somali mullah. 

(26) In 1899 the rebellion of the so-called ``mad'' mullah 
(Hajji Mahommed Abdullah) began on the borders of British 
Somaliland.  An Abyssinian expedition was,  at Great 
Britain's request, sent against the mullah,  but without much 
effect.  In the spring and  summer of 1901 a fresh expedition 
from Harrar was  undertaken against the mullah, who was 
laying waste  the Ogaden country.  Two British officers 
accompanied this force, which was to co-operate with British 
troops advancing from Somaliland; but little was achieved 
by the Abyssinians, and after undergoing considerable 
privations and losses, and harassing the country generally, 
including that of some friendly tribes, it returned to 
Harrar.  During the 1902-3 campaign of General (Sir) W. H. 
Manning, Menelek provided a force of 5000 to co-operate with 
the British and to occupy the Webi Shebeli and south-western 
parts of the Hand.  This time the Abyssinians were more 
successful, and beat the rebels in a pitched fight; but 
the difficulties of the country again precluded effective 
co-operation.  During General Egerton's campaign (1903-4) 
yet another force of 5000 Abyssinians was despatched towards 
Somaliland. Accompanied by a few British officers, it worked 
its way southward, but did not contribute much towards the 
final solution. In any case, however, it is significant 
that the Abyssinians have repeatedly been willing to 
co-operate with the British away from their own country. 

Growth of European influence. Regarding the question of 
railways, the first concession for a railway from the coast 
at Jibuti (French Somaliland) to the interior was granted 
hy Menelek to a French company in 1894.  The company having 
met with numberless difficulties and financial troubles, the 
French government, on the extinction of the company's funds, 
came to the rescue and provided money for the construction. 
(In the alternative British capitalists interested in the 
company would have obtained control of the line.) The French 
government's help enabled the railway to be completed to 
Dire Dawa, 28 m. from Harrar, by the last day of 1902.  
Difficulties arose over the continuation of the railway to 
Adis Ababa and beyond, and the proposed internationalization 
of the line.  These difficulties, which hindered the work 
of construction for years, were composed (so far as the 
European Powers interested were concerned) in 1906.  By the 
terms of an Anglo-French-Italian agreement, signed in London 
on the 13th of December of that year, it was decided that 
the French company should fund the railway as far as Adis 
Ababa, while railway construction west of that place should 
be under British auspices, with the stipulation that any 
railway connecting Italy's possessions on the Red Sea with 
its Somaliland protectorate should be built under Italian 
auspices.  A British, an Italian and an Abyssinian representative 
were to be appointed to the board of the French company, and a 
French director to the board of any British or Italian company 
formed.  Absolute equality of treatment on the railway and 
at Jibuti was guaranteed to the commerce of all the Powers. 

Meanwhile the country slowly developed in parts and opened 
out cautiously to European influences.  Most of the Powers 
appointed representatives at Menelek's capital--the British 
minister-plenipotentiary and consul-general, Lieut.-Colonel 
Sir J. L. Harrington, having been appointed shortly after 
the British mission in 1897.  In December 1903 an American 
mission visited Adis Ababa, and a commercial treaty between 
the United States and Abyssinia was signed.  A German 
mission visited the country early in 1905 and also concluded 
a treaty of commerce with the negus.  Later in the year a 
German minister was appointed to the court of the emperor. 

After 1897 British influence in Abyssinia, owing largely no 
doubt to the conquest of the Sudan, the destruction of the 
dervish power and the result of the Fashoda incident, was 
sensibly on the increase.  Of the remaining powers France 
occupied the most important position in the country.  Ras 
Makonnen, the most capable and civilized of Menelek's probable 
successors, died in March 1906, and Mangasha died later in 
the same year; the question of the succession therefore 
opened up the possibility that, in spite of recent civilizing 
influences, Abyssinia might still relapse in the future 
into its old state of conflict.  The Anglo-French-Italian 
agreement of December 1906 contained provisions in view of 
this contingency.  The preamble of the document declared 
that it was the common interest of the three Powers ``to 
maintain intact the integrity of Ethiopia,'' and Article 
I. provided for their co-operation in maintaining ``the 
political and territorial status quo in Ethiopia.'' Should, 
however, the status quo be disturbed, the powers were to 
concert to safeguard their special interests.  The terms 
of the agreement were settled in July 1906, and its text 
forthwith communicated to the negus.  After considerable 
hesitation Menelek sent, early in December, a note to the 
powers, in which, after thanking them for their intentions, 
he stipulated that the agreement should not in any way limit 
his own sovereign rights. In June 1908, by the nomination of 
his grandson, Lij Yasu (b. 1896), as his heir, the emperor 
endeavoured to end the rivalry between various princes 
claiming the succession to the throne. (See MENELEK.) A 
convention with Italy, concluded in the same year, settled 
the frontier questions outstanding with that country. (G.*) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For general information see A. B. Wylde's 
Modern Abyssinia (London, 1901), a volume giving the result 
of many years' acquaintance with the country and people; 
Voyage en Abyssinie . . . 1839-43, par une commission 
scientifique, by Th. Lefebvre and others (6 vols. and atlas, 3 
vols., Paris, 1845--54); Elisee Reclus, Nouvelle geographie 
universelle, vol. x. chap. v. (Paris, 1885).  For latest 
geographical and kindred information consult the Geographical 
Journal (London), especially ``A Journey through Abyssinia,'' 
vol. xv. (1900), and ``Exploration in the Abai Basin,'' vol. 
xxvii. (1906), both by H. Weld Blundell, and ``From the 
Somali Coast through S. Ethiopia to the Sudan,'' vol. xx. 
(1902), by C. Neumann; Antoine d'Abbadie, Geographie de 
l'Ethiopie (Paris, 1890).  The British parliamentary paper 
Africa, No. 13 (1904), is a report on the survey of the 
S.E. frontier by Capt.  P. Maud, R.E., and contains a valuable 
map.  For geology, &c., see W. T. Blanford, Observations 
on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia (London, 1870); C. 
Futterer, ``Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Jura in Ost-Afrika,'' 
Zeit. Deutsch.  Geol.  Gesell. xlix. p. 568 (1897); C. 
A. Raisin, ``Rocks from Southern Abyssinia,'' Quart.  
Journ.  Geol.  Soc. vol. lix. pp. 292-306 (1903). 

Among works by travellers describing the country are---James 
Bruce's Travels to discover the Source of the Nile 1768-1773 
(Edinburgh, 1813, 3rd ed., 8 vols.); The Highlands of 
Aethiopia (3 vols., London, 1844), by Sir W. Cornwallis 
Harris, dealing with the Danakil country, Harrar and 
Shoa; Mansfield Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia; being notes 
collected during three years' residence and travels (2nd 
ed., London, 1868); Antoine d'Abbadie, Douze ans dans 
La Haute Ethiopie (Paris, 1868); P. H. G. Powell-Cotton, 
A Sporting Trip through Abyssinia (London, 1902); A. 
Donaldson Smith, Through Unknown African Countries (London, 
1897); M. S. Wellby, Twixt Sirdar and Menelik (London, 
1901).  For history see -- A. M. H. J. Stokvis' Manuel 
d'histoire, vol. i. pp. 439-46, and vol. ii. pp. lxxiv-v 
(Leiden, 1888-89), which contains lists of the sovereigns 
of Abyssinia, Shoa and Harrar, from the earliest times, 
with brief notes.  Texts of treaties between Abyssinia and 
the European Powers up to 1896 will be found in vol. i. of 
Sir E. Hertslet's The Map of Africa by Treaty (London, 
1896).  L. J. Morie's Histoire de l'Ethiopie: Tome ii, 
``L'Abyssinie'' (Paris, 1904), is a comprehensive survey 
(the views on modern affairs being coloured by a strong 
anti-British bias). For more detailed historical study consult 
C. Beccari's Notizia e Saggi di opere e documenti inediti 
riguardanti la Storia di Etiopia durante i Secoli XVI., 
XVII. e XVIII. (Rome. 1903), a valuable guide to the period 
indicated; E. Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien und Afrika 
(Munich, 1895); The Portuguese Expedition to Abysinnia in 
1541-1543 as narrated by Castanhoso (with the account of 
Bermudez), translated and edited by R. S. Whiteway (London, 
Hakluyt Society, 1902), which contains a bibliography; Futu 
el-Habacha, a contemporary Arab chronicle of the wars of 
Mahommed Gran, translated into French by Antoine d'Abbadie 
and P. Paulitschke (Paris,1898); A Voyage to Abyssinia by 
Father Jerome Lobo, from the French [by Samuel Johnson] 
(London, 1735); Record of the Expedition to Abyssinia, 3 
vols., an official history of the war of 1868, by Major T. J. 
Holland and Capt.  H. Hosier (London, 1870); Hormuzd Rassam, 
Narrative of the British Mission to Theodore [1865-1868] 
(2 vols., London, 1869); Henry Blanc, A Narrative of 
Captivity in Abyssinia (London, 1868 ), by one of Theodore's 
prisoners; Sir Gerald H. Portal, My Mission to Abyssinia 
(London, 1892), an account of the author's embassy to King 
John in 1887; Count A. E. W. Gleichen, With the Mission to 
Menelik, 1897 (London, 1898), containing the story of the 
Rennell Rodd mission; R. P. Skinner, Abyssinia of To-Day 
(London, 1906), a record of the first American mission to the 
country; G. F. H. Berkeley, The Campaign of Adowa and the 
Rise of Menelik (London, 1902).  Books dealing with missionary 
enterprise are---Journal of a Three Years' Residence in 
Abyssinia, by Bishop Samuel Gobat (London, 1834); J. L. 
Krapf, Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours during 
an 18 years' residence in Eastern Africa (London, 1860); 
Cardinal G. Massaja, I miei Trentacinque anni di Missione 
nell' Alta Etiopia (10 vols., Milan, 1886-1893).  Political 
questions are referred to by T. Lennox Gilmour, Abyssinia: 
the Ethiopian Railway and the Powers (London, 1906); 
H. le Roux, Menelik et nous (Paris, 1901); Charles 
Michel, La question d'Ethiopie (Paris, 1905). (F. R. C.) 

1 Since Theodore's time Protestant missionary 
work, except by natives, has been stopped. 

2 Menelek means ``a second self.'' 

3 He was subsequently sent to school at Rugby, but 
died in his nineteenth year, on the 14th of Nnvember 
1879.  He was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor. 

4 A title variously translated.  A dejazmach (dejaj) 
is a high official, ranking immediately belaw a ras, 

5 The main object of this mission was to seek John's 
assistance in evacuating the Egyptian garrisons in 
the Sudan, which were threatened by the dervishes. 

 6/0 Ras Alula died February 1897, aged about 52. He had 
raised himself by his military talents from being a groom and 
private soldier to the position of generalissimo of the army. 

7 Ras of Harrar, which province had been conquered 
and occupied by Menelek in January 1887. 

ABYSSINIAN CHURCH. As the chronicle of Axum relates, 
Christianity was adopted in Abyssinia in the 4th century. 
About A.D. 330 Frumentius was made first bishop of Ethiopia by 
Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria.  Cedrenus and Nicephorus 
err in dating Abyssinian Christianity from Justinian, c. 
542. From Frumentius to the present day, with one break, the 
Metropolitan (Abuna) has always been appointed from Egypt, 
and, oddly enough, he is always a foreigner.  Little is 
known of church history down to the period of Jesuit rule, 
which broke the connexion with Egypt from about 1500 to 
1633.  But the Abyssinians rejected the council of Chalcedon, 
and still remain monophysites.  Union with the Coptic Church 
(q.v.) continued after the Arab conquest in Egypt.  Abu 
Sallh records (12th century) that the patriarch used always to 
send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, 
till Al Hakim stopped the practice.  Cyril, 67th patriarch, 
sent Severus as bishop, with orders to put down polygamy 
and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all 
churches.  These examples show the close relations of the two 
churches in the Middle Ages.  But early in the 16th century 
the church was brought under the influence of a Portuguese 
mission.  In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yakub, a religious 
discussion between an Abyssinian, Abba Giorgis, and a Frank 
had led to the despatch of an embassy from Abyssinia to the 
Vatican; but the initiative in the Roman Catholic missions 
to Abyssinia was taken, not by Rome, but by Portugal, as an 
incident in the struggle with the Mussulmans for the command 
of the trade route to India by the Red Sea. In 1507 Matthew, 
or Matheus, an Armenian, had been sent as Abyssinian envoy 
to Portugal to ask aid against the Mussulmans, and in 1520 
an embassy under Dom Rodrigo de Lima landed in Abyssinia.  
An interesting account of this mission, which remained 
for several years, was written by Francisco Alvarez, the 
chaplain.  Later, Ignatius Loyola wished to essay the task 
of conversion, but was forbidden.  Instead, the pope sent 
out Joao Nunez Barreto as patriarch of the East Indies, 
with Andre de Oviedo as bishop; and from Goa envoys went to 
Abyssinia, followed by Oviedo himself, to secure the king's 
adherence to Rome.  After repeated failures some measure of 
success was achieved, but not till 1604 did the king make 
formal submission to the pope.  Then the people rebelled and 
the king was slain.  Fresh Jesuit victories were followed 
sooner or later by fresh revolt, and Roman rule hardly 
triumphed when once for all it was overthrown.  In 1633 the 
Jesuits were expelled and allegiance to Alexandria resumed. 

There are many early rock-cut churches in Abyssinia, closely 
resembling the Coptic.  After these, two main types of 
architecture are found--one basilican, the other native.  The 
cathedral at Axum is basilican, though the early basilicas 
are nearly all in ruin -e.g. that at Adulis and that of 
Martula Mariam in Gojam, rebuilt in the 16th century on 
the ancient foundations. These examples show the influence 
of those architects who, in the 6th century, built the 
splendid basilicas at Sanaa and elsewhere in Arabia.  Of 
native churches there are two forms---one square or oblong, 
found in Tigre; the other circular, found in Amhara and 
Shoa.  In both, the sanctuary is square and stands clear in the 
centre.  An outer court, circular or rectangular, surrounds the 
body of the church.  The square type may be due to basilican 
influence, the circular is a mere adaptation of the native 
hut: in both, the arrangements are obviously based on Jewish 
tradition.  Church and outer court are usually thatched, 
with wattled or mud-built walls adorned with rude frescoes.  
The altar is a board on four wooden pillars having upon 
it a small slab (tabut) of alabaster, marble, or shittim 
wood, which forms its essential part.  At Martula Mariam, 
the wooden altar overlaid with gold had two slabs of solid 
gold, one 500, the other 800 ounces in weight.  The ark kept 
at Axum is described as 2 feet high, covered with gold and 
gems.  The liturgy was celebrated on it in the king's palace 
at Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and Feast of the Cross. 

Generally the Abyssinians agree with the Copts in ritual and 
practice.  The LXX. version was translated into Geez, the 
literary language, which is used for all services, though hardly 
understood.  Saints and angels are highly revered, if not adored, 
but graven images are forbidden.  Fasts are long and rigid. 
Confession and absolution, strictly enforced, give great power 
to the priesthood.  The clergy must marry, but once only. 
Pilgrimage to Jerusalem is a religious duty and covers many sins. 

AUTHORITIES.--Tellez, Historia de Ethiopia (Coimbra, 
1660); Alvarez, translated and edited for the Hakluyt Soc. 
by Lord Stanley of Aderley, under the title Narrative 
of the Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia (London, 1881); 
Ludolphus, History of Ethiopia (London, 1684, and other 
works); T. Wright, Christianity of Arabia (London, 1855); 
C. T. Beke, ``Christianity among the Gallas,'' Brit.  Mag. 
(London, 1847); J. C. Hotten, Abyssinia Described (London, 
1868); ``Abyssinian Church Architecture,'' Royal Inst.  
Brit.  Arch.  Transactions, 1869; Ibid. Journal, March 
1897; Archaeologia, vol. xxxii.; J. A. de Graca Barreto, 
Documenta historiam ecclesiae Habessinarum illustrantia 
(Olivipone, 1879); E. F. Kromrei, Glaubenlehre und Gebrauche 
der alteren Abessinischen Kirche (Leipzig, 1895); F. M. E. 
Pereira, Vida do Abba Samuel (Lisbon, 1894); Idem, Vida do 
Abba Daniel (Lisbon, 1897); Idem, Historia dos Martyres de 
Nagran (Lisbon, 1899); Idem, Chronica de Susenyos (Lisbon, 
text 1892, tr. and notes 1900); Idem, Martyrio de Abba Isaac 
(Coimbra, 1909); Idem, Vida de S. Paulo de Thebas (Coimbra, 
1904); Archdeacon Dowling, The Abyssinian Church, (London, 
1909); and periodicals as under COPTIC CHURCH. (A. J. B.) 

ACACIA, a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the family 
Leguminosae and the sub-family Mimoseae.  The small flowers 
are arranged in rounded or elongated clusters.  The leaves are 
compound pinnate in general (see fig.).  In some instances, 
however, more especially in the Australian species, the leaflets 
are suppressed and the leaf-stalks become vertically flattened, 
and serve the purpose of leaves. The vertical position protects
the structure from the intense sunlight, as with their 
edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light 
so fully as ordinary horizontally placed leaves.  There 
are about 450 species of acacia widely scattered over the 
warmer regions of the globe. They abound in Australia and 
Africa.  Various species yield gum.  True gum-arabic is the 
product of Acacia Senegal, abundant in both east and west 
tropical Africa. Acacia arabica is the gum-arabic tree of 
India, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-arabic.  
An astringent medicine, called catechu (q.v.) or cutch, 
is procured from several species, but more especially from 
Acacia catechu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating 
the solution so as to get an extract.  The bark of Acacia 
arabica, under the name of babul or babool, is used 
in Scinde for tanning. The bark of various Australian 
species, known as wattles, is also very rich in tannin 
and forms an important article of export. Such are Acacia 
pycnantha, golden wattle, A. decurrens, tan wattle, and A. 
dealbata, silver wattle.  The pods of Acacia nilotica, 
under the name of neb-neb, and of other African species 




Acacia Senegal, flowering branch, natural size (after A. Meyer 
                      and Schumann).
From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik. 

is rich in tannin and used by tanners.  The seeds of Acacia 
niopo are roasted and used as snuff in South America. 
Some species afford valuable timber; such are Acacia 
melanoxylon, black wood of Australia, which attains a great 
size; its wood is used for furniture, and takes a high 
polish; and Acacia homalophylla (also Australian), myall 
wood, which yields a fragrant timber, used for ornamental 
purposes. Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba timber 
called sabicu. Acacia seyal is supposed to be the shittah 
tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. Acacia 
heterophylla, from Mauritius and Bourbon, and Acacia koa 
from the Sandwich Islands are also good timber trees.  The 
plants often bear spines, especially those growing in arid 
districts in Australia or tropical and South Africa.  These 
sometimes represent branches which have become short, hard 
and pungent, or sometimes leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is 
the kangaroo-thorn of Australia, A. giraffae, the African 
camelthorn.  In the Central American Acacia sphaerocephala 
(bullthorn acacia) and A. spadicigera, the large thorn-like 
stipules are hollow and afford shelter for ants, which feed on 
a secretion of honey on the leaf-stalk and curious food-bodies 
at the tips of the leaflets; in return they protect the 
plant against leaf-cutting insects.  In common language the 
term Acacia is often applied to species of the genus Robinia 
(q.v.) which belongs also to the Leguminous family, but 
is placed in a different section. Robinia Pseud-acacia, 
or false acacia, is cultivated in the milder parts of 
Britain, and forms a large tree, with beautiful pea-like 
blossoms. The tree is sometimes called the locust tree. 

ACADEMIES. The word ``academy'' is derived from ``the 
olive grove of Academe, Plato's retirement,'' the birthplace 
of the Academic school of philosophy (see under ACADEMY, 
GREEK).  The schools of Athens after the model of the 
Academy continued to flourish almost without a break for 
nine centuries till they were abolished by a decree of 
Justinian.  It was not without significance in tracing the 
history of the word that Cicero gave the name to his villa near 
Puteoli.  It was there that he entertained his cultured 
friends and held the symposia which he afterwards elaborated in 
Academic Questions and other philosophic and moral dialogues. 

``Academy,'' in its modern acceptation, may be defined 
as a society or corporate body having for its object the 
cultivation and promotion of literature, of science and 
of art, either severally or in combination, undertaken 
for the pure love of these pursuits, with no interested 
motive.  Modern academies, moreover, have, almost without 
exception, some form of public recognition; they are either 
founded or endowed, or subsidized, or at least patronized, 
by the sovereign of the state.  The term ``academy'' is 
very loosely used in modern times; and, in essentials, other 
bodies with the title of ``society'' or ``college,'' or even 
``school,'' often embody the same idea; we are only concerned 
here, however, with those which, bearing the title of academy, 
are of historical importance in their various spheres. 

Early History.---The first academy, as thus defined, 
though it might with equal justice claim to be the first 
of universities, was the museum of Alexandria founded at 
the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. by the first of 
the Ptolemies.  There all the sciences then known were 
pursued, and the most learned men of Greece and of the 
East gathered beneath its spacious porticos.  Here, too, 
was the nucleus of the famous library of Alexandria. 

Passing over the state institute for the promotion of 
science founded at Constantinople by Caesar Bardas in the 
9th century, and the various academies established by the 
Moors at Granada, at Corduba and as far east as Samarkand, 
we come to the academy over which Alcuin presided, a branch 
of the School of the Palace established by Charlemagne in 
782. This academy was the prototype of the learned coteries 
of Paris which Moliere afterwards satirized.  It took 
all knowledge for its province; it included the learned 
priest and the prince who could not write his own name, 
and it sought to solve all problems by witty definitions. 

The David of Alcuin's academy (such was the name that the 
emperor assumed) found no successors or imitators, and the 
tradition of an Oxford academy of Alfred the Great has been 
proved to rest on a forgery.  The academy of arts founded 
at Florence in 1270 by Brunetto Latini was short-lived and 
has left no memories, and modern literary academies may 
be said to trace their lineage in direct descent from the 
troubadours of the early 14th century.  The first Floral 
Games were held at Toulouse in May 1324, at the summons of a 
gild of troubadours, who invited ``honourable lords, friends 
and companions who possess the science whence spring joy, 
pleasure, good sense, merit and politeness'' to assemble 
in their garden of the ``gay science'' and recite their 
works.  The prize, a golden violet, was awarded to Vidal 
de Castelnaudary for a poem to the glory of the Virgin.  In 
spite of the English invasion and other adversities the Floral 
Games survived till, about the year 1500, their permanence 
was secured by the munificent bequest of Clemence Isaure, 
a rich lady of Toulouse.  In 1694 the Academie des Jeux 
Floraux was constituted an academy by letters patent of 
Louis XIV.; its statutes were reformed and the number Of 
members raised to 36. Suppressed during the Revolution it was 
revived in 1806, and still continues to award amaranths of 
gold and sliver lilies, for which there is keen competition. 

Provence led the way, but Italy of the Renaissance is the 
soil in which academies most grew and flourished.  The 
Accademia Pontaniana, to give it its subsequent title, 
was founded at Florence in 1433 by Antonio Beccadelli of 
Palermo and fostered by Laurentius Valla.  Far more famous 
was the Accademia Platonica, founded c. 1442 by Cosimo 
de' Medici, which numbered among its members Marsilio 
Ficino, Pico della Mirandola, Machiavelli and Angelo 
Poliziano.  It was, as the name implies, chiefly occupied 
with Plato, but it added to its objects the study of Dante 
and the purification of the Italian language, and though 
it lived for barely half a century, yet its influence as a 
model for similar learned societies was great and lasting. 

Modern Academies.--Academies have played an important part 
in the revival of learning and in the birth of scientific 
inquiry.  They mark an age of aristocracies when letters 
were the distinction of the few and when science had not 
been differentiated into distinct branches, each with its 
own specialists. Their interest is mainly historical, and 
it cannot be maintained that at the present day they have 
much direct influence on the advancement of learning either 
by way of research or of publication.  For example, the 
standard dictionaries of France, Germany and England are 
the work, not of academies, but of individual scholars, of 
Littre, Grimm and Murray.  Matthew Arnold's plea for an 
English academy of letters to save his countrymen from 
the note of vulgarity and provinciality has met with no 
response.  Academies have been supplanted, socially by the 
modern club, and intellectually by societies devoted to 
special branches of science.  Those that survive from the past 
serve, like the Heralds' College, to set an official stamp 
on literary and scientific merit.  The principal academies 
of Europe, past and present, may be dealt with in various 
classes, according to the subjects to which they are devoted. 

I. SCIENTIFIC ACADEMIES Austria.---The Kaiserliche Akademie 
der Wissenschaften at Vienna, originally projected by Leibnitz, 
was founded by the emperor Ferdinand I. in 1846, and has two 
classes---mathematics and natural science, and history and philology. 

Belgium and the Netherlands.-A literary society was founded at 
Brussels in 1769 by Count Cobenzl, the prime minister of Maria 
Theresa, which after various changes of name and constitution 
became in 1816 the Academie imperiale et royale des 
sciences et belles-lettres, under the patronage of William 
I. of the Netherlands.  It has devoted itself principally to 
natural history and antiquities.  The Royal Institute of the 
Low Countries was founded in 1808 by King Louis Bonaparte.  
It was replaced in 1851 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at 
Amsterdam, to which in 1856 a literary section was added. 

Denmark.---The Kongelige danske videnskabernes selskab 
(Royal Academy of Sciences) at Copenhagen owes its origin 
to Christian VI., who in 1742 invited six Danish numismatists 
to arrange his cabinet of medals.  Historians and antiquaries 
were called in to assist at the sittings, and the commission 
developed into a sort of learned club.  The king took it 
under his protection, enlarged its scope by the addition 
of natural history, physics and mathematics, and in 1743 
constituted it a royal academy with an endowment fund. 

France.---The old Academie des sciences had the same 
origin as the more celebrated Academie francaise. A 
number of men of science had for some thirty years met 
together, first at the house of P. Marsenne, then at that of 
Montmort, a member of the Council of State, afterwards at 
that of Melchisedec Thevenot, the learned traveller.  It 
included Descartes, Gassendi, Blaise and Etienne Pascal.  
Hobbes, the author of Leviathan, was presented to it during 
his visit to Paris in 1640.  Colbert conceived the idea of 
giving an official status to this learned club. A number of 
chemists, physicians, anatomists and eminent mathematicians, 
among whom were Christian Huyghens and Bernard Frenicle 
de Bessy (1605-1675), the author of a famous treatise on 
magic squares, were chosen to form the nucleus of the new 
society.  Pensions were granted by Louis XIV. to each of 
the members, and a fund for instruments and experiment was 
placed at their disposal.  They began their session on the 
22nd of December 1666 in the Royal Library, meeting twice a 
week--the mathematicians on Wednesdays, the physicists on 
Saturdays.  Duhamel was appointed permanent secretary, a post 
he owed more to his polished Latinity than to his scientific 
attainments, all the proceedings of the society being recorded 
in Latin, and C. A. Couplet was made treasurer.  At first the 
academy was rather a laboratory and observatory than an academy 
proper.  Experiments were undertaken in common and results 
discussed.  Several foreign savants, in particular the 
Danish astronomer Roemer, joined the society, attracted hy the 
liberality of the Grand Monarque; and the German physician and 
geometer Tschirnhausen and Sir Isaac Newton were made foreign 
associates.  The death of Colbert, who was succeeded by 
Louvois, exercised a disastrous effect on the fortunes of the 
academy.  The labours of the academicians were diverted 
from the pursuit of pure science to such works as the 
construction of fountains and cascades at Versailles, and 
the mathematicians were employed to calculate the odds of 
the games of lansquenet and basset.  In 1699 the academy was 
reconstituted by Louis Phelypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, 
under whose department as secretary of state the academies 
came.  By its new constitution it consisted of twenty-five 
members, ten honorary, men of high rank interested in 
science, and fifteen pensionaries, who were the working 
members.  Of these three were geometricians, three 
astronomers, three mechanicians, three anatomists, and three 
chemists.  Each of these three had two associates, and, 
besides, each pensionary had the privilege of naming a 
pupil.  There were eight foreign and four free associates.  
The officers were, a president and a vice-president, named by 
the king from among the honorary members, and a secretary and 
treasurer chosen from the pensionaries, who held office for 
life.  Fontenelle, a man of wit, and rather a popularizer of 
science than an original investigator, succeeded Duhamel as 
secretary.  The constitution was purely aristocratical, 
differing in that respect from that of the French Academy, in 
which the principle of equality among the members was never 
violated. Science was not yet strong enough to dispense with 
the patronage of the great.  The two leading spirits of the 
academy at this period were Clairault and Reaumur.  To trace 
the subsequent fortunes of this academy would be to write 
the history of the rise and progress of science in France.  
It has reckoned among its members Laplace, Buffon, Lagrange, 
D'Alembert, Lavoisier, and Jussieu, the father of modern 
botany.  On the 21st of December 1792 it met for the last time, 
and it was suppressed with its sister academies by the act of 
the Convention on the 8th of April 1793.  Some of its members 
were guillotined, some were imprisoned, more were reduced to 
poverty.  The aristocracy of talent was almost as much 
detested and persecuted by the Revolution as that of rank. 

In 1795 the Convention decided on founding an Institut 
National which was to replace all the academies, and its first 
class corresponded closely to the old academy of sciences.  
In 1816 the Academie des sciences was reconstituted as a 
branch of the Institute.  The new academy has reckoned among 
its members, besides many other brilliant men, Carnot the 
engineer, the physicists Fresnel, Ampere, Arago, Blot, the 
chemists Gay-Lussac and Thenard, the zoologists G. Cuvier 
and the two Geoffroy Saint-Hilaires.  In France there were 
also considerable academies in most of the large towns.  
Montpellier, for example, had a royal academy of sciences, 
founded in 1706 by Louis XIV., on nearly the same footing as 
that of Paris, of which, indeed, it was in some measure the 
counterpart.  It was reconstituted in 1847, and organized under 
three sections--medicine, science and letters.  Toulouse also 
has an academy, founded in 1640, under the name of Soeiete 
de lanternistes; and there were analogous institutions 
at Nimes, Arles, Lyons, Dijon, Bordeaux and elsewhere. 

Germany.---The Collegium Curiosum was a scientific society, 
founded by J. C. Sturm, professor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy in the university of Altorf, in Franconia, in 1672, on 
the plan of the Accademia del Cimento. It originally consisted 
of twenty members, and continued to flourish long after the 
death of its founder.  The early labours of the society were 
devoted to the repetition (under varied conditions) of the most
notable experiments of the day, or to the discussion of the 
results.  Two volumes (1676-1685) of proceedings were published by 
Sturm.  The former, Collegium Experimentale sive Curiosum, 
begins with an account of the diving-bell, ``a new invention''; 
next follow chapters on the camera obscura, the Torricellian 
experiment, the air-pump, microscope, telescope, &c. 

The Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, if judged 
by the work it has produced, holds the first place in 
Germany.  Its origin was the Societas Regia Scientiarum, 
constituted in 1700 by Frederick I. on the comprehensive 
plan of Leibnitz, who was its first president.  Hampered and 
restricted under Frederick William I., it was reorganized 
under Frederick II. on the French model furnished by 
Maupertuis, and received its present constitution in 
1812.  It is divided into two classes and four sections 
--physical and mathematical, philosophical and historical. 
Each section has a permanent secretary with a salary of 1200 
marks, and each of the 50 regular members is paid 600 marks a 
year.  Among the contributors to its transactions (first 
volume published in 1710), to name only the dead, we 
find Immanuel Bekker, Bockling, Bernoulli, F. Bopp, P. 
Buttmann, Encke (of comet fame), L. Euler, the brothers 
Grimm, the two Humboldts, Lachmann, Lagrange, Leibnitz, T. 
Mommsen, J. Muller, G. Niebuhr, C. Ritter (the geographer), 
Savigny and Zumpt. Frederick II. presented in 1768 A 
Dissertation on Ennui. To the Berlin Academy we owe the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, the Corpus Inscriptionum 
Latinarum, and the Monumenta Germaniae Historica. 

The Akademie der Wissenschaflen zu Mannheim was founded 
by the elector Palatine in 1755.  Since 1780 it has 
devoted itself specially to meteorology, and has published 
valuable observations under the title of Ephemerides 
Societatis Meteorologicae Theodoro-Palatinae. 

The Bavarian Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen was 
founded in 1759.  It is distinguished from other academies 
by the part it has played in national education.  Maximilian 
Joseph, the enlightened elector (afterwards king) of 
Bavaria, induced the government to hand over to it the 
organization and superintendence of public instruction, 
and this work was carried out by Privy-councillor Jacobi, 
the president of the academy.  In recent years the academy 
has specially occupied itself with natural history. 

The Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, at Erfurt, 
which dates from 1754 and devotes itself to applied science, 
and the Hessian academy of sciences at Giessen, which 
publishes medical transactions, also deserve mention. 

Great Britain and Ireland.--- In 1616 a scheme for founding 
a royal academy was started by Edmund Bolton, an eminent 
scholar and antiquary, who in his petition to King James I., 
which was supported by George Villiers, marquis of Buckingham, 
proposed that the title of the academy should be ``King James, 
his Academe or College of honour.'' A list of the proposed 
original members is still extant, and includes the names of 
George Chapman, Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson, John Selden, 
Sir Kenelm Digby and Sir Henry Wotton.  The constitution is 
of interest as reflecting the mind of the learned king.  The 
academy was to consist of three classes,---tutelaries, who 
were to be Knights of the Garter, auxiliaries, all noblemen 
or ministers of state, and the essentials, ``called from out 
of the most famous lay gentlemen of England, and either living 
in the light of things, or without any title of profession 
or art of life for lucre.'' Among other duties to be assigned 
to this academy was the licensing of all books other than 
theological.  The death of King James put an end to the 
undertaking.  In 1635 a second attempt to found an academy 
was made under the patronage of Charles I., with the title of 
``Minerva's Museum,'' for the instruction of young noblemen 
in the liberal arts and sciences, but the project was soon 
dropped. (For the ``British Academy'' see III. below.) About 
1645 the more ardent followers of Bacon used to meet, some 
in London, some at Oxford, for the discussion of subjects 
connected with experimental science.  This was the original of 
the Royal Society (q.v.), which received its charter in 1662. 

A society was formed in Dublin, similar to the Royal Society 
in London, as early as 1683; but the distracted state of 
the country proved unpropitious to the cultivation of 
philosophy and literature.  The Royal Irish Academy grew 
from a society established in Dublin about 1782 by a number 
of gentlemen, most of whom belonged to the university.  They 
held weekly meetings and read, in turn, essays on various 
subjects.  They professed to unite the advancement of 
science with the history of mankind and polite literature.  
The first volume of transactions appeared in 1788. 

Hungary.--The Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia (Hungarian 
Academy of Sciences) was founded in 1825 by Count Stephen 
Szechenyi for the encouragement of the study of the 
Hungarian Ianguage and the various sciences.  It has about 
300 members and a fine building in Budapest containing a 
picture gallery and housing various national collections. 

Italy.--The Academia Secretorum Natarae was founded 
at Naples in 1560 by Giambattista della Porta.  It arose 
like the French Academy from a little club of friends 
who met at della Porta's house and called themselves 
the Otiosi. The condition of membership was to have 
made some discovery in natural science.  Della Porta was 
suspected of practising the black arts and summoned to 
Rome to justify himself before the papal court.  He was 
acquitted by Paul V., but commanded to close his academy. 

The Accademia dei Lincei, to which della Porta was admitted 
when at Rome, and of which he became the chief ornament, 
had been founded in 1603 by Federigo Cesi, the marchese di 
Monticelli.  Galileo and Colonna were among its earliest 
members. Its device was a lynx with upturned eyes, tearing a 
Cerberus with its claws.  As a monument the Lincei have left 
the magnificent edition of Fernandez de Oviedo's Natural 
History of Mexico (Rome, 1651, fol.), printed at the 
expense of the founder and elaborately annotated by the 
members.  This academy was resuscitated in 1870 under the 
title of Reale Accademia dei Lincei, with a literary 
as well as a scientific side, endowed in 1878 by King 
Humbert; and in 1883 it received official recognition from 
the Italian government, being lodged in the Corsini palace, 
whose owner made over to it his library and collections. 

The Accademia del Cimento was founded at Florence in 1657 by 
Leopold de' Medici, brother of the grand duke Ferdinand II., 
at the instigation of Vincenzo Viviani, the geometrician.  
It was an academy of experiment, a deliberate protest against 
the deductive science of the quadrivium.  Its founder left 
it when he was made a cardinal, and it lasted only ten 
years, but the grand folio published in Italian (afterwards 
translated into Latin) in 1667 is a landmark in the history of 
science.  It contains experiments on the pressure of the 
air (Torricelli and Borelli were among its members), on 
the incompressibility of water and on universal gravity. 

Science in Italy is now represented by the Reale Accademia 
delle Scienze (Royal Academy of Sciences), founded in 1757 
as a private society, and incorporated under its present name 
by royal warrant in 1783.  It consists of 40 full members, 
who must be residents of Turin, 20 non-resident, and 20 
foreign members.  It publishes a yearly volume of proceedings 
and awards prizes to learned works.  There are, besides, 
royal academies of science at Naples, Lucca and Palermo. 

Portugal.--The Academia Real das Sciencias (Royal 
Academy of Sciences) at Lisbon dates from 1779.  It was 
reorganized in 1851 and since then has been chiefly occupied 
in the publication of Portugaliae Monumenta Historica. 

Russia.--The Academie Imperiale des sciences de 
Saint-Petersbourg, Imperatorskaya Akademiya nauk, was projected 
by Peter the Great.  The advice of Wolff and Leibnitz was 
sought, and several learned foreigners were invited to become 
members. Peter himself drew the plan, and signed it on the 
10th of February 1724; but his sudden death delayed its 
fulfilment.  On the 21st of December 1725, however, Catherine 
I. established it according to his plan, and on the 27th 
the society met for the first time.  On the 1st of August 
1726, Catherine honoured the meeting with her presence, when 
Professor G. B. Bilfinger, a German scientist, delivered an 
oration upon the determination of magnetic variations and 
longitude.  Shortly afterwards the empress settled a fund 
of L. 4982 per annum for the support of the academy; and 
15 eminent members were admitted and pensioned, under the 
title of professors in the various branches of science and 
literature.  The most distinguished of these were Nicholas and 
Daniel Bernouilli, the two Delisles, Bilfinger, and Wolff. 

During the short reign of Peter II. the salaries of members 
were discontinued, and the academy neglected by the Court; 
but it was again patronized by the empress Anne, who added a 
seminary under the superintendence of the professors.  Both 
institutions flourished for some time under the direction 
of Baron Johann Albrecht Korin (1697--1766).  At the 
accession of Elizabeth the original plan was enlarged and 
improved; learned foreigners were drawn to St Petersburg; 
and, what was considered a good omen for the literature of 
Russia, two natives, Lomonosov and Rumovsky, men of genius 
who had prosecuted their studies in foreign universities, 
were enrolled among its members.  The annual income was 
increased to L. 10,659, and sundry other advantages were 
conferred upon the institution.  Catherine II. utilized 
the academy for the advancement of national culture.  She 
altered the court of directors greatly to the advantage 
of the whole body, corrected many of its abuses, added to 
its means, and infused a new vigour and spirit into its 
researches.  By her recommendation the most intelligent 
professors visited all the provinces of her vast dominions, 
with most minute and ample instructions to investigate the 
natural resources, conditions and requirements, and report 
on the real state of the empire.  The result was that no 
country at that time could boast, within so few years, such 
a number of excellent official publications on its internal 
state, its natural productions, its topography, geography and 
history, and on the manners, customs and languages of the 
different tribes that inhabited it, as came from the press 
of this academy.  In its researches in Asiatic languages, 
oriental customs and religions, it proved itself the worthy 
rival of the Royal Asiatic Society in England.  The first 
transactions, Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis 
Petropolitanae ad annum 1726, with a dedication to Peter 
II., were published in 1728.  This was continued until 
1747, when the transactions were called Novi Commentarii 
Academiae, &c.; and in 1777, Acta Academiae Scientiarum 
Imperialis Petropolitanae, with some alteration in the 
arrangements and plan of the work.  The papers, hitherto 
in Latin only, were now written indifferently in Latin or 
in French, and a preface added, Partie Historique, which 
contains an account of the society's meetings.  Of the 
Commentaries, fourteen volumes were published: of the New 
Commentaries (1750--1776) twenty.  Of the Acta Academiae 
two volumes are printed every year.  In 1872 there was 
published at St Petersburg in 2 vols., Tableau general des 
matieres contenues dans les publieations de l'Academie 
Imperiale des Sciences de St Petersbourg. The academy is 
composed, as at first, of fifteen professors, besides the 
president and director.  Each of the professors has a house 
and an annual stipend of from L. 200 to L. 600.  Besides the 
professors, there are four pensioned adjuncts, who are present 
at the meetings of the society, and succeed to the first 
vacancies. The buildings and apparatus of this academy are 
on a vast scale. There is a fine library, of 36,000 books and 
manuscripts; and an extensive museum, considerably augmented 
by the collections made by Pallas, Gmelin, Guldenstadt 
and other professors, during their expeditions through the 
Russian empire.  The motto of the society is Paulatim. 

Spain.---The Real Academia Espanola at Madrid (see 
below) had a predecessor in the Academia Naturae curiosorum 
(dating from 1657) modelled on that of Naples.  It was 
reconstituted in 1847 after the model of the French academy. 

Sweden.--The Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien owes 
its institution to six persons of distinguished learning, 
among whom was Linnaeus.  They met on the 2nd of June 1739, 
and formed a private society, the Collegium Curiosorum; 
and at the end of the year their first publication made 
its appeamnce. As the meetings continued and the members 
increased the society attracted the notice of the king; and 
on the 31st of March 1741 it was incorporated as the Royal 
Swedish Academy. Though under royal patronage and largely 
endowed, it is, like the Royal Society in England, entirely 
self-governed.  Each of the members resident at Stockholm 
becomes in turn president, and continues in office for 
three months.  The dissertations read at each meeting 
are published in the Swedish language, quarterly, and 
make an annual volume.  The first forty volumes, octavo, 
completed in 1779, are called the Old Transactions. 

United States of America.--The oldest scientific association 
in the United States is the American Philosophical Society 
Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge.  It owed 
its origin to Benjamin Franklin, who in 1743 published ``A 
Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British 
Plantations in America,'' which was so favourably received 
that in the same year the society was organized, with 
Thomas Hopkinson (1709-1751) as president and Franklin as 
secretary.  In 1769 it united with another scientific society 
founded by Franklin, called the American Society Held at 
Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge, and adopted its 
present name, adding the descriptive phrase from the title 
of the American Society, and elected Franklin president, 
an office which he held until his death (1790).  The 
American Philosophical Society is national in scope and is 
exclusively scientific; its Transactions date from 1771, and 
its Proceedings from 1838.  It has a hall in Philadelphia, 
with meeting-rooms and a valuable library and collection 
of interesting portraits and relics. David Rittenhouse was 
its second and Thomas Jefferson was its third president.  
In 1786 John Hyacinth de Magellan, of London, presented a 
fund, the income of which was to supply a gold medal for 
the author of the most important discovery ``relating to 
navigation, astronomy or natural philosophy (mere natural 
history excepted).'' An annual general meeting is held. 

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston), the 
second oldest scientific organization in the United States, 
was chartered in Massachusetts in 1780 by some of the most 
prominent men of that time.  James Bowdoin was its first 
president, John Adams its second.  The Academy published 
Memoirs beginning in 1785, and Proceedings from 1846.  The 
Rumford Premium awarded through it for the most ``important 
discovery or useful improvement on Heat, or on Light'' is 
the income of $5000 given to the Academy by Count Rumford. 

The National Academy of Sciences (1863) was incorporated 
by Congress with the object that it ``shall, whenever called 
upon by any department of the Government, investigate, 
examine, experiment and report upon any subject of science 
or art.'' Its membership was first limited to 50; after 
the amendment of the act of incorporation in 1870 the limit 
was placed at 100; and in 1907 it was prescribed that the 
resident membership should not exceed 150 in number, that 
not more than 10 members be elected in any one year, and 
that the number of foreign associates be restricted to 50. 
The Academy is divided into six committees: mathematics 
and astronomy; physics and engineering; chemistry; 
geology and palaeontology; biology; and anthropology.  It 
gives several gold medals for meritorious researches and 
discoveries.  It publishes scientific monographs (at the 
expense of the Federal Government).  Its presidents have been 
Alexander D. Bache, Joseph Henry, Wm. B. Rogers, Othuiel C. 
Marsh, Wolcott Gibbs, Alexander Agassiz and Ira Remsen. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was organized in 
1812.  It has a large library, very rich in natural history, 
and its museum, with nearly half a million specimens, is 
particularly strong in conchology and ornithology.  The 
society has published Journals since 1817, and Proceedings 
since 1841; it also has published the American Journal 
of Conchology. The American Entomological Society (in 
1859-1867 the EntomoIogical Society of Philadelphia, and 
since 1876 part of this academy) has published Proceedings 
since 1861, and the Entomological news (a monthly). 

There are also other scientific organizations like the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science (chartered in 1874, 
as a continuation of the American Association of Geologists, 
founded in 1840 and becoming in 1842 the American Association 
of Geologists and Naturalists), which publishes its proceedings 
annually; the American Geographical Society (1852), with 
headquarters in New Ynrk: the National Geographic Society 
(1888), with headquarters in Washington, D.C.; the Geological 
Society of America (1888), the American Ornithologists' Union 
(1883), the American Society of naturalists (1883), the 
Botanical Society of America (1893), the American Academy of 
Medicine (1876); and local academies of science, or of special 
sciences, in many of the larger cities.  The Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington is treated in a separate article. 

II. ACADEMIES OF BELLES LETTRES Belgium.-- Belgium 
has always been famous for its literary societies.  The 
little town of Diest boasts that it possessed a society 
of poets in 1302, and the Catherinists of Alost date from 
1107.  It is at least certain that numerous Chambers 
of Rhetoric (so academies were then called) existed in 
the first years of the rule of the house of Burgundy. 

France.---The French Academy (l'Academie Francaise) was 
established by order of the king in the year 1635, but in its 
original form existed four or five years earlier.  About the 
year 1629 certain literary friends in Paris agreed to meet 
informally each week at the house of Valentin Courart, the 
king's secretary. The conversation turned mostly on literary 
topics; and when one of the number had finished some literary 
work, he read it to the rest, and they gave their opinions upon 
it.  The fame of these meetings, though the members were 
bound to secrecy, reached the ears of Cardinal Richelieu, 
who promised his protection and offered to incorporate the 
society by letters patent.  Nearly all the members would have 
preferred the charms of privacy, but, considering the risk 
they would run in incurring the cardinal's displeasure, and 
that by the letter of the law all meetings of any sort were 
prohibited, they expressed their gratitude for the high honour 
the cardinal thought fit to confer on them, proceeded at once 
to organize their body, settle their laws and constitution, 
appoint officers and choose a name.  Letters patent were 
granted by the king on the 29th of January 1635.  The officers 
consisted of a director and a chancellor, chosen by lot, and 
a permanent secretary, chosen by vote.  They elected also a 
publisher, not a member of the body.  The director presided 
at the meetings, being considered as primus inter pares. 
The chancellor kept the seals and sealed all the official 
documents of the academy.  The cardinal was ex officio 
protector.  The meetings were held weekly as before. 

The object for which the academy was founded, as set forth 
in its statutes, was the purification of the French language. 
``The principal function of the academy shall be to labour with 
all care and diligence to give certain rules to our language, 
and to render it pure, eloquent and capable of treating the 
arts and sciences'' (Art. 24). They proposed ``to cleanse 
the language from the impurities it has contracted in the 
mouths of the common people, from the jargon of the lawyers, 
from the misusages of ignorant courtiers, and the abuses of 
the pulpit'' (Letter of Academy to Cardinal Richelieu) . 

The number of members was fixed at forty.  The original 
members formed a nucleus of eight, and it was not till 1639 
that the full number was completed.  Their first undertaking 
consisted of essays written by the members in rotation.  To 
judge by the titles and specimens which have come down to 
us, these possessed no special originality or merit, but 
resembled the epideixeis of the Greek rhetoricians.  
Next, at the instance of Cardinal Richelieu, they undertook a 
criticism of Corneille's Cid, the most popular work of the 
day.  It was a rule of the academy that no work could be 
criticized except at the author's request, and fear of 
incurring the cardinal's displeasure wrung from Corneille 
an unwilling consent.  The critique of the academy was 
re-written several times before it met with the cardinal's 
approbation.  After six months of elaboration, it was published 
under the title, Sentiments de l'academie francaise sur le 
Cid. This judgment did not satisfy Corneille, as a saying 
attributed to him on the occasion shows. ``Horatius,'' he 
said, referring to his last play, ``was condemned by the 
Duumviri, but he was absolved by the people.'' But the crowning 
labour of the academy, begun in 1639, was a dictionary of 
the French language. By the twenty-sixth article of their 
statutes, they were pledged to compose a dictionary, a 
grammar, a treatise on rhetoric and one on poetry.  Jean 
Chapelain, one of the original members and leading spirits of 
the academy, pointed out that the dictionary would naturally 
be the first of these works to be undertaken, and drew up 
a plan of the work, which was to a great extent carried 
out.  A catalogue was to be made of all the most approved 
authors, prose and verse: these were to be distributed among 
the members, and all approved words and phrases were to be 
marked for incorporation in the dictionary.  For this they 
resolved themselves into two committees, which sat on other 
than the regular days.  C. F. de Vaugelas was appointed editor 
in chief.  To remunerate him for his labours, he received 
from the cardinal a pension of 2000 francs.  The first 
edition of this dictionary appeared in 1694, the sixth and 
last in 1835, since when complements have been added. 

This old Academie francaise perished with the other 
prerevolutionary academies in 1793, and it has little 
but the name in common with the present academy, a 
section of the Institute. That Jean Baptiste Suard, 
the first perpetual secretary of the new, had been a 
member of the old academy, is the one connecting link. 

The chronicles of the Institute down to the end of 1895 
have been given in full by the count de Franqueville in Le 
premier siecle de l'Institut de France, and from it we 
extract a few leading facts and dates.  Before the Revolution 
there were in existence the following institutions--(1) 
the Academie de poesie et de musique, founded by 
Charles IX. in 1570 at the instigation of Baif, which 
counted among its members Ronsard and most of the Pleiade; 
(2) the Academie des inscriptions et medailles, founded 
in 1701; (3) the Academie des inscriptions et belles
lettres; (4) the old Academie des sciences; (5) the 
Academie de peinture et de sculpture, a school as 
well as an academy; (6) the Academie d'architecture. 

The object of the Convention in 1795 was to rebuild all the 
institutions that the Revolution had shattered and to combine 
them in an organic whole; in the words of the preamble:--``
Il y a pour toute la Republique un Institut national charge 
de recueiller les deconvertes, de perfectionner les arts 
et les sciences.'' As Renan has remarked, the Institute 
embodied two ideas, one disputable, the other of undisputed 
truth--that science and art are a state concern, and that 
there is a solidarity between all branches of knowledge and 
human activities.  The Institute was at first composed of 
184 members resident in Paris and an equal number living 
in other parts of France, with 24 foreign members, divided 
into three classes, (1) physical and mathematical science, 
(2) moral and political science, (3) literature and the fine 
arts.  It held its first sitting on the 4th of April 
1796.  Napoleon as first consul suppressed the second class, 
as subversive of government, and reconstituted the other 
classes as follows: (1) as before, (2) French language and 
literature, (3) ancient history and literature, (4) fine 
arts.  The class of moral and political science was restored 
on the proposal of M. Guizot in 1832, and the present 
Institute consists of the five classes named above.  Each 
class or academy has its own special jurisdiction and work, 
with special funds; but there is a general fund and a common 
library, which, with other common affairs, are managed by a 
committee of the Institute---two chosen from each academy, 
with the secretaries.  Each member of the Institute receives 
an annual allowance of 1200 francs, and the secretaries 
of the different academies have a salary of 6000 francs. 

The class of the Institute which deals with the language and 
literature takes precedence, and is known as the Academie 
francaise. There was at first no perpetual secretary, each 
secretary of sections presiding in turn.  Shortly afterwards 
J. B. Suard was elected to the post, and ever since the history
of the academy has been determined by the reigns of its 
successive perpetual secretaries.  The secretary, to borrow 
an epigram of Sainte-Beuve, both reigns and governs.  
There have been in order: Suard (13 years), Francois Juste 
Raynouard (9 years), Louis Simon Auger, Francois Andrieux, 
Arnault, Villemain (34 years), Henri Joseph Patin, Charles 
Camille Doucet (19 years), Gaston Boissier.  Under Raynouard 
the academy ran a tilt against the abbe Delille and his 
followers.  Under Auger it did battle with romanticism, ``a 
new literary schism.'' Auger did not live to see the election 
of Lamartine in 1829, and it needed ten more years for Victor 
Hugo after many vain assaults to enter by the breach.  The 
academy is professedly non-political. It accepted and even 
welcomed in succession the empire, the restoration and the 
reign of Louis Phillppe, and it tolerated the republic of 
1848; but to the second empire it offered a passive resistance, 
and no politician of the second empire, whatever his gifts as 
an orator or a writer, obtained an armchair. The one seeming 
exception, Emile Ollivier, confirms the rule. He was elected 
on the eve of the Franco-German war, but his discours de 
reception, a eulogy of the emperor, was deferred and never 
delivered.  The Institute appears in the annual budget for a 
grant of about 700,000 fr.  It has also large vested funds in 
property, including the magnificent estate and library of 
Chantilly bequeathed to it by the duc d'Aumale.  It awards 
various prizes, of which the most considerable are the Montyon 
prizes, each of 20,000 fr., one for the poor Frenchman who 
has performed the most virtuous action during the year, 
and one for the French author who has published the book 
of most service to morality.  The conditions are liberally 
interpreted; the first prize is divided among a number of 
the deserving poor, and the second has been assigned for 
lexicons to Moliere, Corneille and Madame de Sevigne. 

One alteration in the methods of the French Academy has 
to be chronicled: in 1869 it became the custom to discuss 
the claims of the candidates at a preliminary meeting of 
the members. In 1880, on the instance of the philosopher 
Caro, supported by A. Dumas fils, and by the aged 
Desire Nisard, it was decided to abandon this method. 

A point of considerable interest is the degree in which, 
since its foundation, the French Academy has or has not 
represented the best literary life of France.  It appears 
from an examination of the lists of members that a surprising 
number of authors of the highest excellence have, from 
one cause or another, escaped the honour of academic 
``immortality.'' When the academy was founded in 1634, the 
moment was not a very brilliant one in French letters.  
Among the forty original members we find only ten who are 
remembered in literary history; of these four may reasonably 
be considered famous still--Balzac, Chapelain, Racan and 
Voiture.  In that generation Scarron was never one of the 
forty, nor do the names of Descartes, Malebranche or Pascal 
occur; Descartes lived in Holland, Scarron was paralytic, 
Pascal was best known as a mathematician--(his Lettres 
provinciales was published anonymously)---and when his fame 
was rising he retired to Port Royal, where he lived the 
life of a recluse.  The duc de la Rochefoucauld declined the 
honour from a proud modesty, and Rotrou died too soon to be 
elected.  The one astounding omission of the 17th century, 
however, is the name of Moliere, who was excluded by his 
profession as an actor.1 On the other hand, the French Academy 
was never more thoroughly representative of letters than 
when Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Racine, and Quinault 
were all members. Of the great theologians of that and the 
subsequent age, the Academy contained Bossuet, Flechier, 
Fenelon, and Massillon, but not Bourdaloue.  La Bruyere 
and Fontenelle were among the forty, but not Saint-Simon, 
whose claims as a man of letters were unknown to his 
contemporaries.  Early in the 18th century almost every 
literary personage of eminence found his place naturally in the 
Academy.  The only exceptions of importance were Vauvenargues, 
who died too early for the honour, and two men of genius but 
of dubious social position, Le Sage and the abbe Prevost 
d'Exiles.  The approach of the Revolution affected gravely 
the personnel of the Academy.  Montesquieu and Voltaire 
belonged to it, but not Rousseau or Beaumarchais. Of the 
Encyclopaedists, the French Academy opened its doors to 
D'Alembert, Condorcet, Volney, Marmontel and La Harpe, but 
not to Diderot, Rollin, Condillac, Helvetius or the Baron 
d'Holbach.  Apparently the claims of Turgot and of Quesnay 
did not appear to the Academy sufficient, since neither was 
elected.  In the transitional period, when the social life 
of Paris was distracted and the French Academy provisionally 
closed, neither Andre Chenier nor Benjamin Constant nor 
Joseph de Maistre became a member.  In the early years of the 
19th century considerations of various kinds excluded from 
the ranks of the forty the dissimilar names of Lamennais, 
Prudhon, Comte and Beranger.  Critics of the French 
Academy are fond of pointing out that neither Stendhal, nor 
Balzac, nor Theophile Gautier, nor Flaubert, nor Zola 
penetrated into the Mazarine Palace. It is not so often 
remembered that writers so academic as Thierry and Michelet 
and Quinet suffered the same exclusion.  In later times 
neither Alphonse Daudet nor Edmond de Goncourt, neither Guy 
de Maupassant nor Ferdinand Fabre, has been among the forty 
immortals.  The non-election, after a long life of distinction, 
of the scholar Fustel de Coulanges is less easy to account 
for.  Verlaine, although a poet of genius, was of the 
kind that no academy can ever be expected to recognize. 

Concerning the influence of the French Academy on the 
language and literature, the most opposite opinions have been 
advanced.  On the one hand, it has been asserted that it 
has corrected the judgment, purified the taste and formed 
the language of French writers, and that to it we owe the 
most striking characteristics of French literature, its 
purity, delicacy and flexibility.  Thus Matthew Arnold, 
in his Essay on the Literary Influence of Academies, has 
pronounced a glowing panegyric on the French Academy as a 
high court of letters, and a rallying-point for educated 
opinion, as asserting the authority of a master in matters 
of tone and taste.  To it he attributes in a great measure 
that thoroughness, that openness of mind, that absence of 
vulgarity which he finds everywhere in French literature; 
and to the want of a similar institution in England he traces 
that eccentricity, that provincial spirit, that coarseness 
which, as he thinks, are barely compensated by English 
genius.  Thus, too, Renan, one of its most distinguished 
members, says that it is owing to the academy ``qu'on peut 
tout dire sans appareil scholastique avec la langue des gens 
du monde.'' ``Ah ne dites,'' he exclaims, ``qu'ils n'ont 
rien fait, ces obscures beaux esprits dont la vie se passe 
a instruire le proces des mots, a peser les syllables. 
Ils ont fait un chef-d'oeuvre--la langue francaise.'' On the 
other hand, its inherent defects have been well summed up by 
P. Lanfrey in his Histoire de Napoleon: ``This institution 
had never shown itself the enemy of despotism: Founded by 
the monarchy and for the monarchy, eminently favourable to 
the spirit of intrigue and favouritism, incapable of any 
sustained or combined labour, a stranger to those great 
works.pursued in common which legitimize and glorify the 
existence of scientific bodies, occupied exclusively with 
learned trifles, fatal to emulation, which it pretends to 
stimulate, by the compromises and calculations to which it 
subjects it, directed in everything by petty considerations, 
and wasting all its energy in childish tournaments, in which 
the flatteries that it showers on others are only a foretaste 
of the compliments it expects in return for itself, the 
French Academy seems to have received from its founders the 
special mission to transform genius into bel esprit, and 
it would be hard to introduce a man of talent whom it has 
not demoralized. Drawn in spite of itself towards politics, 
it alternately pursues and avoids them; but it is specially 
attracted by the gossip of politics, and whenever it has 
so far emancipated itself as to go into opposition, it does 
so as the champion of ancient prejudices. If we examine its 
influence on the national genius, we shall see that it has 
given it a flexibility, a brilliance, a polish, which it never 
possessed before; but it has done so at the expense of its 
masculine qualities, its originality, its spontaneity, its vigour,
its natural grace.  It has disciplined it, but it has 
emasculated. impoverished and rigidified it.  It sees in 
taste, not a sense of the beautiful, but a certain type 
of correctness, an elegant form of mediocrity.  It has 
substituted pomp for grandeur, school routine for individual 
inspiration, elaborateness for simplicity, fadeur and the 
monotony of literary orthodoxy for variety, the source and 
spring of intellectual life; and in the works produced under 
its auspices we discover the rhetorician and the writer, 
never the man.  By all its traditions the academy was made 
to be the natural ornament of a monarchical society.  
Richelieu conceived and created it as a sort of superior 
centralization applied to intellect, as a high literary 
court to maintain intellectual unity and protest against 
innovation.  Bonaparte, aware of all this, had thought of 
re-establishing its ancient privileges; but it had in his eyes 
one fatal defect--esprit. Kings of France could condone a 
witticism even against themselves, a parvenu could not.'' 

On the whole the influence of the French Academy has been 
conservative rather than creative.  It has done much by its 
example for style, but its attempts to impose its laws on 
language have, from the nature of the case, failed.  For, 
however perfectly a dictionary or a grammar may represent 
the existing language of a nation, an original genius is 
certain to arise---a Victor Hugo or an Alfred de Musset--who 
will set at defiance all dictionaries and academic rules. 

Germany.---Of the German literary academies the most celebrated 
was Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft (the Fruitful Society), 
established at Weimar in 1617.  Five princes were among the 
original members.  The object was to purify the mother tongue. 
The German academies copied those of Italy in their quaint 
titles and petty ceremonials, and exercised little permanent 
influence on the language or literature of the country. 

Italy.---Italy in the 16th century was remarkable for 
the number of its literary academies.  Tiraboschi, in 
his History of Italian Literature, has given a list of 
171; and Jarkius, in his Specimen Historiae Academiarum 
Conditarum, enumerates nearly 700. Many of these, with a 
sort of Socratic irony, gave themselves ludicrous names, or 
names expressive of ignorance. Such were the Lunatici of 
Naples, the Estravaganti, the Fulminales, the Trapessati, 
the Drowsy, the Sleepers, the Anxious, the Confused, 
the Unstable, the Fantastic, the Transformed, the 
Ethereal. ``The first academies of Italy chiefly directed 
their attention to classical literature; they compared 
manuscripts; they suggested new readings or new interpretations; 
they deciphered inscriptions or coins, they sat in judgment 
on a Latin ode or debated the propriety of a phrase.  Their 
own poetry had, perhaps, never been neglected; but it was not 
till the writings of Bembo furnished a new code of criticism 
in the Italian language that they began to study it with the 
same minuteness as modern Latin.'' ``They were encouragers 
of a numismatic and lapidary erudition, elegant in itself, 
and throwing for ever little specks of light on the still 
ocean of the past, but not very favourable to comprehensive 
observation, and tending to bestow on an unprofitable pedantry 
the honours of real learning.'' s The Italian nobility, 
excluded as they mostly were from politics, and living in 
cities, found in literature a consolation and a career. 
Such academies were oligarchical in their constitution; they 
encouraged culture, but tended to hamper genius and extinguish 
originality.  Far the most celebrated was the Accademia 
della Crusca or Furfuratorum; that is, of bran, or of 
the sifted, founded in 1582.  The title was borrowed from a 
previous society at Perugia, the Accademia degli Scossi, 
of the well-shaken. Its device was a sieve; its motto, ``Il 
piu bel fior ne coglie'' (it collects the finest flower); its 
principal object the purification of the language.  Its great 
work was the Vocabulario della Crusca, printed at Venice in 
1612.  It was composed avowedly on Tuscan principles, and 
regarded the 14th century as the Augustan period of the 
language.  Paul Beni assailed it in his Anti-Crusca, and 
this exclusive Tuscan purism has disappeared in subsequent 
editions.  The Accademia della Crusca is now incorporated 
with two older societies--the Accademia degli Apatici 
(the Impartials) and the Accademia Florentina. 

Among the numerous other literary academies of Italy we may 
mention the academy of Naples, founded about 1440 by Alphonso, 
the king; the Academy of Florence, founded 1540, to illustrate 
and perfect the Tuscan tongue, especially by the close study of 
Petrarch; the Intronati of Siena, 1525; the Infiammati of 
Padua, 1534; the Rozzi of Siena, suppressed by Cosimo, 1568. 

The Academy of Humorists arose from a casual meeting of 
witty noblemen at the marriage of Lorenzo Marcini, a Roman 
gentleman.  It was carnival time, and to give the ladies some 
diversion they recited verses, sonnets and speeches, first 
impromptus and afterwards set compositions.  This gave them 
the name, Beni Humori, which, after they resolved to form 
an academy of belles lettres, they changed to Humoristi. 

In 1690 the Accademia degli Arcadi was founded at Rome, for 
the purpose of reviving the study of poetry, by Crescimbeni, 
the author of a history of Italian poetry.  Among its members 
were princes, cardinals and other ecclesiastics; and, to 
avoid disputes about pre-eminence, all came to its meetings 
masked and dressed like Arcadian shepherds.  Within ten years 
from its establishment the number of academicians was 600. 

The Royal Academy of Savoy dates from 1719, and was made a royal 
academy by Charles Albert in 1848.  Its emblem is a gold orange 
tree full of flowers and fruit; its motto ``Flores fructusque 
oerennes,'' the same as that of the famous Florimentane Academy, 
founded at Annecy by St Francis de Sales.  It has published 
valuable memoirs on the history and antiquities of Savoy. 

Spain.--The Real Academia Espanola at Madrid held its 
first meeting in July 1713, in the palace of its founder, the 
duke d'Fscalona.  It consisted at first of 8 academicians, 
including the duke; to which number 14 others were afterwards 
added, the founder being chosen president or director.  
In 1714 the king granted them the royal confirmation and 
protection.  Their device is a crucible in the middle of the 
fire, with this motto, Limpia, fixa, y da esplendor--``It 
purifies, fixes, and gives brightness.'' The number of its 
members was limited to 24; the duke d'Escalona was chosen 
director for life, but his successors were elected yearly, and 
the secretary for life.  Their object, as marked out by the 
royal declaration, was to cultivate and improve the national 
language.  They were to begin with choosing carefully such 
words and phrases as have been used by the best Spanish writers; 
noting the low, barbarous or obsolete ones; and composing a 
dictionary wherein these might be distinguished from the former. 

Sweden.--The Svenska Akademien was founded in 1786, for the 
purpose of purifying and perfecting the Swedish language. A medal 
is struck by its direction every year in honour of some illustrious 
Swede.  This academy does not publish its transactions. 

III. ACADEMIES OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY France.---The old 
Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (or ``Petite 
Academie,'' founded in 1663) was an offshoot of the French 
Academy, which then at least contained the elite of French 
learning.  Louis XIV. was of all French kings the one most 
occupied with his own aggrandisement.  Literature, and even 
science, he only encouraged so far as they redounded to his 
own glory.  Nor were literary men inclined to assert their 
independence.  Boileau well represented the spirit of the age 
when, in dedicating his tragedy Berenice to Colbert, he 
wrote: ``The least things become important if in any degree 
they can serve the glory and pleasure of the king.'' Thus it 
was that the Academy of Inscriptions arose.  At the suggestion 
of Colbert a company (a committee we should now call it) had 
been appointed by the king, chosen from the French Academy, 
charged with the office of furnishing inscriptions, devices 
and legends for medals.  It consisted of four academicians: 
Chapelain, then considered the poet laureate of France, one 
of the authors of the critique on the Cid; the abbe Amable 
de Bourzeis (1606-1671); Francois Charpentier (1620-1702), 
an antiquary of high repute among his contemporaries; and 
the abbe Jacques de Cassagnes (1636-1679), who owed his 
appointment more to the fulsome flattery of his odes than 
to his really learned translations of Cicero and Sallust.  
This company used to meet in Colbert's library in the winter, 
at his country-house at Sceaux in the summer, generally on 
Wednesdays, to serve the convenience of the minister, who was 
always present.  Their meetings were principally occupied with 
discussing the inscriptions, statues and pictures intended for 
the decoration of Versailles; but Colbert, a really learned 
man and an enthusiastic collector of manuscripts, was often 
pleased to converse with them on matters of art, history and 
antiquities.  Their first published work was a collection of 
engravings, accompanied by descriptions, designed for some 
of the tapestries at Versailles.  Louvois, who succeeded 
Colbert as a superintendent of buildings, revived the 
company, which had begun to relax its labours.  Felibien, 
the learned architect, and the two great poets Racine and 
Boileau, were added to their number.  A series of medals 
was commenced, entitled Medailles de la Grande Histoire, 
or, in other words, the history of the Grand Monarque. 

But it was to M. de Pontchartrain, comptroller-general of 
finance and secretary of state, that the academy owed its 
institution.  He added to the company Renaudot and Jacques 
Tourreil, both men of vast learning, the latter tutor to his 
son, and put at its head his nephew, the abbe Jean Paul 
Bignou. librarian to the king.  By a new regulation, dated 
the 16th of July 1701, the Academie royale des inscriptions 
et medailles was instituted, being composed of ten honorary 
members, ten pensioners, ten associates, and ten pupils.  Its 
constitution was an almost exact copy of that of the Academy of 
Sciences.  Among the regulations we find the following, which 
indicates clearly the transition from a staff of learned 
officials to a learned body: ``The academy shall concern 
itself with all that can contribute to the perfection of 
inscriptions and legends, of designs for such monuments and 
decorations as may be submitted to its judgment; also with 
the description of all artistic works, present and future, 
and the historical explanation of the subject of such works; 
and as the knowledge of Greek and Latin antiquities. and 
of these two languages, is the best guarantee for success 
in labours of this class, the academicians shall apply 
themselves . to all that this division of learning includes, 
as one of the most worthy objects of their pursuit.'' 

Among the first honorary members we find the indefatigable 
Mabillon (excluded from the pensioners by reason of his orders), 
Pere La Chaise, the king's confessor, and Cardinal Rohan; 
among the associates Fontenelle and Rollin, whose Ancient 
History was submitted to the academy for revision.  In 1711 
they completed L'Histoire metallique du roi, of which 
Saint-Simon was asked to write the preface.  In 1716 the regent 
changed its title to that of the Academie des inscriptions et 
belleslettres, a title which better suited its new character. 

In the great battle between the Ancients and the Moderns 
which divided the learned world in the first half of the 18th 
century, the Academy of Inscriptions naturally espoused the 
cause of the Ancients, as the Academy of Sciences did that of the 
Moderns.  During the earlier years of the French Revolution 
the academy continued its labours uninterruptedly; and on the 
22nd of January 1793, the day after the death of Louis XVI, 
we find in the Proceedinigs that M. Brequigny read a paper 
on the projects of marriage between Queen Elizabeth and the 
dukes of Anjou and Alencon.  In the same year were published 
the 45th and 46th vols. of the Memoires de l'academie. 
On the 2nd of August of the same year the last seance of 
the old academy was held.  More fortunate than its sister 
Academy of Sciences, it lost only three of its members by 
the guillotine.  One of these was the astronomer Sylvain 
Bailly.  Three others sat as members of the Convention; 
but for the honour of the academy, it should be added 
that all three were distinguished by their moderation. 

In the first draft of the new Institute, October 25, 1795, no 
class corresponded exactly to the old Academy of Inscriptions; 
but most of the members who survived found themselves re-elected 
either in the class of moral and political science, under 
which history and geography were included as sections, or 
more generally under the class of literature and fine arts, 
which embraced ancient languages, antiquities and monuments. 

In 1816 the academy received again its old name.  The Proceedings 
of the society embrace a vast field, and are of very various 
merits.  Perhaps the subjects on which it has shown most 
originality are comparative mythology, the history of science 
among the ancients, and the geography and antiquities of 
France.  The old academy has reckoned among its members De 
Sacy the orientalist, Dansse de Villoison (1750-1805) the 
philologist, Anquetil du Perron the traveller, Guillaume J. 
de C. L. Sainte-Croix and du Theil the antiquaries, and Le 
Beau, who has been named the last of the Romans.  The new 
academy has inscribed on its lists the names of Champollion, 
A. Remusat, Raynouard, Burnout and Augustin Thierry. 

In consequence of the attention of several literary men in 
Paris having been directed to Celtic antiquities, a Celtic 
Academy was established in that city in 1805.  Its objects were, 
first, the elucidation of the history, customs, antiquities, 
manners and monuments of the Celts, particularly in France; 
secondly, the etymology of all the European languages, by 
the aid of the Celto-British, Welsh and Erse; and, thirdly, 
researches relating to Druidism.  The attention of the members 
was also particularly called to the history and settlements 
of the Galatae in Asia. Lenoir, the keeper of the museum of 
French monuments, was appointed president.  The academy still 
exists as La societe nationale des antiquaires de France. 

Great Britain.---The British Academy was the outcome of 
a meeting of the principal European and American academies, 
held at Wiesbaden in October 1899.  A scheme was drawn up 
for an international association of the academies of the 
world under the two sections of natural science and literary 
science, but while the Royal Society adequately represented 
England in science there was then no existing institution 
that could claim to represent England in literature, and at 
the first meeting of the federated academies this chair was 
vacant.  A plan was proposed by Professor H. Sidgwick to add a 
new section to the Royal Society, but after long deliberation 
this was rejected by the president and council. The promoters 
of the plan thereupon determined to form a separate society, 
and invited certain persons to become the first members of a 
new body, to be cailed ``The British Academy for the promotion 
of historical, philosophical and philological studies.'' The 
unincorporated body thus formed petitioned for a charter, 
and on the 8th of August 1902 the royal charter was granted 
and the by-laws were allowed by order in council. The objects 
of the academy are therein defined--``the promotion of the 
study of the moral and political sciences, including history, 
philosophy, law, politics and economics, archaeology and 
philology.'' The number of ordinary fellows (so all members 
are entitled) is restricted to one hundred, and the academy 
is governed by a president (the first being Lord Reay) 
and a council of fifteen elected annually by the fellows. 

Italy.--Under this class the Accademia Ercolanese (Academy 
of Herculaneum) properly ranks.  It was established at 
Naples about 1755, at which period a museum was formed of 
the antiquities found at Herculaneum, Pompeii and other 
places, by the marquis Tanucci, who was then minister of 
state.  Its object was to explain the paintings, &c., discovered 
at those places. For this purpose the members met every 
fortnight, and at each meeting three paintings were submitted 
to three academicians, who made their report at their next 
sitting.  The first volume of their labours appeared in 1775, 
and they have been continued under the title of Antichita di 
Ercolano. They contain engravings of the principal paintings, 
statues, bronzes, marble figures, medals, utensils, &c., with 
explanations.  In the year 1807 an academy of history and 
antiquities, on a new plan, was established at Naples by Joseph 
Bonaparte.  The number of members was limited to forty, twenty 
of whom were to be appointed by the king; and these twenty 
were to present to him, for his choice, three names for each 
of those needed to complete the full number. Eight thousand 
ducats were to be annually allotted for the current expenses, 
and two thousand for prizes to the authors of four works 
which should be deemed by the academy most deserving of such a 
reward.  A grand meeting was to be held every year, when 
the prizes were to be distributed and analyses of the works 
read.  The first meeting took place on the 25th of April 
1807; but the subsequent changes in the political state 
of Naples prevented the full and permanent establishment 
of this institution.  In the same year an academy was 
established at Florence for the illustration of Tuscan 
antiquities, which published some volumes of memoirs. 

IV. ACADEMIES OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY Austria.---The 
defunct Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted in 
1784 by the emperor Joseph II. under the direction of the 
distinguished surgeon, Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla ( 1728- 
1800) . For many years it did important work, and though closed 
in 1848 was reconstituted by the emperor Francis Joseph in 
1854.  In 1874 it ceased to exist; its functions had become 
mainly military, and were transferred to newer schools. 

France.---Academie de Medecine. Medicine is a science 
which has always engaged the attention of the kings of 
France. Charlemagne established a school of medicine in the 
Louvre, and various societies have been founded, and privileges 
granted to the faculty by his successors.  The Acadimie de 
medecine succeeded to the old Academie royale de chirurgie 
et societe royale de medecine. It was erected by a royal 
ordinance, dated December 20, 1820. It was divided into three 
sections--medicine, surgery and pharmacy.  In its constitution 
it closely resembled the Academie des sciences. Its 
function was to preserve or propagate vaccine matter, and 
answer inquiries addressed to it by the government on the 
subject of epidemics, sanitary reform and public health 
generally.  It has maintained an enormous correspondence in 
all quarters of the globe and published extensive minutes. 

Germany.--The Academia Naturae Curiosi, afterwards 
called the Academia Caesaraea Leopoldina, was founded in 
1662 by J. L. Bausch, a physician of Leipzig, who published 
a general invitation to medical men to communicate all 
extraordinary cases that occurred in the course of their 
practice.  The works of the Naturae Curiosi were at first 
published separately; but in 1770 a new arrangement was 
planned for publishing a volume of observations annually.  
From some cause, however, the first volume did not make 
its appearance until 1784, when it was published under the 
title of Ephemerides. In 1687 the emperor Leopold took the 
society under his protection, and its name was changed in his 
honour.  This academy has no fixed abode, but follows the 
home of its president.  Its library remains at Dresden. By its 
constitution the Leopoldine Academy consists of a president, 
two adjuncts or secretaries and unlimited colleagues or 
members.  At their admission the last come under a twofold 
obligation--first, to choose some subject for discussion out 
of the animal, vegetable or mineral kingdoms, not previously 
treated by any colleague of the academy; and, secondly, to apply 
themselves to furnish materials for the annual Ephemerides. 

V. ACADEMIES OF THE FINE ARTS France.---The Academie 
royale de peinture et de sculpture at Paris was founded by 
Louis XIV. in 1648, under the title of Academie royale des 
beaux arts, to which was afterwards united the Academie 
d'architecture, founded 1671.  It is composed of painters, 
sculptors, architects, engravers and musical composers. 
From among the members of the society who are painters, 
is chosen the director of the French Academie des beaux 
arts at Berne, also instituted by Louis XIV. in 1677.  The 
director's province is to superintend the studies of the 
painters, sculptors, &c., who, chosen by competition, are 
sent to Italy at the expense of the government, to complete 
their studies in that country. Most of the celebrated 
French painters have begun their career in this way. 

The Academie nationale de musique is the official and 
administrative name given in France to the grand opera.  In 
1570 the poet Baif established in his house a school of 
music, at which ballets and masquerades were given.  In 1645 
Mazarin brought from Italy a troupe of actors, and established 
them in the rue du Petit Bourbon, where they gave Jules 
Strozzi's Achille in Sciro, the first opera performed in 
France.  After Moliere's death in 1673, his theatre in the 
Palais Royal was given to Sulu, and there were performed 
all Gluck's great operas; there Vestris danced, and there 
was produced Jean Jacques Rousseau's Devin du Village. 

Great Britain.--The Royal Academy of Arts in London, founded in 
1768, is described in a separate article. (See ACADEMY, ROYAL.) 

The Academy of Ancient Music was established in London in 
1710, with the view of promoting the study and practice of 
vocal and instrumental harmony.  This institution had a fine 
musical library, and was aided by the performances of the 
gentlemen of the Chapel Royal and the choir of St Paul's, 
with the boys belonging to each, and continued to flourish 
for many years.  About 1734 the academy became a seminary 
for the instruction of youth in the principias of music 
and the laws of harmony.  The Royal Academy of Music was 
formed for the performance of operas, composed by Handel, 
and conducted by him at the theatre in the Haymarket.  The 
subscription amounted to L. 50,000, and the king, besides 
subscribing L. 1000, allowed the society to assume the title 
Royal.  It consisted of a governor, deputy-governor and twenty 
directors.  A contest between Handel and Senesino, one of 
the performers, in which the directors took the part of the 
latter, occasioned the dissolution of the academy after it 
had existed with honour for more than nine years.  The present 
Royal Academy of Music dates from 1822, and was incorporated in 
1830.  It instructs pupils of both sexes in music. (See 
also the article CONSERVATOIRE for colleges of music. ) 

Italy.--In 1778 an academy of painting and sculpture was 
established at Turin.  The meetings were held in the palace 
of the king, who distributed prizes among the most successful 
members.  In Milan an academy of architecture was established 
so early as 1380, by Gian Galeazzo Visconti.  About the 
middle of the 18th century an academy of the arts was 
established there, after the example of those at Paris and 
Rome.  The pupils were furnished with originals and models, 
and prizes were distributed by competent judges annually.  
The prize for painting was a gold medal.  Before the effects 
of the French Revolution reached Italy this was one of the 
best establishments of the kind in that kingdom.  In the hall 
of the academy were some admirable examples of Correggio, 
as well as several statues of great merit, particularly a 
small bust of Vitellins, and a torso of Agrippina, of most 
exquisite beauty.  The academy of the arts, which had been 
long established at Florence, fell into decay, but was 
restored in the end of the 18th century.  In it there are halls 
for nude and plaster figures, for the use of the sculptor 
and the painter, with models of all the finest statues in 
Italy.  But the treasures of this and the other institutions 
for the fine arts were greatly diminished during the occupancy 
of Italy by the French. The academy of the arts at Modena, 
after being plundered by the French, dwindled into a petty 
school for drawing from living models.  There is also an 
academy of the fine arts in Mantua, and another at Venice. 

Russia.--The academy of St Petersburg was established in 
1757 by the empress Elizabeth, at the suggestion of Count 
Shuvalov, and annexed to the academy of sciences.  The fund for 
its support was L. 4000 per annum, and the foundation admitted 
forty scholars.  Catherine II. formed it into a separate 
institution, augumented the annual revenue to L. 12,000, and 
increased the number of scholars to three hundred; she 
built for it a large circular building, which fronts the 
Neva.  The scholars are admitted at the age of six, and 
continue until they have attained that of eighteen.  They 
are clothed, fed and lodged at the expense of the crown; 
and are instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, French, 
German and drawing.  At the age of fourteen they are at 
liberty to choose any of the following arts; first, painting 
in all its branches, architecture, mosaic, enamelling, 
&c.; second, engraving on copper-plates, sealcutting, 
&c.; third, carving on wood, ivory and amber; fourth, 
watch-making, turning, instrument-making, casting statues
in bronze and other metals, imitating gems and medals in 
paste and other compositions, gilding and varnishing.  Prizes 
are annually distributed, and from those who have obtained 
four prizes, twelve are selected, who are sent abroad at 
the charge of the crown.  A certain sum is paid to defray 
their travelling expenses; and when they are settled in any 
town, they receive during four years an annual salary of 
L. 60.  The academy has a small gallery of paintings for 
the use of the scholars; and those who have made great 
progress are permitted to copy the pictures in the imperial 
collection.  For the purpose of design, there are 
full-size models of the best antique statues in Italy. 

South America.---There are several small academies in the 
various towns of South America, the only one of note being 
that of Rio de Janeiro, founded by John VI. of Portugal in 
1816 and now known as the Escola Nacional de Bellas Artes. 

Spain.---In Madrid an academy for painting, sculpture and 
architecture, the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, 
was founded by Philip V. The minister for foreign affairs is 
president.  Prizes are distributed every three years.  In Cadiz 
a few students are supplied by government with the means of 
drawing and modelling from figures; and such as are not able 
to purchase the requisite instruments are provided with them. 

Sweden.---An academy of the fine arts was founded at 
Stockholm in the year 1733 by Count Tessin.  In its hall are 
the ancient figures of plaster presented by Louis XIV. to 
Charles XI. The works of the students are publicly exhibited, 
and prizes are distributed annually.  Such of them as display 
distinguished ability obtain pensions from government, to 
enable them to reside in Italy for some years, for the purposes 
of investigation and improvement.  In this academy there are 
nine professors and generally about four hundred students. 

Austria.--In the year 1705 an academy of painting, 
sculpture and architecture was established at Vienna, 
with the view of encouraging and promoting the fine arts. 

United States of America.--In America the institution similar 
to the Royal Academy of Arts in London is the National Academy 
of Design (1826), which in 1906 absorbed the Society of American 
Artists, the members of the society becoming members of the academy. 

The volume of excerpts from the general catalogue of 
books in the British Museum, ``Academies,'' 5 parts and 
index, furnishes a complete bibliography. (F. S.) 

1 The Academy has made the amende honorable by placing in the 
Salle des seances a bust of Moliere, with the inscription 
``Rienne manque a sa gloire, it manquait a la notre.'' 

2 Hallam's Int. to Lit. of Europe, vol. i. p. 654, and vol. ii. p. 502. 

ACADEMY, GREEK or ACADEME (Gr. akademeia or 
ekademia), the name given to the philosophic successors of 
Plato.  The name is derived from a pleasure-garden or 
gymnasium situated in the suburb of the Ceramicus on the 
river Cephissus about a mile to the north-west of Athens 
from the gate called Dipylum. It was said to have belonged 
to the ancient Attic hero Academus, who, when the Dioscuri 
invaded Attica to recover their sister Helen, carried off by 
Theseus, revealed the place where she was hidden.  Out of 
gratitude the Lacedaemonians, who reverenced the Dioscuri, 
always spared the Academy during their invasions of the 
country.  It was walled in by Hipparchus and was adorned 
with walks, groves and fountains by Cimon (Plut. Cim. 
13), who bequeathed it as a public pleasure-ground to 
his fellow-citizens. Subsequently the garden became the 
resort of Plato (q.v.), who had a small estate in the 
neighbourhood.  Here he taught for nearly fifty years till 
his death in 348 B.C., and his followers continued to 
make it their headquarters.  It was closed for teaching by 
Justinian in A.D. 529 along with the other pagan schools. 
Cicero borrowed the name for his villa near Puteoll, 
where he Composed his dialogue The Academic Questions. 

The Platonic Academy (proper) lasted from the days of Plato 
to those of Cicero, and during its whole course there is 
traceable a distinct continuity of thought which justifies 
its examination as a real intellectual unit.  On the 
other hand, this continuity of thought is by no means an 
identity.  The Platonic doctrine was so far modified in 
the hands of successive scholarchs that the Academy has 
been divided into either two, three or five main sections 
(Sext.  Empir. Pyrrh.  Hyp. i. 220).  Finally,in the days 
of Philo, Antiochus and Cicero, the metaphysical dogmatism 
of Plato had been changed into an ethical syncretism which 
combined elements from the Scepticism of Carneades and the 
doctrines of the Stoics; it was a change from a dogmatism 
which men found impossible to defend, to a probabilism 
which afforded a retreat from Scepticism and intellectual 
anarchy. Cicero represents at once the doctrine of the later 
Academy and the general attitude of Roman society when he 
says, ``My words do not proclaim the truth, like a Pythian 
priestess; but I conjecture what is probable, like a plain 
man; and where, I ask, am I to search for anything more than 
verisimilitude?'' And again: ``The characteristic of the 
Academy is never to interpose one's judgment, to approve what 
seems most probable, to compare together different opinions, 
to see what may be advanced on either side and to leave one's 
listeners free to judge without pretending to dogmatize.'' 

The passage from Sextus Empiricus, cited above, gives the 
general view that there were three academies: the first, or 
Old, academy under Speusippus and Xenocrates; the second, 
or Middle, academy under Arcesilaus and Polemon; the third, 
or New, academy under Carneades and Clitomachus.  Sextus 
notices also the theory that there was a fourth, that of Philo 
of Larissa and Charmidas, and a fifth, that of Antiochus.  
Diogenes Laertius says that Lacydes was the founder of the 
New Academy (i. 19, iv. 59). Cicero (de Orat. iii. 18, &c.) 
and Varro insist that there were only two academies, the Old 
and the New. Those who maintain that there is no justification 
for the five-fold division hold that the agnosticism of 
Carneades was really latent in Plato, and became prominent 
owing to the necessity of refuting the Stoic criterion. 

The general tendency of the Academic thinkers was towards 
practical simplicity, a tendency due in large measure to 
the inferior intellectual capacity of Plato's immediate 
successors. Cicero (de Fin. v. 3) says generally of the 
Old Academy: ``Their writings and method contain all liberal 
learning, all history, all polite discourse; and besides they 
embrace such a variety of arts, that no one can undertake any 
noble career without their aid. . . . In a word the Academy 
is, as it were, the workshop of every artist.'' It is true 
that these men turned to scientific investigation, but in 
so doing they escaped from the high altitudes in which Plato 
thought, and tended to lay emphasis on the mundane side of 
philosophy.  Of Plato's originality and speculative power, 
of his poetry and enthusiasm they inherited nothing, ``nor 
amid all the learning which has been profusely lavished upon 
investigating their tenets is there a single deduction calculated 
to elucidate distinctly the character of their progress or 
regression'' (Archer Butler, Lect. on Anc. Phil. ii. 515). 

The modification of Academic doctrine from Plato to 
Cicero may be indicated briefly under four heads. 

(1) Plato's own theory of Ideas was not accepted even by 
Speusirinus and Xenocrates.  They argued that the Good cannot 
be the origin of things, inasmuch as Goodness is only found 
as an attribute of things.  Therefore, the idea of Good must 
be secondary to some other more fundamental principle of 
existence.  This unit Speusippus attempted to find in 
the Pythagorean number-theory.  From it he deduced three 
principles, one for numbers, one for magnitude, one for the 
soul.  The Deity he conceived as that living force which 
rules all and resides everywhere.  Xenocrates, though like 
Speusippus infected with Pythagoreanism, was the most faithful 
of Plato's successors.  He distinguished three spheres, the 
sensible, the intelligible, and a third compounded of the 
two, to which correspond respectively, sense, intellect and 
opinion (doxa). Cicero notes, however, that both Speusippus 
and Xenocrates abandon the Socratic principle of hesitancy. 

(2) Up to Arcesilaus, the Academy accepted the principle of 
finding a general unity in all things, by the aid of which a 
principle of certainty might be found.  Arcesilaus, however, 
broke new ground by attacking the very possibility of certainty. 
Socrates had said, ``This alone I know, that I know nothing.'' 
But Arcesilaus went farther and denied the possibility of 
even the Socratic minimum of certainty: ``I cannot know even 
whether I know or not.'' Thus from the dogmatism of the master 
the Academy plunged into the extremes of agnostic criticism. 

(3) The next stage in the Academic succession was the moderate 
scepticism of Carneades, which owed its existence to his 
opposition to Chrysippus, the Stoic.  To the Stoical theory 
of perception, the fantasia kataleptike, by which they 
expressed a conviction of certainty arising from impressions 
so strong as to amount to science, he opposed the doctrine 
of acatalepsia, which denied any necessary correspondence 
between perceptions and the objects perceived.  He saved 
himself, however, from absolute scepticism by the doctrine 
of probability or verisimilitude, which may serve as a 
practical guide in life.  Thus his criterion of imagination 
(fantasia) is that it must be credible, irrefutable and 
attested by comparison with other impressions; it may be 
wrong, but for the person concerned it is valid.  In ethics 
he was an avowed sceptic.  During his official visit to Rome, 
he gave public lectures, in which he successively proved 
and disproved with equal ease the existence of justice. 

(4) In the last period we find a tendency not only 
to reconcile the internal divergences of the Academy 
itself, but also to connect it with parallel growths of 
thought.  Philo of Larissa endeavours to show that Carneades 
was not opposed to Plato, and further that the apparent 
antagonism between Plato and Zeno was due to the fact that 
they were arguing from different points of view.  From this 
syncretism emerged the prudent non-committal eclecticism 
of Cicero, the last product of Academic development. 

For detailed accounts of the Academicians see SPEUSIPPUS, 
XENOCRATES, &c.; also STOICS and NEOPLATONISM. Consult 
histories of philosophy by Zeller and Windelband, and Th. 
Gomperz, Greek Thinkers, ii. 270 (Eng. tr., London, 1905). 

ACADEMY, ROYAL. The Royal Academy of Arts in London, to 
give it the original title in full, was founded in 1768, 
``for the purpose of cultivating and improving the arts of 
painting, sculpture and architecture.'' Many attempts had 
previously been made in England to form a society which 
should have for its object the advancement of the fine 
arts.  Sir Jumes Thornbill, his son-in-law Hogarth, the 
Dilettanti Society, made efforts in this direction, but their 
schemes were wrecked by want of means.  Accident solved the 
problem.  The crowds that attended an exhibition of pictures 
held in 1758 at the Foundling Hospital for the benefit 
of charity, suggested a way of making money hitherto 
unsuspected.  Two societies were quickly formed, one 
calling itself the ``Society of Artists'' and the other the 
``Free Society of Artists.'' The latter ceased to exist in 
1774.  The former flourished, and in 1765 was granted a royal 
charter under the title of the ``Incorporated Society of 
Artists of Great Britain.'' But though prosperous it was not 
united.  A number of the members, including the most eminent 
artists of the day, resigned in 1768, and headed by William 
Chambers the architect, and Benjamin West, presented on 
28th November in that year to George III., who had already 
shown his interest in the fine arts, a memorial soliciting 
his ``gracious assistance, patronage and protection,'' in 
``establishing a society for promoting the arts of design.', 
The memorialists stated that the two principal objects they 
had in view were the establishing of ``a well-regulated 
school or academy of design for the use of students in the 
arts, and an annual exhibition open to all artists of 
distinguished merit; the profit arising from the last of these 
institutions'' would, they thought, ``fully answer all the 
expenses of the first,'' and, indeed, leave something over 
to be distributed ``in useful charities.'' The king expressed 
his agreement with the proposal, but asked for further 
particulars.  These were furnished to him on the 7th of 
December and approved, and on the 10th of December they 
were submitted in form, and the document embodying them 
received his signature, with the words, ``I approve of this 
plan; let it be put into execution.'' This document, known 
as the ``Instrument,'' defined under twenty-seven heads the 
constitution and government of the Royal Academy, and contained 
the names of the thirty-six original members nominated by the 
king.  Changes and modifications in the laws and regulations 
laid down in it have of course been made, but none of them 
without the sanction of the sovereign, and the ``Instrument'' 
remains to this day in all essential particulars the Magna 
Charta of the society.  Four days after the signing of this 
document--on the 14th of Decemben--twentyeight of the first 
nominated members met and drew up the Form of Obligation 
which is still signed by every academician on receiving his 
diploma, and also elected a president, keeper, secretary, 
council and visitors in the schools; the professors being chosen 
at a further meeting held on the 17th.  No time was lost in 
establishing the schools, and on the 2nd of January 1769 they 
were opened at some rooms in Pall Mall, a little eastward of 
the site now occupied by the Junior United Service Club, the 
president, Sir Joshua Reynolds, delivering on that occasion the 
first of his famous ``discourses.'' The opening of the first 
exhibition at the same place followed on the 26th of April. 

The king when founding the Academy undertook to supply out 
of his own privy purse any deficiencies between the receipts 
derived from the exhibitions and the expenditure incurred on 
the schools, charitable donations for artists, &c. For twelve 
years he was called upon to do so, and contributed in all 
something over L. 5000, but in 1781 there was a surplus, and no 
further call has ever been made on the royal purse.  George 
III. also gave the Academy rooms in what was then his own 
palace of Somerset House, and the schools and offices were 
removed there in 1771, but the exhibition continued to be held 
in Pall Mall, till the completion in 1780 of the new Somerset 
House.  Then the Academy took possession of the apartments 
in it which the king, on giving up the palace for government 
offices, had expressly stipulated should be provided.  Here 
it remained till 1837, when the government, requiring the use 
of these rooms, offered in exchange a portion of the National 
Gallery, then just erected in Trafalgar Square.  The offer, 
which contained no conditions, was accepted.  But it was 
not long before the necessity for a further removal became 
imminent.  Already in 1850 notice was given by the government 
that the rooms occupied by the Academy would be required for 
the purposes of the National Gallery, and that they proposed 
to give the academy L. 40,000 to provide themselves with a 
building elsewhere.  The matter slumbered, however, till 1858, 
when the question was raised in the house of Commons as to 
whether it would not be justifiable to turn the Academy out 
of the National Gallery without making any provision for it 
elsewhere.  Much discussion followed, and a royal commission 
was appointed in 1863 ``to inquire into the present position 
of the Royal Academy in relation to the fine arts, and into 
the circumstances and conditions under which it occupies 
a portion of the National Gallery, &c.'' In their report, 
which contained a large number of proposals and suggestions, 
some of them since carried out, the commissioners stated 
that they had ``come to the clear conclusion that the Royal 
Academy have no legal, but that they have a moral claim to 
apartments at the public expense.'' Negotiations had been 
already going on between the government and the Academy for 
the appropriation to the latter of a portion of the site 
occupied by the recently purchased Burlington House, on which 
the Academy offered to erect suitable buildings at its own 
expense.  The negotiations were renewed in 1866, and in 
March in the following year a lease of old Burlington 
House, and a portion of the garden behind it, was granted 
to the Academy for 999 years at a peppercorn rent, subject 
to the condition that ``the premises shall be at all times 
exclusively devoted to the purpose of the cultivation of 
the fine arts.'' The Academy immediately proceeded to 
erect, on the garden portion of the site thus acquired, 
exhibition galleries and schools, which were opened in 
1869, further additions being made in 1884.  An upper storey 
was also added to old Burlington House, in which to place 
the diploma works, the Gibson statuary and other works of 
art.  Altogether the Academy, out of its accumulated savings, 
has spent on these buildings more than L. 160,000.  They are 
its own property, and are maintained entirely at its expense. 

The government of the Academy was by the ``Instrument'' vested 
in ``a president and eight other persons, who shall form 
a council.'' Four of these were to retire every year, and 
the seats were to go by rotation to every academician.  The 
number was increased in 1870 to twelve, and reduced to ten 
in 1875. The rules as to retirement and rotation are still in 
force.  Newly elected academicians begin their two years' 
service as soon as they have received their diploma.  The 
council has, to quote the ``Instrument'', ``the entire 
direction and management of the business'' of the Academy 
in all its branches; and also the framing of new laws and 
regulations, but the latter, before coming into force, must 
be sanctioned by the general assembly and approved by the 
sovereign.  The general assembly consists of the whole body of 
academicians, and meets on certain fixed dates and at such 
other times as the business may require; also at the request 
to the president of any five members.  The principal executive 
officers of the Academy are the president, the keeper, the 
treasurer, the librarian and the secretary, all now elected 
by the general assembly, subject to the approval of the 
sovereign.  The president is elected annually on the foundation 
day, 10th December, but the appointment is virtually for 
life.  No change has ever been made in the conditions attached 
to this office, with the exception of its being now a salaried 
instead of an unsalaried post.  The treasurership and 
librarianship, both offices originally held not by election but 
by direct appointment from the sovereign, are now elective, 
the holders being subject to re-election every five years, 
and the keepership is also held upon the same terms; while 
the secretaryship, which up to 1873 had always been filled 
like the other offices by an academician, has since then 
been held by a layman. Other officers elected by the general 
assembly are the auditors (three academicians, one of whom 
retires every year), the visitors in the schools (academicians 
and associates), and the professors of painting, sculpture 
and architecture---who must be members---and of anatomy and 
chemistry.  There are also a registrar, and curators and 
teachers in the schools, who are appointed by the council. 

The thirty-six original academicians were named by George III. 
Their successors have been elected, up to 1867, by academicians 
only---since that date by academicians and associates together.  
The original number was fixed in the ``Instrument'' at forty, 
and has so remained.  Each academician on his election has to 
present an approved specimen of his work---called his diploma 
work---before his diploma is submitted to the sovereign for 
signature.  On receiving his diploma he signs the Roll of 
Institution as an academician, and takes his seat in the general 
assembly.  The class of associates, out of whom alone the 
academicians can be elected, was founded in 1769---they were 
``to be elected from amongst the exhibitors, and be entitled 
to every advantage enjoyed by the royal academicians, 
excepting that of having a voice in the deliberations or any 
share in the government of the Academy.'' Those exhibitors 
who wished to become candidates had to give in their names 
at the close of the exhibition.  This condition no longer 
exists, candidates having since 1867 merely to be proposed and 
seconded by members of the Academy.  On election, they attend 
at a council meeting to sign the Roll of Institution as an 
associate, and receive a diploma signed by the president and 
secretary.  In 1867 also associates were admitted to vote 
at all elections of members; in 1868 they were made eligible 
to serve as visitors in the schools, and in 1886 to become 
candidates for the professorships of painting, sculpture and 
architecture.  At first the number of associates was limited 
to twenty; in 1866 the number was made indefinite with a 
minimum of twenty, and in 1876 the minimum was raised to 
thirty.  Vacancies in the lists of academicians and associates 
caused by death or resignation can be filled up at any time 
within five weeks of the event, except in the months of 
August, September and October, but a vacancy in the associate 
list caused by election only dates from the day on which 
the new academician receives his diploma.  The mode of 
election is the same in both cases, first by marked lists 
and afterwards by ballot.  All who at the first marking have 
four or more votes are marked for again, and the two highest 
then go to the ballot.  Engravers have always constituted 
a separate class, and up to 1855 they were admitted to the 
associateship only, the number, six, being in addition to 
the other associates; now the maximum is four, of whom not 
more than two may be academicians.  A class of honorary 
retired academicians was established in 1862, and of honorary 
retired associates in 1884. The first honorary foreign 
academicians were elected in 1869. The honorary members 
consist of a chaplain, an antiquary, a secretary for foreign 
correspondence, and professors of ancient history and ancient 
literature.  These posts, which date from the foundation of 
the Academy, have always been held by distinguished men. 

Academy Schools.--One of the most important functions of the 
Royal Academy, and one which for nearly a century it discharged 
alone, was the instruction of students in art.  The first 
act, as has been shown, of the newly founded Academy was to 
establish schools ---``an Antique Academy,'' and a ``School 
for the Living Model'' for painters, sculptors and architects.  
In the first year, 1769, no fewer than seventy-seven students 
entered.  A school of painting was added in 1815, and special 
schools of sculpture and architecture in 1871.  It would 
occupy too much space to follow the various changes that 
have been made in the schools since their establishment.  In 
one important respect, however, they remain the same, viz. 
in the instruction being gratuitous--no fees have ever been 
charged.  Up to the removal of the Academy to its present 
quarters the schools could not be kept permanently open, as 
the rooms occupied by them were wanted for the exhibition.  
They are now open all the year round with the exception 
of a fortnight at Christmas, and the months of August and 
September.  They consist of an antique school, upper and 
lower schools of painting, a school of drawing from the life, 
a school of modelling from the life and an architectural 
school. Admission is gained by submitting certain specimens 
of drawing or modelling, and the successful candidates, called 
probationers, have then to undergo a further test in the 
schools, on passing which they are admitted as students 
for three years.  At the end of that time they are again 
examined, and if qualified admitted for a further term of two 
years.  These examinations are held twice a year, in January 
and July.  Female students were first admitted in 1860.  
There are many scholarships, money prizes and medals to be 
gained by the various classes of students during the time of 
studentship, including travelling studentships of the value 
of L. 200 for one year, gold and silver medals, and prizes 
varying from L. 50 to L. 10.  There are permanent curators and 
teachers in all the schools, but the principal teaching is 
done by the visitors, academicians and associates, elected 
to serve in each school.  The average cost of maintaining 
these schools, including salaries, fees, cost of models, 
prizes, books, maintenance of building, &c., is from L. 5000 to 
L. 6000 a year, apart from certain scholarships and prizes 
derived from moneys given or bequeathed for this purpose, 
such as the Landseer scholarships, the Creswick prize, the 
Armitage prizes and the Turner scholarship and gold medal. 

Charities. -- Another of the principal objects to which 
the profits of the Royal Academy have been devoted has been 
the relief of disiressed artists and their families.  From 
the commencement of the institution a fund was set apart for 
this purpose, and subsequently a further sum was allotted 
to provide pensions for necessitous members of the Academy 
and their widows.  Both these funds were afterwards merged 
in the general fund, and various changes have from time to 
time been made in the conditions under which pensions and 
donations have been granted and in their amount.  At the 
present time pensions not exceeding a certain fixed amount 
may be given to academicians and associates, sixty years of 
age, who have retired and whose circumstances show them to 
be in need, provided the sum given does not make their total 
annual income exceed a certain limit, and the same amounts 
can be given to their widows subject to the same conditions.  
No pensions are granted without very strict inquiry into 
the circumstances of the applicant, who is obliged to make 
a yearly declaration as to his or her income.  The average 
annual amount of these pensions has been latterly about 
L. 2000.  Pensions are also given according to the civil 
service scale to certain officers on retirement. lt may be 
stated here that with the exception of these pensions and 
of salaries and fees for official services, no member of the 
Academy derives any pecuniary benefit from the funds of the 
institution.  Donations to distressed artists who are or 
have been exhibitors at the Royal Academy, their widows 
and children under twenty-one years of age, are made twice 
a year in February and August.  The maximum amount that 
can be granted to any one applicant in one donation is 
L. 100, and no one can receive a grant more than once a 
year.  The average yearly amount thus expended is from 
L. 1200 to L. 1500.  In addition to these charities from its 
general funds, the Academy administers for the benefit of 
artists, not members of the Academy, certain other funds 
which have been bequeathed to it for charitable purposes, 
viz. the Turner fund, the Cousins fund, the Cooke fund, 
the Newton bequest and the Edwards fund (see below). 

Exhibitions. -- The source from which have been derived 
the funds for carrying on the varied work of the Royal 
Academy, its schools, its charities and general cost of 
administration, and which has enabled it to spend large sums 
on building, and provided it with the means of maintaining 
the buildings, has been the annual exhibitions. With the 
exception of the money left by John Gibson, R.A., some 
of which was spent in building the gallery containing the 
statues and bas-reliefs bequeathed by him, these exhibitions 
have provided the sole source of revenue, all other moneys 
that have come to the Academy having been either left in 
trust, or been constituted trusts, for certain specific 
purposes.  The first exhibition in 1769 contained 136 works, 
of which more than one-half were contributed by members, and 
brought in L. 699: 17: 6. In 1780, the first year in which the 
receipts exceeded the expenditure, the number of works was 
489, of which nearly one-third were by members, and the sum 
received was L. 3069: 1s. This increase continued gradually 
with fluctuations, and in 1836, the last year at Somerset 
House, the number of works was 1154, and the receipts were 
L. 5179: 19s. No great addition to the number of works exhibited 
took place at Trafalgar Square, but the receipts steadily 
grew, and their careful management enabled the Academy, when 
the time came for moving, to erect its own buildings and 
become no longer dependent on the government for a home.  
The greater space afforded by the galleries at Burlington 
House rendered it possible to increase the number of works 
exhibited, which of late years has reached a total of over 
2000, while the receipts have also been such as to provide 
the means for further building, and for a largely increased 
expenditure of all kinds.  It may be noted that the number 
of works sent for exhibition soon began to exceed the space 
available.  In 1868, the last year at Trafalgar Square, the 
number sent was 3011.  This went on increasing, with occasional 
fluctuations, at Burlington House, and in the year 1900 it 
reached the number of 13,462.  The annual winter exhibition 
of works by old masters and deceased British artists was 
begun in 1870.  It was never intended to be a source of 
revenue, but appreciation by the public has so far prevented 
it from being a cause of loss.  The summer exhibition 
of works by living artists opens on the first Monday in 
May, and closes on the first Monday in August.  The winter 
exhibition of works by deceased artists opens on the first 
Monday in Januaty. and closes on the second Saturday in 
March.  The galleries containing the diploma works, the 
Gibson statuary and other works of art are open daily, free. 

Presidents of the Royal Academy.--Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
1768-1792; Benjamin West (resigned), 1792-1805; James Wyatt 
(president-elect), 1805; Benjamin West (re-elected), 1806-1820; 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1820--1830; Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1830-1850; 
Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, 1850--1865; Sir Francis Grant, 
1866-1878; Frederick, Lord Leighton of Stretton, 1878--1896; 
Sir John Everett Millais, 1896; Sir Edward John Poynter, 1896. 

The library contains about 7000 volumes, dealing with 
the history, the theory and the practice of the various 
branches of the fine arts, some of them of great 
rarity and value.  It is open daily to the students and 
members, and to other persons on a proper introduction. 

The trust funds administered by the Royal Academy are -- 
 

The Turner fund (J. M. W. Turner, R.A.), which provides 
sixteen annuities of L. 50 each, for artists of repute 
not members of the Academy, also a biennial scholarship 
of L. 50 and a gold medal for a landscape painting. 

The Chantrey fund (Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A.), the 
income of which, paid over by the Chantrey trustees, 
is spent on pictures and sculpture. (See CHANTREY.) 

The Creswick fund (Thomas Creswick, R.A.), which provides 
an annual prize of L. 30 for a landscape painting in oil. 

The Cooke fund (E.W.  Cooke, R.A.), which provides 
two annuities of L. 35 each for painters not members 
of the Academy, over sixty years of age and in need. 

The Landseer fund (Charles Landseer, R.A.), which provides 
four scholarships of L. 40 each, two in painting and two 
in sculpture, tenable for two years, open to students 
at the end of the first two years of studentship, and 
given for the best work done during the second year. 

The Armitage fund (E. Armitage, R.A.), which provides two annual prizes 
of L. 30 and L. 10, for a design in monochrome for a figure picture. 

The Cousins fund (S. Cousins, R.A.), which provides 
seven annuities of L. 80 each for deserving artists, 
not members of the Academy, in need of assistance. 

The Newton bequest (H. C. Newton), which provides an 
annual sum of L. 60 for the indigent widow of a painter. 

The Bizo.fund (John Bizo), to be used in the scientific 
investigation into the nature of pigments and varnishes, &c. 

The Edwards fund (W. J. Edwards), producing L.  40 a year 
for the benefit of poor artists or artistic engravers. 

The Leighton bequest (Lord Leighton, P.R.A.), received 
from Mrs Orr and Mrs Matthews in memory of their 
brother, the income from which, about L. 300, is expended 
on the decoration of public places and buildings. 

The literature concerning the Royal Academy consists 
chiefly of pamphlets and articles of more or less ephemeral 
value.  More serious works are: William Sandby, The History 
of the Royal Academy of Arts (London, 1862) (withdrawn 
from circulation on a question of copyright); Report 
from the Select Committee on Arts and their Connexion with 
Manufactures, with the Minutes of Evidence and Appendix 
(London, 1836 ); Report of the Royal Commission on the 
Royal Academy, with Minutes of Evidence and Appendix 
(London, 1863); Martin Archer Shee, The Life of Sir M. A. 
Shee, P.R.A. (London, 1860); C. R. Leslie, R.A., and Tom 
Taylor, Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A. 
(London, 1865); J. E. Hodgson, R.A. (the late), and 
Fred.  A. Eaton, Sec. R.A., ``The Royal Academy in the 
Last Century,'' Art Journal, 1889-1901.  But the chief 
sources of information on the subject are the minute-books 
of the council and of the general assembly, and the annual 
reports, which, however, only date from 1859. (F. A. E.) 

ACADIAN, in geology, the name given by Sir J. W. Dawson 
in 1867 to a series of black, red and green shales and 
slates, with dark grey limestones, which are well developed 
at St John, New Brunswick; Avalon in E. Newfoundland, and 
Braintree in E. Massachusetts.  These rocks are of Middle 
Cambrian age and possess a Paradoxides fauna.  They 
have been correlated with limestone beds in Tennessee, 
Alabama, central Nevada and British Columbia (St Stephen). 

See CAMBRIAN SYSTEM; also C. D. Walcott, Bull.  
U.S. Geol. Survey, No. 81, 1891; and Sir J. W. 
Dawson, Acadian Geology, 1st ed. 1855, 3rd ed. 1878. 

ACADIE, or ACADIA, a name given by the French in 1603 to 
that part of the mainland of North America lying between the 
latitudes 40 deg.  and 46 deg. .  In the treaty of Utrecht (1713) 
the words used in transferring the French possessions to 
Britain were ``Nova Scotia or Acadia.'' See NOVA SCOTIA 
for the limits included at that date under the term. 

ACAMTHOCEPHALA, a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic 
worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom.  Its 
members are quite devoid of any mouth or alimentary canal, 
but have a well-developed body cavity into which the eggs 
are dehisced and which communicates with the exterior by 




From Cambridge Natural History, vol. ii., ``Worms, 
&c.,'' by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd. 

Fig. 1. A, Five specimens of Echinorhynchus acus, 
Rud., attached to a piece of intestinal wall, X 4. 

B, The proboscis of one still more highly magnified. 

means of an oviduct.  The size of the animals varies greatly, 
from forms a few millimetres in length to Gigantorhynchus 
gigas, which measures from 10 to 65 cms.  The adults live 
in great numbers in the alimentary canal of some vertebrate, 
usually fish, the larvae are as a rule encysted in the 
body cavity of some invertebrate, most often an insect or 
crustacean, more rarely a small fish.  The body is divisible 
into a proboscis and a trunk with sometimes an intervening neck 
region.  The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged 
in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the 
animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.  The hooks 
may be of two or three shapes.  Like the body, the proboscis 
is hollow, and its cavity is separated from the body cavity 
by a septum or proboscis sheath.  Traversing the cavity of 
the proboscis are muscle-strands inserted into the tip of the 
proboscis at one end and into the septum at the other.  Their 
contraction causes the proboscis to be invaginated into its 
cavity (fig. 2). But the whole proboscis apparatus can also 
be, at least partially, withdrawn into the body cavity, and 
this is effected by two retractor muscles which run from the 
posterior aspect of the septum to the body wall (fig. 3). 

The skin is peculiar.  Externally is a thin cuticle; this 
covers the epidermis, which consists of a syncytium with 
no cell limits.  The syncytium is traversed by a series 
of branching tubules containing fluid and is controlled 
by a few wandering, amoeboid nuclei (fig. 2). Inside the 
syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle 
fibres, and within this again some rather scattered 
longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium.  In their 
minute structure the muscular fibres resemble those of 
Nematodes.  Except for the absence of the longitudinal fibres 
the skin of the proboscis resembles that of the body, but 
the fluid-containing tubules of the latter are shut off 
from those of the body.  The canals of the proboscis open 
ultimately into a circular vessel which runs round its base. 
From the circular canal two sac-like diverticula called the 

  From Cambridge Natural History, vol. ii., 
``Worms, &c.,'' by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd. 

FIG. 2.--A longitudinal section through the 
anterior end of Echinorhynchus haeruca, Rud. (from 

 
 a, The proboscis not fully expanded.
 b, Proboscis-sheath.
 c, Retractor muscles of the proboscis.
 d, Cerebral ganglion.
 e, Retinaculum enclosing a nerve
 f, One of the retractors of the sheath.
 g, A lemniscus.
 h, One of the spaces in the sub-cuticular tissue.
 i, Longitudinal muscular layer.
 j, Circular muscular laver.
 k, Line of division between the sub-cuticular tissue of the trunk
              and that of the proboscis with the lemnisci.
 

``lemnisci'' depend into the cavity of the body (fig. 2). Each
consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the
proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty
muscular coat. They seem to act as reservoirs into which the
fluid of the tense, extended proboscis can withdraw when it
is retracted, and from which the fluid can be driven out when
it is wished to expand the proboscis.

There are no alimentary canal or specialized organs for
circulation or for respiration. Food is imbibed through the skin from
the digestive juices of the host in which the Acanthocephala
live.

J. Kaiser has described as kidneys two organs something like
minute shrubs situated dorsally to the generative ducts into
which they open. At the end of each twig is a membrane
pierced by pores, and a number of cilia depend into the lumen
of the tube; these cilia maintain a constant motion.

The central ganglion of the nervous system lies in the
proboscis sheath or septum. It supplies the proboscis with nerves and
gives off behind two stout trunks which supply the body (fig. 2).
Each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, and the
complex retains the old name of ``retinaculum.'' In the male at
least there is also a genital ganglion. Some scattered papillae
may possibly be sense-organs.

The Acanthocephala are dioecious. There is a ``stay'' called
the ``ligament'' which runs from the hinder end of the
proboscis sheath to the posterior end of the body. In this the two testes
lie (fig. 3). Each opens in a vas deferens which bears three
diverticula or vesiculae seminales, and three pairs of cement
glands also are found which pour their secretions through a duct into
the vasa deferentia. The latter unite and end in a penis which opens
posteriorly.



Fig. 3.---An optical section through a male Neorhynchus
clavaeceps, Zed. (from Hamann).

 a, Proboscis.
 b, Proboscis sheath.
 c, Retractor of the proboscis.
 d, Cerebral ganglion.
 f, f, Petractors of the proboscis sheath.
 g, g, Lemnisci, each with two giant nuclei.
 h, Space in sub-cuticular layer of the skin.
 l, Ligament.
 m, m, Testes.
 o, Glands on vas deferens.
 p, Giant nucleus in skin.
 q, Opening of vas deferens.
 

The ovaries arise like the testes as rounded bodies in the 
ligament.  From these masses of ova dehisce into the body 
cavity and float in its fluid. Here the eggs are fertilized 
and here they segment so that the young embryos are formed 
within their mother's body.  The embryos escape into the 
uterus through the ``bell,'' a funnel like opening continuous 
with the uterus.  Just at the junction of the ``bell'' 
and the uterus there is a second small opening situated 
dorsally. The ``bell'' swallows the matured embryos and 
passes them on into the uterus, and thus out of the body via 
the oviduct, which opens at one end into the uterus and at 
the other on to the exterior at the posterior end of the 
body.  But should the ``bell'' swallow any of the ova, or 
even one of the younger embryos, these are passed back 
into the body cavity through the second and dorsal opening. 

The embryo thus passes from the body of the female into 
the alimentary canal of the host and leaves this with the 
faeces.  It is then, if lucky, eaten by some crustacean, or 
insect, more rarely by a fish.  In the stomach it casts 
its membranes and becomes mobile, bores through the stomach 
walls and encysts usually in the cavity of its first and 
invertebrate host. By this time the embryo has all the 
organs of the adult perfected save only the reproductive; 
these develop only when the first host is swallowed 
by the second or final host, in which case the parasite 
attaches itself to the wall of the alimentary canal and 

A curious feature shared by both larva and adult is the large 
size of many of the cells, e.g. the nerve cells and the bell. 

O. Hamann has divided the group into three 
families, to which a fourth must be added. 

(i.) Fam. Echinorhynchidae.This is by far the largest 
family and contains the commonest species; the larva of 
Echinorhynchus proteus lives in Gammarus pulex and in 
small fish, the adult is common in many fresh-water fish: E. 
polymorphus, larval host the crayfish, adult host the duck: 
E. angustotus occurs as a larva in Asellus aquaticus, 
as an adult in the perch, pike and barbel: E. moniliformis 
has for its larval host the larvae of the beetle Blaps 
mucronata, for its final host certain mice, if introduced 
into man it lives well: E. acus is common in whiting: E. 
porrigeus in the fin-whale, and E. strumosus in the seal.  
A species named E. hominis has been described from a boy. 
(ii.) Fam. Gigantorhynchidae. A small family of large forms
with a ringed and flattened body. Gigantorhynchus gigas 
lives normally in the pig, but is not uncommon in man in 
South Russia, its larval host is the grub of Melolontha 
vulgaris, Cetonis auratus, and in America probably of 
Lachnosterna arcuata: G. echinodiscus lives in the 
intestine of ant-eaters: G. spira in that of the 




Fig. 4. 
A, The larva of Echinorhynchus proteus from the body cavity of
   Phoxinus laevis, with the proboscis retracted and the whole still
   enclosed in a capsule.
B, A section through the same; a, the invaginated proboscis;
   b, proboscis sheath; c, beginning of the neck; d,
   lemniscus. Highly
magnified (both from Hamann).
king vulture, Sarcorhampus papa, and G. 
taeniodes in Dicholopus cristatus, a cariama. 

(iii.) Fam. Neorhynchidae. Sexually mature whilst still 
in the larval stage. Neorhynchus clavaeceps in Cyprinus 
carpio has its larval form in the larva of Sialis 
lularia and in the leech Nephelis octcculii: tact 
K. agilis is found in Mugil auratus and M. cephalus. 

(iv.) Apororhynchidae. With no proboscis. This family contains 
the single  species Apororhynchus hemignathi, found near 
the anus of Hemignathiis procerus, a Sandwich Island bird. 

  Fig. 5. -- Fully formed larva of Echinorhynchus 
proteus from the body cavity of Phoxinus laevis 
(from Hamann). Highly magnified. a, Proboscis; 
b, bulla; c, neck; d, trunk; e, e, lemnisci. 

AUTHORITIES. - O. Hamann, O. Jen. Zeitschr. xxv., 1891, 
p. 113; Zool.  Anz. xv., 1892, 195; J. Kaiser, Bibl.  
Zool. ii., 1893: A. E. Shipley, Quart.  Journ.  Micr.  
Sci. Villot, Zool.  Anz. viii., 1885, p. 19. (A. E. S.)  

ACANTHUS (the Greek and Latin name for the plant, connected 
with ake, a sharp point), a genus of plants belonging to 
the natural order Acanthaceae.  The species are natives of 
the southern parts of Europe and the warmer parts of Asia and 
Africa.  The best-known is Acanthus mollis (brank-ursine, or 
bears' breech), a common  species throughout the Mediterranean 
region, having large, deeply cut, hairy, shining leaves.  Another 
species, Acanthus spinosus, is so called from its spiny 
heaves.  They are bold, handsome plants, with stately spikes, 
2 to 3 ft. high, of flowers with spiny bracts. A. mollis, A. 
lalifolius and A. longifolius  are broad-leaved species; A. 
spinosus and A. spinosissimus have narrower, spiny toothed 
leaves.  In decoration, the acanthus was first reproduced in 
metal, and subsequently carved in stone by the Greeks.  It was 
afterwards, with various changes, adopted in all succeeding 
styles of architecture as a basis of ornamental decoration.  
There are two types, that found in the Acanthus spinosus, 
which was followed by the Greeks, and that in the Acanthus 
mollis, which seems to have been preferred by the Romans. 

ACAPULCO, a city and port of the state of Guerrero on 
the Pacific coast of Mexico, 190 m.  S.S.W. of the city 
of Mexico, Pop. (1900) 4932.  It is located on a deep, 
semicircular bay, almost land-locked, easy of access, and 
with so secure an anchorage that vessels can safely lie 
alongside the rocks that fringe the shore.  It is the best 
harbour on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and it is a port 
of Call for steamship lines running between Panama and San 
Francisco.  The town is built on a narrow strip of low 
land, scarcely half a mile wide, between the shore line and 
the lofty mountains that encircle the bay.  There is great 
natural beauty in the surroundings, but the mountains render 
the town difficult of access from the interior, and give it 
an exceptionally hot and unhealthy climate.  The effort to 
admit the cooling sea breezes by cutting through the mountains 
a passage called the Abra de San Nicolas had some beneficial 
effect.  Acapulco was long the most important Mexican port 
on the Pacific, and the only depot for the Spanish fleets 
plying between Mexico and Spain's East Indian colonies from 
1778 until the independence of Mexico, when this trade was 
lost.  The town has been chosen as the terminus for two railway 
lines seeking a Pacific port--the Interoceanic and the Mexican 
Central.  The town suffered considerably from earthquakes in 
July and August 1909.  There are exports of hides, cedar and 
fruit, and the adjacent district of Tabares produces cotton, 
tobacco, cacao, sugar cane, Indian corn, beans and coffee. 

ACARNANIA, a district of ancient Greece, bounded on 
the W. by the Ionian Sea, on the N. by the Ambracian 
Gulf, on the E. and S. by Mt. Thyamus and the Acholous.  
The Echinades islands, off the S.W. coast, are gradually 
being joined up to the mainland.  Its most populous region 
was the plain of the Acholous, commanded by the principal 
town Stratus; communication with the coast was impeded by 
mountain ridges and lagoons.  Its people long continued in 
semi-barbarism, having little intercourse with the rest of 
Greece.  In the 5th century B.C. with the aid of Athens 
they subdued the Corinthian factories on their coast.  In 
391 they submitted to the Spartan king Agesilaus; in 371 
they passed under Theban control.  In the Hellenistic age 
the Acarnanians were constantly assailed by their Aetolian 
neighbours.  On the advice of Cassander they made effective 
their ancient cantonal league, apparently after the pattern of 
Aetolla.  In the 3rd century they obtained assistance from 
the Illyrians, and formed a close alliance with Philip V. of 
Macedonia, whom they supported in his Roman wars, their new 
federal capital, Lencas, standing a siege in his interest. 
For their sympathy with his successor Perseus they were 
deprived of Lencas and required to send hostages to Rome 
(167). The country was finally desolated by Augustus, who 
drafted its inhabitants into Nicopoiis and Patrae.  Acarnania 
took a prominent part in the national uprising of 1821; it 
is now joined with Aetolia as a nome.  The sites of several 
ancient towns in Acarnania are marked by well preserved 
walls, especially those of Stratus, Oeniadae and Limnaea. 

AUTHORITIES.-Strabo vii. 7, x. 2; Thucydides; Polybius iv. 
40; Livy xxxiii. 16-17; Corpus Inscr.  Graecarum, no. 1739; E. 
Oberhummer, Akarnanien im Altertum (Munich, 1887); Heuzey, Mt. 
Olympe et l'Acarnanie (Paris, 1860). (M. O. B. C.; E. GR.) 

ACARUS (from Gr. akari, a mite), a genus of 
Arachnids, represented by the cheese mite and other forms. 

ACASTUS, in Greek legend, the son of Pohas, king of Iolcus in 
Thessaly (Ovid, Metam. vili. 306; Apollonius Rhodius i. 224; 
Pindar, Nemea, iv. 54, v. 26). He was a great friend of Jason, 
and took part in the Calydonian boar-hunt and the Argonautic 
expedition.  After his father's death he instituted splendid 
funeral games in his honour, which were celebrated by artists 
and poets, such as Stesichorus.  His wife Astydameia (called 
Hippolyte in Horace, Odes, iii. 7. 17) fell in love with 
Peleus (q.v.), who had taken refuge at Iolcus, but when her 
advances were rejected accused him falsely to her husband.  
Acastus, to avenge his fancied wrongs, left Peleus asleep 
on Mount Pellon, having first hidden his famous sword.  On 
awaking, Peleus was attacked by the Centaurs, but saved by 
Cheiron.  Having re-covered his sword he returned to Iolcus 
and slew Acastus and Astydameia.  Acastus was represented 
with his famous horses in the painting of the Argonautic 
expedition by Micon in the temple of the Dioscuri at Athens. 

ACATALEPSY (Gr. a-, privative, and katalambanein, to 
seize), a term used in Scepticism to denote incomprehensibility. 

ACAULESCENT (Lat. acaulescens, becoming stemless, from a, 
not, and caulis, a stem), a term used of a plant apparently 
stemless, as dandelion, the stem being almost suppressed. 

ACCA LARENTIA (not Laurentia), in Roman legend, the 
wife of the shepherd Faustulus, who saved the lives of the 
twins Romulus and Remus after they had been thrown into the 
Tiber. She had twelve sons, and on the death of one of them 
Romulus took his place, and with the remaining eleven founded 
the college of the Arval brothers (Fratres Arvales).  The 
tradition that Romulus and Remus were suckled by a wolf has 
been explained by the suggestion that Larentia was called 
lupa (``courtesan'', literally ``she-wolf'') on account 
of her immoral character (Livy i. 4; Ovid, Fasti, iii. 
55). According to another account, Larentia was a beautiful 
girl, whom Hercules won in a game of dice (Macrobius i. 10; 
Plutarch, Romulus, 4, 5, Quaest.  Rom. 35; Aulus Genius 
vi. 7). The god advised her to marry the first man she met 
in the street, who proved to be a wealthy Etruscan named 
Tarutius.  She inherited all his property and bequeathed it to 
the Roman people, who out of gratitude instituted in her honour 
a yearly festival called Larentalia (Dec. 23). According to 
some, Acca Larentia was the mother of the Lares, and, like 
Ceres, Teilus, Flora and others, symbolized the fertility 
of the earth--in particular the city lands and their crops. 

See Mommsen, ``Die echte und die falsche Larentia,'' in 
Romische Forschungen, ii. 1879; E. Pais, Ancient 
Legends of Roman History (Eng. trans. 1906) whose views 
on the subject are criticized by W. W. Fowler in W. H. 
D. Rouse's The Year's Work in Classical Studies (1907); 
C. Pascal, Studii di alntichita e Mitologia (1896). 

ACCELERATION (from Lat. accelerare, to hasten, celer, 
quick), hastening or quickening; in mechanics, a term 
employed to denote the rate at which the velocity of a 
body, whose motion is not uniform, either increases 
or decreases. (See MECHANICS and HODOGRAPH.) 

ACCENT. The word ``accent'' has its origin in the Lat. 
accentus, which in its turn is a literal translation of 
the Gr. prosodia. The early Greek grammarians used this 
term for the musical accent which characterized their own 
language, but later the term became specialized for quantity 
in metre, whence comes the Eng. prosody. Besides various 
later developments of usage it is important to observe that 
``accent'' is used in two different and often contrasted 
senses in connexion with language.  In all languages 
there are two kinds of accent: (1) musical chromatic or 
pitch accent; (2) emphatic or stress accent.  The former 
indicates differences in musical pitch between one sound 
and another in speech, the latter the difference between 
one syllable and another which is occasioned by emitting 
the breath in the production of one syllable with greater 
energy than is employed for the other syllables of the same 
word.  These two senses, it is to be noticed, are different 
from the common usage of the word in the statement that 
some one talks with a foreign or with a vulgar accent.  In 
these cases, no doubt, both differences of intonation and 
differences of stress may be included in the statement, but 
other elements are frequently no less marked, e.g. the 
pronunciation of t and d as real dentals, whereas the 
English sounds so described are really produced not against 
the teeth but against their sockets, the inability to produce 
the interdental th whether breathed as in thin or voiced 
as in this and its representation by d or z, the 
production of o as a uniform sound instead of one ending as 
in English in a slight u sound, or such dialect changes as 
lydy (laidy) for lady, or toime for time (taime). 

In different languages the relations between pitch and stress 
differ very greatly.  In some the pitch or musical accent 
predominates.  In such languages if signs are employed to 
mark the position of the chief accent in the word it will 
be the pitch and not the stress accent which will be thus 
indicated.  Amongst the languages of ancient times Sanskrit 
and Greek both indicate by signs the position of the chief 
pitch accent in the word, and the same method has been 
employed in modern times for languages in which pitch accent 
is welf marked, as it is, for example in Lithuanian, the 
language still spoken by some two millions of people on the 
frontier between Prussia and Russia in the neighbourhood 
of Konigsberg and Vilna.  Swedish also has a well-marked 
musical accent.  Modern Greek has changed from pitch to 
stress, the stress being generally laid upon the same 
syllable in modern as bore the pitch accent in ancient Greek. 

In the majority of European languages, however, stress is 
more conspicuous than pitch, and there is plenty of evidence 
to show that the original language from which Greek, Latin, 
Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic and other languages of Europe are 
descended, possessed stress accent also in a marked degree. 
To the existence of this accent must be attributed a large 
part of the phenomena known as Ablaut or Gradation (see 
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES).  In modern languages we can see 
the same principle at work making Acton out of the O. Eng. 
(Anglo-Saxon) ac-tun (oak-town), and in more recent times 
producing the contrast between New Town and Newton. In 
French, stress is less marked than it is in English, but 
here also there is evidence to show that in the development 
from Latin to French a very strong stress accent must have 
existed.  The natural result of producing one syllable of a 
word with greater energy than the others is that the other 
syllables have a less proportion of breath assigned to 
them and therefore tend to become indistinct or altogether 
inaudible.  Thus the strong stress accent existing in the 
transition period between Latin and French led to the curtailing 
of long Latin words like latrocinium or hospitale into 
the words which we have borrowed from French into English 
as larceny and hotel. It will be observed that the first 
syllable and that which bears the accent are the two which 
best withstand change, though the strong tendency in English 
to stress heavily the first syllable bids fair ultimately 
to oust the e in the pronunciation of larceny. No such 
changes arise when a strong pitch accent is accompanied 
by a weaker stress accent, and hence languages like 
ancient Sanskrit and ancient Greek, where such conditions 
existed, preserve fuller forms than their sister languages 
or than even their own descendants, when stress takes the 
place of pitch as the more important element in accent. 

In both pitch and stress accent different gradations may be 
observed.  In pitch, the accent may be uniform, rising or 
falling.  Or there may be combinations of rising and falling 
or of falling and rising accents upon the same syllable.  
In ancient Greek, as is well known, three accents are 
distinguished--(1) the acute ('), a rising accent; (2) the 
grave (`), apparently merely the indication that in particular 
positions in the sentence the acute accent is not used where 
it would occur in the isolated word; and (3) the circumflex, 
which, as its form (^) shows, and as the ancient grammarians 
inform us, is a combination of the rising and the falling 
accent upon the same syllable, this syllable being always 
long.  Different Greek dialects, however, varied the syllables 
of the word on which the accent occurred, Aeolic Greek, 
for example, never putting the acute on the last syllable 
of a word, while Attic Greek had many words so accented. 

The pitch accent of the Indo-European languages was originally 
free, i.e. might occur on any syllable of a word, and 
this condition of things is still found in the earliest 
Sanskrit literature. But in Greek before historical times 
the accent had become limited to the last three syllables 
of a word, so that a long word like the Homeric genitive 
feromenoio could in no circumstances be accented on 
either of its first two syllables, while if the final 
syllable was long, as in the accusative plural feromenous, 
the accent could go back only to the second syllable from 
the end. As every vowel has its own natural pitch, and a 
frequent interchange between e ( a high vowel) and o 
(a low vowel) occurs in the Indo-European languages, it has 
been suggested that e originally went with the highest 
pitch accent, while o appeared in syllables of a lower 
pitch.  But if there is any foundation for the theory, which 
is by no means certain, its effects have been distorted 
and modified by all manner of analogical processes.  Thus 
poimen with acute accent and daimon with the acute accent 
on the preceding syllable would correspond to the rule, so 
would aletes and epos, but there are many exceptions 
like odos where the acute accent accompanies an o 
vowel.  Somewhat similar distinctions characterize syllables 
which are stressed.  The strength of the expiration may be 
greatest either at the beginning, the end or the middle of 
the syllable, and, according as it is so, the accent is a 
failing, a rising, or a rising and falling one. Syllables in 
which the stress is produced continuously whether increasing 
or decreasing are called single-pointed syllables, those in 
which a variation in the stress occurs without being strong 
enough to break the syllable into two are called double-pointed 
syllables.  These last occur in some English dialects, but 
are commonest in languages like Swedish and Lithuanian, which 
have a ``sing-song'' pronunciation.  It is often not easy 
to decide whether a syllable is double-pointed or whether 
what we hear is really two-single-pointed syllables.  There 
is no separate notation for stress accent, but the acute (') 
is used for the increasing, the grave (`) for the decreasing 
stress, and the circumflex (^) for the rising and falling 
(increasing and decreasing) and (@) for the opposite.  A 
separate notation is much to be desired, as the nature of the 
two accents is so different, and could easily be devised by 
using (@) for the falling, (') for the rising stress, and 
(@) for the combination of the two in one syllable.  This 
would be clearer than the upright stroke (|) preceding the 
stressed syllable, which is used in some phonetic works. 

The relation between the two accents in the same language 
at the same time is a subject which requires further 
investigation.  It is generally assumed that the chief stress 
and the chief pitch in a word coincide, but this is by no 
means certain for all cases, though the incidence of the chief 
stress accent in modern Greek upon the same syllable as had 
the chief pitch accent in ancient times suggests that the 
two did frequently fall upon the same syllable.  On the other 
hand, in words like the Sanskrit sapta, the Gr. epta, 
the pitch accent which those languages indicate is upon a 
syllable which certainly, in the earliest times at least, 
did not possess the principal stress.  For forms in other 
languages, like the Lat. septem or the Gothic sibun, show 
that the a of the final syllables in Sanskrit and Greek is 
the representative of a reduced syllable in which, even in the 
earliest times, the nasal alone existed (see under N for the 
history of these so-called sonant nasals).  It is possible that 
sporadic changes of accent, as in the Gr. meter compared 
with the Sanskrit mata, is owing to the shifting of the 
pitch accent to the same syllable as the stress occupied. 

There is no lack of evidence to show that the stress accent 
also may shift its position in the history of a language from 
one syllable to another.  In prehistoric times the stress 
in Latin must have rested upon the first syllable in all 
cases.  Only on this hypothesis can be explained forms like 
peperci (perfect of parco) and collido (a compound 
of laedo). In historical times, when the stress in Latin 
was on the second syllable from the end of the word if that 
syllable was long, or on the third syllable from the end if 
the second from the end was short, we should have expected 
to find *peparci and *collaedo, for throughout the 
historical period the stress rested in these words upon the 
second syllable from the end.  The causes for the change of 
position are not always easy to ascertain.  In words of four 
syllables with a long penult and words of five syllables 
with a short penult there probably developed a secondary 
accent which in course of time replaced the earlier accent 
upon the first syllable.  But the number of such long words 
in Latin is comparatively small.  It is no less possible 
that relations between the stress and pitch accents were 
concerned.  For unless we are to regard the testimony of 
the ancient Latin grammarians as altogether untrustworthy 
there was at least in classical Latin a well-marked pitch 
as well as a stress accent.  This question, which had 
long slumbered, has been revived by Dr J. Vendryes in 
his treatise entitled Recherches sur l'histoire et les 
effets de l'intensite initiale en latin (Paris, 1902). 

In English there is a tendency to throw the stress on to the 
first syllable, which leads in time to the modification of 
borrowed words. Thus throughout the 18th century there was 
a struggle going on over the word balcony, which earlier 
was pronounced balcony. Swift is the first author quoted 
for the pronunciation balcony. and Cowper's balcony 
in ``John Gilpin'' is among the latest instances of the old 
pronunciation.  Disregarding the Latin quantity of orator 
and senator, English by throwing the stress on the first 
syllable has converted them into orator and senator, 
while Scots lawyers speak also of a curator. How far 
French influence plays a part here is not easy to say. 

Besides the accent of the syllable and of the word, which 
have been already discussed, there remains the accent of 
the sentence. Here the problem is much more complicated.  
The accent of a word, whether pitch or stress, may be 
considerably modified in the sentence.  From earliest times 
some words have become parasitic or enclitic upon other 
words.  Pronouns more than most words are modified from 
this cause, but conjunctions like the Gr. te (``and''), 
the Lat. qiie, have throughout their whole history been 
enclitic upon the preceding word.  A very important word 
may be enclitic, as in English don't, shan't. It is to be 
remembered that the unit of language is rather the sentence 
than the word, and that the form which is given to the word 
in the dictionary is very often not the form which it takes 
in actual speech.  The divisions of words in speech are quite 
different from the divisions on the printed page. Sanskrit 
alone amongst languages has consistently recognized this, and 
preserves in writing the exact combinations that are spoken. 

Accent, whether pitch or stress, can be utilized in the sentence 
to express a great variety of meanings.  Thus in English 
a sentence like You rode to Newmarket yesterday, which 
contains five words, may be made to express five different 
statements by putting the stress upon each of the words in 
turn.  By putting the stress on you the person addressed 
is marked out as distinct from certain others, by putting 
it upon rode other means of locomotion to Newmarket are 
excluded, and so on.  With the same order of words five 
interrogative sentences may also be expressed, and a third 
series of exclamatory sentences expressing anger, incredulity, 
&c., may be obtained from the same words.  It is to be noticed 
that for these two series a different intonation, a different 
musical (pitch) accent appears from that which is found in the 
same words when employed to make a matter-of-fact statement. 

In languages like Chinese, which have neither compound words 
nor inflection, accent plays a very important part.  As the 
words are all monosyllabic, stress could obviously not be so 
important as pitch as a help to distinguish different senses 
attached to the same syllable, and in no other language is 
variety of pitch so well developed as in Chinese.  In languages 
which, like English, show comparatively little pitch accent 
it is to be noticed that the sentence tends to develop a more 
musical character under the influence of emotion. The voice 
is raised and at the same time greater stress is generally 
employed when the speaker is carried away by emotion, though the 
connexion is not essential and strong emotion may be expressed 
by a lowering as well as by a raising of the voice.  In either 
case, however, the stress will be greater than the normal. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--H.  Sweet, Primer of Phonetics (1890, 
now in 3rd edition), sec.  96 ff., History of English Sounds 
(1888), sec.  110 ff., and other works; E. Sievers, Grundzuge 
der Phonetik (1893), sec.  532 ff.; O. Jespersen, Lehrbuch 
der Phonetik (1904), an abbreviated German translation of 
the author's larger work in Danish, sec.  216 ff.  The books 
of Sievers and Jespersen give (especially Sievers) full 
references to the literature of the subject.  For the accent 
system of the Indo-European languages see ``Betonung'' in 
Brugmann's Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der 
indogermanischen Sprachen, vol. i. (1897), or, with considerable 
modifications, his Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der 
idg.  Sprachen (1902), sec. sec.  32-65 and 343-350. (P. Gi.) 

ACCEPTANCE (Lat. acceptare, frequentative form of accipere, 
to receive), generally, a receiving or acknowledgment of 
receipt; in law, the act by which a person binds himself 
to comply with the request contained in a bill of exchange 
(q.v.), addressed to him by the drawer.  In all cases it 
is understood to be a promise to pay the bill in money, 
the law not recognizing an acceptance in which the promise 
is to pay in some other way, e.g. partly in money and 
partly by another bill.  Acceptance may be either general or 
qualified.  A general acceptance is an engagement to pay 
the bill strictly according to its tenor, and is made by 
the drawee subscribing his name, with or without the word 
``accepted,'' at the bottom of the bill, or across the face 
of it. Qualified acceptance may be a promise to pay on a 
contingency occurring, e.g. on the sale of certain goods 
consigned by the drawer to the acceptor.  No contingency 
is allowed to be mentioned in the body of the bill, but a 
qualified acceptance is quite legal, and equally binding with 
a general acceptance upon the acceptor when the contingency 
bas occurred.  It is also qualified acceptance where the 
promise is to pay only part of the sum mentioned in the 
bill, or to pay at a different time or place from those 
specified.  As a qualified acceptance is so far a disregard of 
the drawer's order, the holder is not obliged to take it; and 
if he chooses to take it he must give notice to antecedent 
parties, acting at his own risk if they dissent.  In all 
cases acceptance involves the signature of the acceptor 
either by himself or by some person duly authorized on his 
behalf.  A bill can be accepted in the first instance only 
by the person or persons to whom it is addressed; but if 
he or they fail to do so, it may, after being protested for 
non-acceptance, be accepted by some one else ``supra protest,'' 
for the sake of the honour of one or more of the parties 
concerned in it, and he thereupon acquires a claim against 
the drawer and all those to whom he could have resorted. 

ACCEPTILATION (from Lat. acceptilatio), in Roman and Scots 
law, a verbal release of a verbal obligation.  This formal mode 
of extinguishing an obligation contracted verbally received 
its name from the book-keeping term acceptilatio, entering a 
receipt, i.e. carrying it to credit.  The words conveying 
the release had to correspond to, or strictly cover, the 
expressed obligation.  Figuratively, in theology, the word 
acceptilation means free remission or forgiveness of sins. 

ACCESS (Lat. accessus), approach, or the means of 
approaching.  In law, the word is used in various connexions.  
The presumption of a child's legitimacy is negatived if it be 
proved that a husband has not had access to his wife within 
such a period of time as would admit of his being the father. 
(See LEGITIMACY.) In the law of easements, every person 
who has land adjoining a public road or a public navigable 
river has a right of access to it from his land.  So, also, 
every person has a right of access to air and light from 
an ancient window.  For the right of access of parents to 
children under the guardianship of the court, see INFANT. 

ACCESSION (from Lat. accedere, to go to, to approach), 
in law, a method of acquiring property adopted from Roman 
law, by which, in things that have a close connexion with 
or dependence on one another, the property of the principal 
draws after it the property of the accessory, according 
to the principle, accessio cedet principali. Accession 
may take place either in a natural way, such as the growth 
of fruit or the pregnancy of animals, or in an artificial 
way.  The various methods may be classified as (1) land to 
land by accretion or alluvion; (2) moveables to land (see 
FIXTURES); (3) moveables to moveables; (4) moveables added 
to by the art or industry of man; this may be by specification, 
as when wine is made out of grapes, or by confusion, or 
commixture, which is the mixing together of liquids or solids, 
respectively.  In the case of industrial accession ownership is 
determined according as the natural or manufactured substance 
is of the more importance, and, in general, compensation is 
payable to the person who has been dispossessed of his property. 

In a historical or constitutional sense, the term 
``accession'' is applied to the coming to the throne of a 
dynasty or line of sovereigns or of a single sovereign. 

``Accession'' sometimes likewise signifies consent or 
acquiescence.  Thus, in the bankruptcy law of Scotland, 
where there is a settlement by a trust-deed, it is accepted 
on the part of each creditor by a ``deed of accession.'' 

ACCESSORY, a person guilty of a felonious offence, not as 
principal, but by participation; as by advice, command, 
aid or concealment.  In certain crimes, there can be no 
accessories; all concerned being principals, whether present 
or absent at the time of their commission.  These are 
treason, and all offences below the degree of felony, as 
specified in the Offences against the Person Act 1861. 

There are two kinds of accessories -- before the fact, and 
after it.  The first is he who commands or procures another 
to commit felony, and is not present himself; for if he be 
present, he is a principal.  The second is he who receives, 
harbours, assists, or comforts any man that has done murder or 
felony, whereof he has knowledge.  An accessory before the 
fact is liable to the same punishment as the principal; and 
there is now indeed no practical difference between such an 
accessory and a principal in regard either to indictment, 
trial or punishment. Accessories after the fact are in general 
punishable with imprisonment (with or without hard labour) for 
a period not exceeding two years, but in the case of murder 
punishable by penal servitude for life, or not less than three 
years, or by imprisonment (with or without hard labour) to the 
extent of two years. The law of Scotland makes no distinction 
between the accessory to any crime and the principal (see 
ART AND PART). Except in the case of treason, accession 
after the fact is not noticed by the law of Scotland unless 
as an element of evidence to prove previous accession. 

ACCIAJUOLI, DONATO (1428-1478), Italian scholar, was born at 
Florence in 1428.  He was famous for his learning, especially 
in Greek and mathematics, and for his services to his native 
state.  Having previously been entrusted with several 
important embassies, he became Gonfalonier of Florence in 
1473.  He died at Milan in 1478, when on his way to Paris 
to ask the aid of Louis XI. on behalf of the Florentines 
against Pope Sixtus IV. His body was taken back to 
Florence, and buried in the church of the Carthusians at 
the public expense, and his daughters were portioned by his 
fellow-citizens, the fortune he left being, owing to his 
probity and disinterestedness, very small. He wrote a Latin 
translation of some of Plutarch's Lives (Florence, 1478); 
Commentaries on Aristotle's Ethics and Politics; and the 
lives of Hannibal, Scipio and Charlemagne.  In the work on 
Aristotle he had the co-operation of his master Argyropulus. 

ACCIDENCE (a mis-spelling of ``accidents,'' from the Latin 
neuter plural accidentia, casual events), the term for 
the grammatical changes to which words are subject in their 
inflections as to gender, number, tense and case.  It is 
also used to denote a book containing the first principles 
of grammar, and so of the rudiments of any subject or art. 

ACCIDENT (from Lat. accidere, to happen), a word of widely 
variant meanings, usually something fortuitous and unexpected; 
a happening out of the ordinary course of things.  In the 
law of tort, it is defined as ``an occurrence which is due 
neither to design nor to negligence''; in equity, as ``such 
an unforeseen event, misfortune, loss, act or omission, as 
is not the result of any negligence or misconduct.'' So, in 
criminal law, ``an effect is said to be accidental when the 
act by which it is caused is not done with the intention 
of causing it, and when its occurrence as a conseiguence 
of such act is not so probable that a person of ordinary 
prudence ought, under the circumstances, to take reasonable 
precaution against it'' (Stephen, Digest of Criminal Law, 
art. 210).The word may also have in law the more extended 
meaning of an unexpected occurrence, whether caused by 
any one's negligence or not, as in the Fatal Accidents Act 
1846, Notice of Accidents Act 1894.  See also CONTRACT, 
CRIMINAL LAW, EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY, INSURANCE, TORT, &c. 

In logic an ``accident'' is a quality which belongs to a 
subject but not as part of its essence (in Aristotelian 
language kata sumbebekos, the scholastic per accidens). 
Essential attributes are necessarily, or causally, connected 
with the subject, e.g. the sum of the angles of a triangle; 
accidents are not deducible from the nature, or are not part 
of the necessary connotation, of the subject, e.g. the 
area of a triangle.  It follows that increased knowledge, 
e.g. in chemistry, may show that what was thought to 
be an accident is really an essential attribute, or vice 
versa.  It is very generally held that, in reality, there is 
no such thing as an accident, inasmuch as complete knowledge 
would establish a causal connexion for all attributes.  An 
accident is thus merely an unexplained attribute.  Accidents 
have been classed as (1) ``inseparable,'' i.e. universally 
present, though no causal connexion is established, and (2) 
``separable,'' where the connexion is neither causally explained 
nor universal. Propositions expressing a relation between 
a subject and an accident are classed as ``accidental,'' 
``real'' or ``ampliative,'' as opposed to ``verbal'' or 
``analytical,'' which merely express a known connexion, 
e.g. between a subject and its connotation (q.v.). 

ACCIDENTALISM, a term used (1) in philosophy for any system 
of thought which denies the causal nexus and maintains that 
events succeed one another haphazard or by chance (not in 
the mathematical but in the popular sense).  In metaphysics, 
accidentalism denies the doctrine that everything occurs 
or results from a definite cause.  In this connexion it is 
synonymous with Tychism (tuchu, chance), a term used by 
C. S. Peirce for the theories which make chance an objective 
factor in the process of the Universe.  Opponents of this 
accidentalism maintain that what seems to be the result 
of chance is in reality due to a cause or causes which, 
owing to the lack of imagination, knowledge or scientific 
instruments, we are unable to detect. In ethics the term is 
used, like indeterminism, to denote the theory that mental 
change cannot always be ascribed to previously ascertained 
psychological states, and that volition is not causally 
related to the motives involved.  An example of this theory 
is the doctrine of the liberum arbitrium indifferentiae 
(``liberty of indifference''), according to which the choice 
of two or more alternative possibilities is affected neither 
by contemporaneous data of an ethical or prudential kind 
nor by crystallized habit (character). (2) In painting, the 
term is used for the effect produced by accidental lights 
(Ruskin, Modern Painters, I. II. 4, iii. sec.  4, 287). 
(3) In medicine, it stands for the hypothesis that disease is 
only an accidental modification of the healthy condition, and 
can, therefore, be avoided by modifying external conditions. 

ACCIUS, a Latin poet of the 16th century, to whom 
is attributed a paraphrase of Aesop's Fables, of 
which Julius Scaliger speaks with great praise. 

ACCIUS, LUCIUS, Roman tragic poet, the son of a freedman, 
was born at Pisaurum in Umbria, in 170 B.C. The year of 
his death is unknown, but he must have lived to a great 
age, since Cicero (Brutus, 28) speaks of having conversed 
with him on literary matters.  He was a prolific writer and 
enjoyed a very high reputation (Horace, Epistles, ii. 1, 
56; Cicero, Pro Plancio, 24). The titles and considerable 
fragments (about 700 lines) of some fifty plays have been 
preserved.  Most of these were free translations from the 
Greek, his favourite subjects being the legends of the 
Trojan war and the house of Pelops.  The national history, 
however, furnished the theme of the Brutus and Decius, 
---the expulsion of the Tarquins and the self-sacrifice of 
Publius Decius Mus the younger.  The fragments are written 
in vigorous language and show a lively power of description. 

Accius wrote other works of a literary character: 
Didascalicon and Pragmaticon libri, treatises 
in verse on the history of Greek and Roman poetry, and 
dramatic art in particular; Parerga and Praxidica 
(perhaps identical) on agriculture; and an Annales. He 
also introduced innovations in orthography and grammar. 

See Boissier, Le Poete Accius, 1856; L. Muller, 
De Accii fabulis Disputatio (1890); Ribbeck, 
Geschichte der romischen Dichtung (1892); editions 
of the tragic fragments by Ribbeck (1897), of the others 
by Bahrens (1886); Plessis, Poesue Latine (1909). 

ACCLAMATION (Lat. acclamatio, a shouting at), in 
deliberative or electoral assemblies, a spontaneous shout of 
approval or praise.  Acclamation is thus the adoption of a 
resolution or the passing of a vote of confidence or choice 
unanimously, in direct distinction from a formal ballot or 
division.  In the Roman senate opinions were expressed and 
votes passed by acclamation in such forms as Omnes, omnes, 
Aequum est, Justum est, &c.; and the praises of the emperor 
were celebrated in certain pre-arranged sentences, which 
seem to have been chanted by the whole body of senators.  In 
ecclesiastical councils vote by acclamation is very common, 
the question being usually put in the form, placet or non 
placet. The Sacred College has sometimes elected popes by 
acclamation, when the cardinals simultaneously and without 
any previous consultation ``acclaimed'' one of their number as 
pontiff.  A further ecclesiastical use of the word is in its 
application to set forms of praise or thanksgiving in church 
services, the stereotyped responses of the congregation.  
In modern parliamentary usage a motion is carried by 
acclamation when, no amendment being proposed, approval 
is expressed by shouting such words as Aye or Agreed. 

ACCLIMATIZATION, the process of adaptation by which animals 
and plants are gradually rendered capable of surviving and 
flourishing in countries remote from their original habitats, 
or under meteorological conditions different from those which 
they have usually to endure, and at first injurious to them. 

The subject of acclimatization is very little understood, 
and some writers have even denied that it can ever take 
place.  It is often confounded with domestication or 
with naturalization; but these are both very different 
phenomena.  A domesticated animal or a cultivated plant 
need not necessarily be acclimatized; that is, it need not 
be capable of enduring the severity of the seasons without 
protection.  The canary bird is domesticated but not 
acclimatized, and many of our most extensively cultivated 
plants are in the same category.  A naturalized animal or 
plant, on the other hand, must be able to withstand all 
the vicissitudes of the seasons in its new home, and it may 
therefore be thought that if must have become acclimatized.  
But in many, perhaps most cases of naturalization (see 
Appendix below) there is no evidence of a gradual adaptation 
to new conditions which were at first injurious, and this is 
essential to the idea of acclimatization. On the contrary, 
many species, in a new country and under somewhat different 
climatic conditions, seem to find a more congenial abode than 
in their native land, and at once flourish and increase in 
it to such an extent as often to exterminate the indigenous 
inhabitants.  Thus L. Agassiz (in his work on Lake Superior) 
tells us that the roadside weeds of the north-eastern United 
States, to the number of 130 species, are all European, 
the native weeds having disappeared westwards; while in New 
Zealand there are, according to T. Kirk (Transactions of 
the New Zealand Institute, vol. ii. p. 131), no less than 
250 species of naturalized plants, more than 100 of which 
spread widely over the country and often displace the native 
vegetation.  Among animals, the European rat, goat and pig 
are naturalized in New Zealand, where they multiply to such 
an extent as to injure and probably exterminate many native 
productions.  In none of these cases is there any indication 
that acclimatization was necessary or ever took place. 

On the other hand, the fact that an animal or plant cannot 
be naturalized is no proof that it is not acclimatized. 
It has been shown by C. Darwin that, in the case of most 
animals and plants in a state of nature, the competition of 
other organisms is a far more efficient agency in limiting 
their distribution than the mere influence of climate.  We 
have a proof of this in the fact that so few, comparatively, 
of our perfectly hardy garden plants ever run wild; and even 
the most persevering attempts to naturalize them usually 
fail.  Alphonse de Candolle (Geographic botanique, p. 
798) informs us that several botanists of Patis, Geneva, 
and especially of Montpellier, have sown the seeds of many 
hundreds of species of exotic hardy plants, in what appeared 
to be the most favourable situations, but that in hardly a 
single case has any one of them become naturalized.  Attempts 
have also been made to naturalize continental insects in 
Britain, in places where the proper food-plants abound and 
the conditions seem generally favourable, but in no case 
do they seem to have succeeded.  Even a plant like the 
potato, so largely cultivated and so perfectly hardy, has not 
established itself in a wild state in any part of Europe. 

Different Degrees of Climatal Adaptation in Animals and 
Plants.---Plants differ greatly from animals in the closeness 
of their adaptation to meteorological conditions.  Not only 
will most tropical plants refuse to live in a temperate 
climate, but many species are seriously injured by removal a 
few degrees of latitude beyond their natural limits.  This is 
probably due to the fact, established by the experiments of 
A. C. Becquerel, that plants possess no proper temperature, 
but are wholly dependent on that of the surrounding medium. 

Animals, especially the higher forms, are much less sensitive 
to change of temperature, as shown by the extensive range 
from north to south of many species.  Thus, the tiger 
ranges from the equator to northern Asia as far as the river 
Amur, and to the isothermal of 32 deg.  Fahr.  The mountain 
sparrow (Fasser montana) is abundant in Java and 
Singapore in a uniform equatorial climate, and also inhabits 
Britain and a considerable portion of northern Europe.  
It is true that most terrestrial animals are restricted to 
countries not possessing a great range of temperature or 
very diversified climates, but there is reason to believe 
that this is due to quite a different set of causes, such 
as the presence of enemies or deficiency of appropriate 
food.  When suppllad with food and partially protected from 
enemies, they often show a wonderful capacity of enduring 
climates very different from that in which they originally 
flourished.  Thus, the horse and the domestic fowl, both 
natives of very warm countries, flourish without special 
protection in almost every inhabited portion of the 
globe.  The parrot tribe form one of the most pre-eminently 
tropical groups of birds, only a few species extending into 
the warmer temperate regions; yet even the most exclusively 
tropical genera are by no means delicate birds as regards 
climate.  In the Annals and Magazine of Natural History 
for 1868 (p. 381) is a most interesting account, by Charles 
Buxton, of the naturalization of parrots at Northrops Hall, 
Norfolk.  A considerable number of African and Amazonian 
parrots, Bengal parroquets, four species of white and rose 
crested cockatoos, and two species of crimson lories, remained 
at large for many years.  Several of these birds bred, and 
they almost all lived in the woods the whole year through, 
refusing to take shelter in a house constructed for their 
use.  Even when the thermometer fell 6 deg.  below zero, all 
appeared in good spirits and vigorous health.  Some of these 
birds have lived thus exposed for many years, enduring the 
English cold easterly winds, rain, hail and snow, all through 
the winter--a marvellous contrast to the equable equatorial 
temperature (hardly ever less than 70 deg. ) to which many of 
them had been accustomed for the first year or years of their 
existence.  Similarly the recent experience of zoological 
gardens, particularly in the case of parrots and monkeys, shows 
that, excluding draughts, exposure to changes of temperature 
without artificial heat is markedly beneficial as compared 
with the older method of strict protection from cold. 

Hardly any group of Mammalia is more exclusively tropical 
than the Quadrumana, yet, if other conditions are favourable, 
some of them can withstand a considerable degree of cold. 
Semnopithecus schistaceus was found by Captain Hutton at an 
elevation of 11,000 feet in the Himalayas, leaping actively 
among fir-trees whose branches were laden with snow-wreaths. 
In Abyssinia a troop of dog-faced baboons was observed by W. T. 
Blanford at 9000 feet above the sea.  We may therefore conclude 
that the restriction of the monkey tribe to warm latitudes is 
probably determined by other causes than temperature alone. 

Similar indications are given by the fact of closely allied 
species inhabiting very extreme climates.  The recently extinct 
Siberian mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were closely allied to 
species now inhabiting tropical regions exclusively.  Wolves 
and foxes are found alike in the coldest and hottest parts 
of the earth, as are closely allied species of falcons, owls, 
sparrows and numerous genera of waders and aquatic birds. 

A consideration of these and many analogous facts might induce 
us to suppose that, among the higher animals at least, there 
is little constitutional adaptation to climate, and that in 
their case acclimatization is not required.  But there are 
numerous examples of domestic animals which show that such 
adaptation does exist in other cases.  The yak of Thibet cannot 
long survive in the plains of India, or even on the hills 
below a certain altitude; and that this is due to climate, 
and not to the increased density of the atmosphere, is shown 
by the fact that the same animal appears to thrive well in 
Europe, and even breeds there readily.  The Newfoundland 
dog will not live in India, and the Spanish breed of fowls 
in this country suffer more from frost than most others.  
When we get lower in the scale the adaptation is often more 
marked.  Snakes, which are so abundant in warm countries, 
diminish rapidly as we go north, and wholly cease at lat. 
62 deg. .  Most insects are also very susceptible to cold, and 
seem to be adapted to very narrow limits of temperature. 

From the foregoing facts and observations we may conclude, 
firstly, that some plants and many animals are not 
constitutionally adapted to the climate of their native country 
only, but are capable of enduring and flourishing under 
a more or less extensive range of temperature and other 
climatic conditions; and, secondly, that most plants and 
some animals are, more or less closely, adapted to climates 
similar to those of their native habitats.  In order to 
domesticate or naturalize the former class in countries not 
extremely differing from that from which the species was 
brought, it will not be necessary to acclimatize, in the 
strict sense of the word.  In the case of the latter class, 
however, acclimatization is a necessary preliminary to 
naturalization, and in many cases to useful domestication, 
and we have therefore to inquire whether it is possible. 

Acclimatization by Individual Adaptation.---It is evident 
that acclimatization may occur (if it occurs at all) in two 
ways, either by modifying the constitution of the individual 
submitted to the new conditions, or by the production of 
offspring which may be better adapted to those conditions 
than their parents.  The alteration of the constitution 
of individuals in this direction is not easy to detect, 
and its possibility has been denied by many writers.  C. 
Darwin believed, however, that there were indications that 
it occasionally occurred in plants, where it can be best 
observed, owing to the circumstance that so many plants are 
propagated by cuttings or buds, which really continue the 
existence of the same individual almost indefinitely.  He 
adduced the example of vines taken to the West Indies from 
Madeira, which have been found to succeed better than those 
taken directly from France.  But in most cases habit, however 
prolonged, appears to have little effect on the constitution of 
the individual, and the fact has no doubt led to the opinion 
that acclimatization is impossible.  There is indeed little 
or no evidence to show that any animal to which a new climate 
is at first prejudicial can be so acclimatized by habit that, 
after subjection to it for a few or many seasons, it may 
live as healthily and with as little care as in its native 
country; yet we may, on general principles, believe that under 
proper conditions such an acclimatization would take place. 

Acclimatization by Variation.---A mass of evidence exists 
showing that variations of every conceivable kind occur 
among the offspring of all plants and animals, and that, 
in particular, constitutional variations are by no means 
uncommon.  Among cultivated plants, for example, hardier and 
more tender varieties often arise.  The following cases are 
given by C. Darwin:-Among the numerous fruit-trees raised 
in North America some are well adapted to the climate of the 
northern States and Canada, while others only succeed well 
in the southern States. Adaptation of this kind is sometimes 
very close, so that, for example, few English varieties of 
wheat will thrive in Scotland. Seed-wheat from India produced 
a miserable crop when planted by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley 
on land which would have produced a good crop of English 
wheat.  Conversely, French wheat taken to the West Indies 
produced only barren spikes, while native wheat by its side 
yielded an enormous harvest.  Tobacco in Sweden, raised 
from home-grown seed, ripens its seeds a month earlier 
than plants grown from foreign seed.  In Italy, as long as 
orange trees were propagated by grafts, they were tender; 
but after many of the trees were destroyed by the severe 
frosts of 1709 and 1763, plants were raised from seed, and 
these were found to be hardier and more productive than the 
former kinds. Where plants are raised from seed in large 
quantities, varieties always occur differing in constitution, 
as well as others differing in form or colour; but the 
former cannot be perceived by us unless marked out by their 
behaviour under exceptional conditions, as in the following 
cases.  After the severe winter of 1860-1861 if was observed 
that in a large bed of araucarias some plants stood quite 
unhurt among numbers killed around them. In C. Darwin's 
garden two rows of scarlet runners were entirely killed by 
frost, except three plants, which had not even the tips of 
their leaves browned.  A very excellent example is to be 
found in Chinese history, according to E. R. Huc, who, in his 
L' Empire chinois (tom. ii. p. 359), gives the following 
extract from the Memoirs of the Emperor Khang:---``On the 
1st day of the 6th moon I was walking in some fields where 
rice had been sown to be ready for the harvest in the 9th 
moon.  I observed by chance a stalk of rice which was already in 
ear.  It was higher than all the rest, and was ripe enough 
to be gathered. I ordered it to be brought to me.  The grain 
was very fine and well grown, which gave me the idea to 
keep it for a trial, and see if the following year it would 
preserve its precocity.  It did so. All the stalks which came 
from it showed ear before the usual time, and were ripe in 
the 6th moon.  Each year has multiplied the produce of the 
preceding, and for thirty years it is this rice which has 
been served at my table.  The grain is elongate and of a 
reddish colour, but it has a sweet smell and very pleasant 
taste.  It is called Vu-mi, Imperial rice, because it was 
first cultivated in my gardens.  It is the only sort which 
can ripen north of the great wall, where the winter ends 
late and begins very early; but in the southern provinces, 
where the climate is milder and the land more fertile, two 
harvests a year may be easily obtained, and it is for me 
a sweet reflection to have procured this advantage for my 
people.'' Huc adds his testimony that this kind of rice 
flourishes in Manchuria, where no other will grow.  We 
have here, therefore, a perfect example of acclimatization 
by means of a spontaneous constitutional variation. 

That this kind of adaptation may be carried on step by step to 
more and more extreme climates is illustrated by the following 
examples.  Sweet-peas raised in Calcutta from seed imported 
from England rarely blossom, and never yield seed; plants 
from French seed flower better, but are still sterile; 
but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally imported 
from England) both flower and seed profusely.  The peach 
is believed to have been tender, and to have ripened its 
fruit with difficulty, when first introduced into Greece; 
so that (as Darwin observes) in travelling northward during 
two thousand years it must have become much hardier.  Sir J. 
Hooker ascertained the average vertical range of flowering 
plants in the Himalayas to be 4000 ft., while in some cases 
if extended to 8000 ft.  The same species can thus endure a 
great difference of temperature; but the important fact is, 
that the individuals have become acclimatized to the altitude 
at which they grow, so that seeds gathered near the upper 
limit of the range of a species will be more hardy than those 
gathered near the lower limit.  This was proved by Hooker 
to be the case with Himalayan conifers and rhododendrons, 
raised in Britain from seed gathered at different altitudes. 

Among animals exactly analogous facts occur.  When geese 
were first introduced into Bogota they laid few eggs at long 
intervals, and few of the young survived.  By degrees the 
fecundity improved, and in about twenty years became equal 
to what it is in Europe.  The same author tells us that, 
according to Garcilaso, when fowls were first introduced 
into Peru they were not fertile, whereas now they are 
as much so as in Europe. C. Darwin adduced the following 
examples.  Merino sheep bred at the Cape of Good Hope have 
been found far better adapted for India than those imported 
from England; and while the Chinese variety of the Ailanthus 
silk-moth is quite hardy, the variety found in Bengal will 
only flourish in warm latitudes.  C. Darwin also called 
attention to the circumstance that writers of agricultural 
works generally recommend that animals should be removed 
from one district to another as little as possible.  This 
advice occurs even in classical and Chinese agricultural 
books as well as in those of our own day, and proves 
that the close adaptation of each variety or breed to the 
country in which if originated has always been recognized. 

Constitutional Adaptation often accompanied by External 
Modification.--Although in some cases no perceptible 
alteration of form or structure occurs when constitutional 
adaptation to Climate has taken place, in others it 
is very marked.  C. Darwin collected a large number of 
cases in his Animals and Plants under Domestication. 

In his Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection 
(p. 167), A. R. Wallace has recorded cases of simultaneous 
variation among insects, apparently due to climate or 
other strictly local causes. He found that the butterflies 
of the family Papilionidae, and some others, became 
similarly modified in different islands and groups of 
islands.  Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and 
Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely 
allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or 
varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than 
the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the 
surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess 
a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the 
same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, 
lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and 
the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the 
tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific. 

Many of these curious modifications may, it is true, be due 
to other causes than climate only, but they serve to show how 
powerfully and mysteriously local conditions affect the form 
and structure of both plants and animals; and they render it 
probable that changes of constitution are also continually 
produced, although we have, in the majority of cases, no 
means of detecting them.  It is also impossible to determine 
how far the effects described are produced by spontaneous 
favourable variations or by the direct action of local 
conditions; but it is probable that in every case both causes 
are concerned, although in constantly varying proportions. 

Selection and Survival of the Fittest as Agents in 
Naturalization. ---We may now take it as an established 
fact that varieties of animals and plants occur, both in 
domesticity and in a state of nature, which are better or 
worse adapted to special climates. There is no positive 
evidence that the influence of new climatal conditions 
on the parents has any tendency to produce variations in 
the offspring better adapted to such conditions.  Neither 
does it appear that this class of variations are very 
frequent.  It is, however, certain that whenever any animal 
or plant is largely propagated constitutional variations will 
arise, and some of these will be better adapted than others 
to the climatal and other conditions of the locality.  In a 
state of nature, every recurring severe winter or otherwise 
unfavourable season weeds out those individuals of tender 
constitution or imperfect structure which may have got on 
very well during favourable years, and it is thus that the 
adaptation of the species to the climate in which it has to 
exist is kept up.  Under domestication the same thing occurs 
by what C. Darwin has termed ``unconscious selection.'' 
Each cultivator seeks out the kinds of plants best suited 
to his soil and climate and rejects those which are tender 
or otherwise unsuitable.  The farmer breeds from such of 
his stock as he finds to thrive best with him, and gets 
rid of those which suffer from cold, damp or disease.  A 
more or less close adaptation to local conditions is thus 
brought about, and breeds or races are produced which are 
sometimes liable to deterioration on removal even to a short 
distance in the same country, as in numerous cases quoted 
by C. Darwin (Animals and Plants under Domestication). 

The Method of Acclimatization.--Taking into consideration 
the foregoing facts and illustrations, it may be considered 
as proved---1st, That habit has little (though it appears 
to have some) definite effect in adapting the constitution of 
animals to a new climate; but that it has a decided, though 
still slight, influence in plants when, by the process of 
propagation by buds, shoots or grafts, the individual can be 
kept under its influence for long periods; 2nd, That great 
and sudden changes of climate often check reproduction even 
when the health of the individuals does not appear to suffer.  
In order, therefore, to have the best chance of acclimatizing 
any animal or plant in a climate very dissimilar from that of 
its native country, and in which it has been proved that the 
species in question cannot live and maintain itself without 
acclimatization, we must adopt some such plan as the following:-- 

1. We must transport as large a number as possible of 
adult healthy individuals to some intermediate station, and 
increase them as much as possible for some years.  Favourable 
variations of constitution will soon show themselves, and 
these should be carefully selected to breed from, the 
tender and unhealthy individuals being rigidly eliminated. 

2. As soon as the stock has been kept a sufficient time to 
pass through all the ordinary extremes of climate, a number 
of the hardiest may be removed to the more remote station, 
and the same process gone through, giving protection if 
necessary while the stock is being increased, but as soon 
as a large number of healthy individuals are produced, 
subjecting them to ail the vicissitudes of the Climate. 
It can hardly be doubted that in most cases this plan would
succeed.  It has been recommended by C. Darwin, and at 
one of the early meetings of the Societe Zoologique d' 
Acclimatation, at Paris, Isodore Geoffroy St Hillaire insisted 
that it was the only method by which acclimatization was 
possible.  But in looking through the long series of volumes 
of Reports published by this society, there is no sign that 
any systematic attempt at acclimatization has even once been 
made.  A number of foreign animals have been introduced, and 
more or less domesticated, and some useful exotics have been 
cultivated for the purpose of testing their applicability to 
French agriculture or horticulture; but neither in the case of 
animals nor of plants has there been any systematic effort to 
modify the constitution of the species, by breeding largely 
and selecting the favourable variations that appeared. 

Take the case of the Eucalyptus globulus as an example.  
This is a Tasmanian gum-tree of very rapid growth and 
great beauty, which will thrive in the extreme south of 
France.  In the Bulletin of the society a large number 
of attempts to introduce this tree into general cultivation 
in other parts of France are recorded in detail, with the 
failure of almost all of them.  But no precautions such as 
those above indicated appear to have been taken in any of 
these experiments; and we have no intimation that either the 
society or any of its members are making systematic efforts 
to acclimatize the tree.  The first step would be, to obtain 
seed from healthy trees growing in the coldest climate and at 
the greatest altitude in its native country, sowing these very 
largely, and in a variety of soils and situations, in a part 
of France where the climate is somewhat but not much more 
extreme.  It is almost a certainty that a number of trees 
would be found to be quite hardy.  As soon as these produced 
seed, it should be sown in the same district and farther north 
in a climate a little more severe. After an exceptionally cold 
season, seed should be collected from the trees that suffered 
least, and should be sown in various districts all over 
France.  By such a process there can be hardly any doubt 
that the tree would be thoroughly acclimatized in any part of 
France, and in many other countries of central Europe; and 
more good would be effected by one well-directed effort of 
this kind than by hundreds of experiments with individual 
animals and plants, which only serve to show us which are 
the species that do not require to be acclimatized. 

Acclimatization of Man.---On this subject we have, 
unfortunately, very little direct or accurate information.  
The general laws of heredity and variation have been proved 
to apply to man as well as to animals and plants; and numerous 
facts in the distribution of races show that man must, in 
remote ages at least, have been capable of constitutional 
adaptation to climate. If the human race constitutes a single 
species, then the mere fact that man now inhabits every 
region, and is in each case constitutionally adapted to the 
climate, proves that acclimatization has occurred.  But we have 
the same phenomenon in single varieties of man, such as the 
American, which inhabits alike the frozen wastes of Hudson's 
Bay and Tierra del Fuego, and the hottest regions of the 
tropics,---the low equatorial valleys and the lofty plateaux 
of the Andes.  No doubt a sudden transference to an extreme 
climate is often prejudicial to man, as it is to most animals 
and plants; but there is every reason to believe that, if 
the migration occurs step by step, man can be acclimatized to 
almost any part of the earth's surface in comparatively few 
generations.  Some eminent writers have denied this.  Sir Ranald 
Martin, from a consideration of the effects of the climate 
of India on Europeans and their offspring, believed that there 
is no such thing as acclimatization.  Dr Hunt, in a report 
to the British Association in 1861, argued that ``time is no 
agent,'' and--``if there is no sign of acclimatization in one 
generation, there is no such process.'' But he entirely ignored 
the effect of favourable variations, as well as the direct 
influence of climate acting on the organization from infancy. 

Professor Theodor Waitz, in his Introduction to Anthropology, 
adduced many examples of the comparatively rapid constitutional 
adaptation of man to new climatic conditions.  Negroes, 
for example,who have been for three or four generations 
acclimatized in North America, on returning to Africa become 
subject to the same local diseases as other unacclimatized 
individuals. He well remarked that the debility and 
sickening of Europeans in many tropical countries are wrongly 
ascribed to the climate, but are rather the consequences of 
indolence, sensual gratification and an irregular mode of 
life.